Presentación del tema: "Philip Kotler y Gary Armstrong"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Philip Kotler y Gary Armstrong MarketingOctava ediciónPhilip Kotler y Gary ArmstrongChapter 19El mercado global
2 Marketing global al iniciar el siglo veintiuno La competencia global se está intensificando y pocas industrias estadounidenses están a salvo de la competencia extranjera.Para competir, muchas empresas estadounidenses están mejorando continuamente sus productos, expandiéndose en mercados extranjeros y convirtiéndose en Empresas globales.Las empresas globales enfrentan varios problemas importantes:Tipos de cambio variables,Gobiernos inestables,Aranceles proteccionistas y barreras comerciales,Corrupción.
3 Decisiones en marketing internacional Estudiar el entorno de marketing globalDecisiones en marketing internacionalDecisions in International MarketingThis CTR corresponds to Figure 19-1 on p. 580 and relates to the material on ppInstructor’s Note: This CTR and Notes serve as an overview of the chapter. Each decision area is discussed in greater detail on subsequent CTRs.Decidir si internacionalizarseo noDecidir en qué mercados ingresarDecidir cómo ingresar en el mercadoMajor International Marketing DecisionsLooking at the Global Marketing Environment. Understanding comes from looking at the international marketing environment. Multinational companies operating in many countries have proliferated and in a global economy more companies must consider international markets if they are to grow.Deciding Whether to Go International. Global expansion may be the best growth opportunity, even for relatively small companies. More foreign markets can increase volume.Deciding Which Markets To Enter. The decision on which markets to enter is based upon many factors, including environmental conditions.Deciding How to Enter the Market. This involves choices about how to compete in the selected markets.Deciding on the Global Marketing Program. Companies must make appropriate mix adjustments suitable for international markets.Deciding on the Global Marketing Organization. Companies have several structural choices available including the use of an export department, an international division, and a global organization.Definir el programa de marketing globalDefinir la organización demarketing global
4 Examen del entorno de marketing global Looking at the Global Marketing EnvironmentThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppEl sistema de comercio internacionalLa Organización Mundial de Comercio y el GATTZonas regionales de libre comercioLooking at the Global EnvironmentTrade System. The international trade system concerns identify opportunities and obstacles for US firms abroad. Companies should investigate several trade system factors, including:Tariffs. These are taxes on imported goods.Quotas. These restrict import amounts.Nontariff Barriers. These include other conditions, such as cultural preferences, that may affect ability to compete.GATT. The General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), begun in 1948, attempts to set rules for increasing trade worldwide by bringing down projectionist policies.Regional Free Trade Zones. These economic communities consist of a group of nations organized to work as a single common market. Trade internally is tariff-free and all participating countries share the same tariffs on outside goods.
5 Factores del entorno económico Economic Environmental FactorsThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppEconomías de subsistenciaEstructuraindustrialdel paísEconomías exportadoras de materias primasThe Economic EnvironmentThe Industrial Structure of a country shapes its product and service needs, income levels, and employment levels. Four types of industrial structures are:Subsistence Economies. In subsistence economies, most people engage in simple agriculture, consuming most of their output. Barter is the typical form of exchange. Subsistence economies offer few market opportunities.Raw-Material Exporting Economies. These economies are rich in one or more valuable natural resources but poor in other areas. They tend to be good markets for the large capital equipment and machinery needed to extract the natural resources, which are purchased by foreign firms and exported for further processing abroad.Industrializing Economies. Industrializing economies are characterized by an emerging manufacturing base that accounts for 10% to 20% of the country’s economy. The manufacturing sectors produces some finished products for export. A small but very wealthy new rich class emerges with a small buy growing middle class. These groups demand more imported consumer goods.Industrial Economies. Industrialized economies are major exporters of manufacturing goods and investment funds. They are rich markets for all sorts of goods.Income Distribution. Patterns range from very low family incomes to very high family incomes, all which affect their buying decisions.Economías industrialesEconomías en proceso de industrializaciónDistribución del ingreso
6 Factores del entorno político legal Political-Legal Environmental FactorsThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppActitudes hacia las compras internacionalesBurocracia gubernamentalThe Political-Legal EnvironmentBecause nations differ greatly in their political-legal environments, marketers considering global expansion should carefully analyze the following four political-legal factors:Attitudes Toward International Buying. Some nations are quite receptive to foreign firms, and other quite hostile. A key consideration for marketers is to assess whether or not the firm can work to improve the host country’s attitude toward foreign operations and so create a new competitive advantage.Government Bureaucracy. A key consideration is the degree to which the host country runs an efficient system for processing foreign trade.Political Stability. Countries different greatly in the way power is transferred. Some countries can change dramatically, even through direct election. Political change may even be violent. It is also possible that the company’s property may be taken by a new or even existing government.Monetary Regulations. Sellers want to take their profits in a currency of value to them. This may or may not be possible. While most international trade involves cash transactions, several other forms of exchange or countertrade, are possible, including:Barter. This involves the direct exchange of goods or services between firms.Buyback. Here the seller takes payment in the form of resulting products from the seller’s activity, such as building a factory.Counterpurchase. Here the seller takes cash payment in the local currency and agrees to buy other products in the country with it. Those products are exported for resale to take profits in another currency.Regulación monetariaEstabilidad política
7 Factores del entorno cultural Cómo los clientes ven y usan los productosNormas y conducta en los negociosTradiciones culturales,preferencias,y conductasCultural Environmental FactorsThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppThe Cultural EnvironmentCultural Differences. Cultural differences are very important in international marketing. Most advertising and even product images are culturally-based and may be inappropriate, ineffective, and even offensive in another culture.
8 La decisión de internacionalizarse o no Razones por las que las empresas podrían considerar una expansión internacional:Competidores globales que atacan el mercado nacionalLos mercados extranjeros podrían ofrecer mejores oportunidades de obtener ganancias netasLos mercados nacionales podrían estarse contrayendoSe necesita una mayor base de clientes para lograr economías de escalaReducir la dependencia de un solo mercadoLos clientes podrían estarse expandiendo al extranjeroPocas empresas actúan hasta que alguna situación o suceso las empuja hacia el mercado internacional.
9 Selección de mercados en los que se ingresará Deciding Which Markets to EnterThis CTR corresponds to Table 19-1 and relates to the discussion on ppLista del mercadólogo para identificarpotencial de mercadoFactors Affecting Market EntryMarketers should consider six factors as indicators of market potential in deciding which markets to enter:Demographic Characteristics. Demographic concerns address the size of the population, the rate of urban population growth, the degree of urbanization, the population density, and the age structure and composition of the population.Geographic Characteristics. Geographic considerations include the physical size of the country, topographical features, and climate conditions.Economic Factors. Economic factors include the GNP (and/or GDP), income distribution, rate of growth of GNP, and ratio of investment to the GNP.Technological Factors. Technological factors include the level of technological skill, existing production technology, existing consumption technology, and the education levels of the population at large.Sociocultural Factors. Sociocultural concerns include the dominant value system of the country, lifestyle pattern related to consumption, the presence and importance of different ethnic groups, and any linguistic fragmentation.Teaching Tip: For example, in Jordan the Palestinians make up 60% of the population but are ruled by the Jordanian minority. In both China and in Italy, linguistic fragmentation is so severe that local dialects cannot understand each other and the “official language” is the version spoken around the national capital.National Goals and Plans. National industrial priorities and infrastructure investment plans are very important.1. Características demográficas.2. Características geográficas.3. Factores económicos.4. Factores tecnológicos.5. Factores socioculturales.6. Metas y planes nacionales.
10 Formas de ingresar en el mercado Inversión directaDeciding How to Enter the MarketThis CTR corresponds to Figure 19-2 on p. 591 and relates to the material on ppFormas de ingresar en el mercadoMayorEmpresa conjuntaMarket Entry StrategiesExporting. Exporting may be of two kinds: Indirect Exporting works through independent international intermediaries and involves less investment by the exporter. Risk is also smaller. Direct Exporting involves more risk and investment as the firm sets up its own presence in the host country but the potential return is also greater.Joint Venturing. Firms have four types of joint venture available to them:Licensing. Licensing occurs when a company enters into an agreement with a licensee in the foreign market. Licensing means little risk but also little control.Contract Manufacturing. Here the firm arranges for a foreign producer to make products in the host country for that market.Management Contracting. Here the firm provides the management team and the host country supplies the capital.Joint Ownership. This consists of one company joining with another in the host country to create a local business in which they share owner ship and control. While this option commits both companies to the enterprise, it demands close agreement on both the goals and the methods for doing business.Direct Investment. This option occurs when the exporting firm enters a foreign market by developing foreign-based assembly or manufacturing facilities. Direct investment can be especially attractive when the firm needs firm local control and when there are substantial cost savings.Cantidad de compromiso, riesgo, control y potencial de utilidadesExportaciónMenor
11 Desarrollo del programa de marketing global Deciding on the Global Marketing ProgramThis CTR corresponds to Figure 19-3 on p. 594 and relates to the material on ppDesarrollo del programa de marketing globalCinco estrategias internacionales de producto y promociónExtensión rectaAdaptación de la comunicaciónAdaptación de productoAdaptación dualPromociónNo variar el productoAdaptar el productoProductoNo variar la promo- ciónAdaptar la pro- mociónInvención de productosDesarrollar producto nuevoProduct StrategiesStraight Product Extension. This involves marketing a product in the foreign market without making any changes. Some products may have very strong brand awareness and already be desired as is in the new market.Product Adaptation. This involves changing the product to meet local conditions or wants. Often product forms need to be altered. Size and tastes, for example, are usually at least partially preferred on some culturally related dimensions.Product Invention. This consists of creating something entirely new for the foreign market.Promotion StrategiesCommunication Adaptation. Adapting communication is often required. Although some companies can use a single theme and meaning internationally, it is often the case that the local variation on even a universal theme may require some modification.Dual Adaptation. This involves a combination of promotion and product alternations for the foreign market.
12 Concepto de canal integral en distribución Empresa que vendeOficina matriz del que vendeConcepto de canal integral en distribuciónWhole-Channel Concept for DistributionThis CTR corresponds to Figure 19-4 on p. 597 and relates to the discussion on ppCanales entre nacionesCanales en nacionesInternational Distribution ChannelsThe international company must take a Whole Channel View of the problem of distributing products to final consumers. This approach takes into account all the necessary links in distributing the seller’s products. Typically, this requires special attention to three major links between the seller and the final buyer:Seller’s Headquarters' Organization. This is the link that supervises the channels and is part of the channel itself.Channels Between Nations. This link includes the infrastructure that moves the products to the borders of the foreign nation.Channels Within Nations. This link encompasses the infrastructure that moves the products from the entry point of the foreign country to the final consumers.Teaching Tip: Students may have trouble recognizing the distribution problems associated with between nations exporting. For example, Czarist Russia built its entire railroad on a narrow-gauge track system so that potential invaders could not cross on the standard-gauge trains. But then neither could goods from other European countries.Usuario o comprador final
13 Organización de marketing global Deciding on the GlobalMarketing OrganizationThis relates to the material on p. 598.Departamento de exportaciónDivisión internacionalOrganización globalThree Organizational StructuresExport Department. During early international marketing efforts, companies typically just create a new department to coordinate international operations. The sales manager may take on larger staff if and as the international business grows in importance and more marketing services are needed to support it.International Division. As the level of involvement in and complexity of international operations increases, companies commonly organize an international division. In addition to running international operations, the division oversees strategic growth and investigates different types of foreign entry opportunities in new countries. Operating units in foreign markets under division control may be organized by geographical organization, world product groups, or international subsidiaries.Global Organization. For many large companies, the scope of operations grows to the point where they are no longer a firm involved in many foreign markets, they are a truly a multinational company. Recruitment, management, suppliers, manufacturing, and financing are no longer linked to a single-country mentality. The entire world becomes a single market whose segmentation is base upon strategic and tactical competitive advantage, not national affiliation.Grado de participación en actividades de marketing internacionales
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