Presentación del tema: "Estrategias competitivas:"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1Estrategias competitivas: MarketingOctava ediciónPhilip Kotler y Gary ArmstrongCapítulo 18Estrategias competitivas:cómo forjar relaciones duraderas con los clientes
2Definición de valor de clientes Defining Customer ValueThis CTR corresponds to Figure 18-1 on p. 545 and relates to the material on ppInstructor’s Note: This material previews the concepts that underlie the following discussion on Porter’s Value Chain (Slide 18-7).Definición de valor de clientes-=Valor total parael clienteCosto total para el cliente(valores de producto, servicio, personal,e imagen)(Costos monetarios, de tiempo, de energíay psíquicos)Valor entregado al cliente(Utilidad para el consumidor)Elements of Customer ValueCustomer Value is a multi-faceted concept marketers should consider in preparing the total marketing offer. Key dimensions to the customer value concept include:Customer-Centered. To win in today’s marketplace, companies must excel at becoming more customer-centered in delivering superior value to their target customers. A key concept is market engineering - the process of designing the whole company system to deliver customer value at every level.Customer Delivered Value. Delivered value is defined as the difference between total customer value and total customer cost.Discussion Note: The text example emphasizes the dollar value of customer costs. Consumers also weigh psychological costs such as image, reputation, and decision-time.
3Customer Satisfaction Satisfacción de clientesCustomer SatisfactionCustomer SatisfactionThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppUn cliente queda satisfecho cuando el desempeño de una empresa es congruente con las expectativas.El desempeño excede las expectativas - cliente encantadoCustomer SatisfactionClosely tied to delivering customer value is the concept of customer satisfaction. Again, the elements involved in how customer’s determine what products are satisfying or unsatisfying are of critical importance to marketers. Key considerations in understanding customer satisfaction include:Expectations. Customer satisfaction with a purchase depends upon the product’s performance relative to a buyer’s expectations. Expectations are based upon the customer’s past buying experiences, the opinions of friends and associates, and marketer and competitor information. Expectations may be realistic or unrealistic. Further, as the text observes, satisfaction alone doesn’t retain customers.Las expectativas del comprador se basan en:Sus experiencias de compra anteriores Opiniones de amigos y compañeros Información y promesas del comerciante/competidorDesempeño real del productoDesempeño por debajo de las expectativas – cliente insatisfecho
4Satisfacción total de clientes Total Customer SatisfactionThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppLos clientes altamente satisfechos (encantados) producen beneficios:Son menos sensibles al precio,Siguen siendo clientes más tiempo,Hablan bien acerca de la empresa y sus productos.Los clientes encantados tienen preferencias emocionales y racionales por productos, y esto los vuelve muy leales.Por ello, el objetivo del marketing es generar valor para los clientes de manera rentable.Total Customer SatisfactionTotal Customer Satisfaction. Satisfaction aims at meeting, exceeding, and then continually raising customer expectations for product performance. Satisfaction at this level of performance can lead to competitive advantage. To achieve this end, companies must track their customer’s expectations, perceived company performance, and customer satisfaction.The Goal: Customer Delight. The goal is to create customer delight - an emotional affinity for a product or service, not just a rational preference. This kind of bond is required for obtaining high customer loyalty in an increasingly competitive marketplace.
5La necesidad de retener clientes The Need for Customer RetentionThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppLa clave para retener clientes es darles un valor y una satisfacción superiores. Hay que considerar:Costos de clientes nuevosCostos de clientes perdidosValor de por vida de los clientesRetaining CustomersGetting New Customers Costs Money. Marketers need to think in terms of how much of each aspect of the promotion mix and marketing mix must be spent each time a new customer is recruited. Common sense tells us that current customers will need fewer of these expensive resources to make their buying decisions than will potential customers.Cost of Lost Customers. Once marketers realize that losing customers is expensive, they need to determine how to identify why customers are lost to measure the actual cost of customer loss.Discussion Note: Even small businesses can use focus groups and surveys to identify loss centers on a personal computer database.Customer’s Lifetime Value. When the revenues of each customer are factored in, it is possible to determine the customer’s lifetime value -- the amount of profit generated each year for the company over the lifetime of that customer’s business with the company.
6Crear satisfacción y lealtad de clientes mediante marketing de relación Building Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty by Relationship MarketingThis CTR relates to the material on ppEl marketing de relación implica crear, mantener y fortalecer relaciones sólidas y duraderas con los clientes y otros interesados.Los métodos para forjar relaciones incluyen ofrecer:Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Building Relationship ApproachesA company can adopt any of three customer relationship-building approaches to use in developing stronger customer bonding and satisfaction:Financial Benefits. Companies can add financial benefits to the customer relationship. These can consist of frequency marketing programs such as frequent flyer programs, money-back guarantees, and club marketing programs.Discussion Note: Financial benefits literally put a dollar figure or worth on the customer’s continuing relationship and patronage.Social Benefits. Here company personnel work to increase their social bonds with customers by learning individual customer’s needs and wants and then individualizing and personalizing their products and services.Structural Ties. Under this approach, the company supplies customers with special equipment or computer linkages that help them to manage their orders, payroll or inventory.Discussion Note: Financial services companies routinely offer software that helps investors make trades or obtain market information electronically. Sometimes the software is available for a nominal fee or offered free to investors opening a minimum account.Beneficios financierosBeneficios socialesLazos estructurales
7Cadena de valor Infraestructura de la empresa Administración de recursos humanosDesarrollo tecnológicoAdquisiciónValue ChainThis CTR relates to the material on ppTeaching Tip: Ask students to identify the primary and support activities operating at your school.Cadena de valorActividades de apoyoThe Generic Value ChainMichael Porter’s value chain identifies nine value-creating activities undertaken by companies seeking to provide products that meet customer needs. Activities include:Primary Activities:Inbound Logistics. Inbound logistics consists of those activities and their coordination that bring needed materials into the business. Value is added in the choice of materials and their integration into the business operations in a timely manner.Operations. Operations is the first step in developing materials into value-added products. Operations add value through manufacturing innovations and processes.Outbound Logistics. Outbound logistics refers to the distribution system set up by the business. As with inbound logistics, coordination and integration of the firm’s products with the needs of retailers and customers creates value.Marketing and Sales. Marketing and sales educate consumers and position the firm’s products and image to create value.Service. Service creates value both by keeping the product’s performance in line with customer expectations and by demonstrating to the customer the firm’s commitment to meeting customer needs.Support Activities: These activities occur within each primary activity.Firm Infrastructure. How the firm is set up permeates each primary activity and determines the parameters of action each activity can take.Human Resource Management. Recruitment, training, and evaluation add value in relation to the competition’s efforts.Technology Development. All primary activities must develop and maintain technological advantages.Procurement. Every primary activity procures inputs of both material and expertise.MargenOperacionesLogística de salidaMarketingy ventasLogística de entradaServicioActividades primarias
8Red de entrega de valor al cliente Customer Value-Delivery SystemThis CTR relates to the discussion on p. 554.DetallistaEntregaPedidoProductorEntregaValue Delivery SystemsTo enhance competitive advantage, firms look beyond their own value chains for ways of improving customer value. In linking the company’s value chain with those of its suppliers and resellers, the company improves the performance of the entire customer value delivery system. A key concept of the value delivery system is partnering.Partnering. Partnering involves merging key aspects of two or more companies in the delivery system to increase customer value. The text relates the example of Honda headquarters working with Donnelly Corporation employees to reduce their costs and improve quality. Other examples include sharing sales information with suppliers by manufacturers and retailers, coordinating promotional activities throughout the chain, and sharing new technological developments in inventory and database ordering systems with other chain members.PedidoProveedorEntregaPedidoAbastecedor de materias primasEntregaPedidoPedidoEntrega
9Marketing de calidad total Total Quality MarketingThis CTR relates to the material on ppMarketing de calidad totalEl cliente decide qué es calidadNecesaria pero quizá insuficienteEstrategia de marketing de calidad totalNo cuesta másToda actividad de la empresaQuality and PerformanceQuality. Quality is defined as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.Saltos cuánticosCompromiso total de los empleadosPerformance Quality refers to the level at which a product performs its functions. Conformance Quality refers to the freedom from defects and the consistency with which a product delivers a specified level of performance.Marketing Highlight 18-2: Pursuing a Total Quality Marketing Strategy1. Quality is in the Eyes of the Customer. A quality program must begin with the customer’s needs and end with customer perceptions.2. Quality must reflect Every Company Activity. Each functional area and each company activity must understand and embody the total quality concept. A system cannot consistently deliver quality if one or more of its components is not operating effectively.3. Quality requires Total Employee Commitment. All company employees must be personally committed to the total quality program. Commitment requires both professional and personal pride in the outcome.4. Quality requires High-Quality Partners. Value chain members of the customer delivery system must also embody total quality commitment.5. A Quality Program Cannot Save a Poor Product. Companies must recognize that poor product cannot be “quality imaged” successfully. If the product cannot be changed, it should be dropped.6. Quality can Always be Improved. Nothing is ever perfect.7. Quality Improvement may Require Quantum Leaps. Competitive conditions may demand vast and immediate improvements over small and incremental ones.8. Quality Does Not Cost More. Cost savings come from lower rejection rates, better customer satisfaction, and often new technologies that reduce manufacturing costs.9. Quality is Necessary But May Not Be Sufficient. More demanding buyers have ever higher expectations for performance. Companies cannot assume that quality alone will be competitive.Socios de alta calidadMejora continuaNo puede salvar a un mal producto
10Análisis de competidores Identificar competidoresAnálisis de competidoresCompetitor AnalysisThis CTR corresponds to Figure 18-4 on p. 557 and relates to the material on ppEvaluar competidoresDeterminar objetivosCompetitor AnalysisIdentifying Competitors. Competitors include those who make products that compete directly against those of the company and more broadly those that meet the same needs. Companies are more threatened by latent competitors than current ones. Competitors may be identified by industry or by markets.Determining Competitors’ Objectives. Competitors differ in the relative emphasis they put on variables such as technological innovation, cost leadership, quality, and market share.Identifying Competitors’ Strategies. A strategic group is a group of firms in an industry that follows the same or similar strategy in a given target market.Assessing Competitors’ Strengths and Weaknesses. Companies keep data records on competitors’ performance to assess likely future moves and capabilities. Benchmarking involves identifying the top performance features of a given product and measuring company performance against that standard.Estimating Competitors’ Reaction Patterns. Beyond capability, competitors must be assessed in terms of how they respond to the company’s strategies. Each competitor will have preferences based upon a combination of functional specialties, management preferences, and historical patterns.Selecting Competitors to Attack and Avoid. Companies typically classify competitors for possible strategic action. Strong or Weak Competitors may be attacked. Weak competitors are easier targets but less profitable. Close or Distant Competitors may be targeted. Well-Behaved or Disruptive Competitors also provide different opportunities and pose different threats.Identificar estrategiasEvaluar puntos fuertes y débilesEstimar patronesde reacciónDecidir cuáles competidoresatacar y cuáles evitar
11Estrategias competitivas básicas Liderazgo general de costos Developing Competitive Marketing StrategiesThis CTR relates to the material on p. 561.Desarrollo de estrategias de marketing competitivoLiderazgo general de costosFocoCompetitive PositionsCost-Leadership. Cost-leadership is gained by being the lowest-cost producer in the industry. This affords the company flexibility in responding to competitive moves by always being able to offer the lowest price to the consumer.Differentiation. This strategy creates competitive advantage by offering products with unique customer benefits or features not available from competitive offerings. Here the company concentrates on creating a highly differentiated product line and marketing program so that it comes across as the class leader in the industry. This image helps it to compete against lower cost rivals.Focus. This narrow-focus strategy achieves competitive advantage by concentrating on a narrow segment of a larger market. Emphasis is often on quality or benefits in a tightly defined market subsegment.Middle-of-the-Road. Firms that do not pursue one of the three general strategies above lack strategic focus. While they may survive, they are extremely vulnerable to more focused competitors and will be poorly positioned to react successfully to environmental changes such as economic downturns.DiferenciaciónMitad del camino
12Intimidad con el cliente Disciplinas de valorDesarrollos de otras estrategias de marketing competitivoDeveloping Additional Competitive Marketing StrategiesThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppExcelenciaoperativaIntimidad con el clienteValue DisciplinesTreacy and Wiersema offer another classification for competitive strategies. They suggest that companies gain leadership positions by delivering superior value to their customers. Under this perspective, companies can pursue any of three strategies:Operational Excellence. Here the company provides superior value by leading its industry in price and convenience. Examples include Wal-Mart and Dell Computer.Customer Intimacy. Here the company provides superior value by precisely segmenting its markets and then tailoring its products or services to match exactly the needs of targeted customers. These companies build detailed and relevant customer databases for targeting and segmentation purposes. Their customers are willing to pay a premium for their very-well defined needs and wants. Companies employing this strategy will do almost anything to build long-term customer loyalty. Examples include Nordstrom and Land’s End.Discussion Note: Nordstrom sales representatives are authorized to give customers the direct telephone number of the company CEO and President. Customer are encouraged to call with complaints, suggestions, or comments. When the phone is answered, it is the chief executive himself -- not an assistant.Product Leadership. Here the company provides superior value by offering a continuous stream of leading-edge products or services that make their own and competing products obsolete. Examples include Intel and Motorola.Discussion Note: Most of the ten most active trading stocks on any given day, especially on the NASDAQ exchange, are information technology companies successfully pursuing this approach, including Intel and Motorola.Liderazgo de producto
13Posiciones competitivas Competitive PositionsThis CTR corresponds to Table 18-1 on p. 564 and relates to the discussion on pLíder de mercadoEmpresa con la mayorparticipaciónPosiciones competitivasEstrategias competitivasExpandir mercado totalProteger participaciónExpandir participaciónRetadores de mercadoEmpresas que luchan por incrementar su participa- ción en el mercadoCompetitive PositionsIt may be useful to classify competitive positions on the basis of the roles companies play in the marketplace. Four key positions include:Market Leader. This is the firm with the largest market share. It typically leads other firms in price changes, new product introductions, distribution coverage, and promotion spending.Market Challenger. The challenger is the runner-up firm in the industry. It is aggressively seeking to expand its market share. Challengers may be a somewhat distant second or they may be very close to the leader’s share.Discussion Note: The distance between the leader and the challenger may have a very strong influence on the strategies selected by each.Market Follower. A follower is another runner-up firm that seeks to hold its share. It does not attempt to gain share at the expense of the leader, often to avoid competitive retaliation from its more powerful rivals.Market Nicher. The nicher is a firm that serves very small, tightly defined segments, or even a single segment. Often the segments are ignored or overlooked by larger firms.Seguidores de mercadoEmpresas que quierenconservar su participaciónsin hacer olasAtaque frontal Ataque indirectoSeguir de cerca Seguir a distanciaOcupantes de nichosEmpresas que sirven a segmentos pequeños que no interesan a otrasPor cliente, mercado, calidad-precio, servicio Multinichos
14Balanceo de orientaciones hacia clientes y competidores Balancing Customer and Company OrientationsThis CTR corresponds to Figure 18-5 on p. 569 and relates to the discussion on ppOrientación de productosOrientación de competidoresOrientación de clientesOrientation de mercadoCentrada en competidoresNoSíCentrada en clientesEvolving Company OrientationsCompanies must consider and follow closely the movements of its competition in a given market. On the other hand, it must also monitor other factors in the environment and - always - what the customer needs and wants. A critical strategic decision involves balancing these various orientations. Orientations can be classified as the following:Competitor-Centered Company. This is a company whose moves are mainly based on competitors’ actions and reactions. Competitor-centered companies spend most of their time tracking competitors’ moves and market share and trying to find strategies to counter them.Customer-Centered Company. This is a company that focuses on customer developments in designing its marketing strategies and on delivering superior value to its target customers.Teaching Tip: The customer-centered approach seems the best in theory, but in practice it is seldom so simple. When Apple/IBM/Motorola tested the new RISC-based PowerPC chip, rival Intel did nothing. Tests results indicated success, and at a much lower cost that Intel’s Pentium. But before the PowerPC went to market, Intel cut prices (up to 40%) on the Pentium and introduced more powerful versions.Market-Centered Company. This is a company that pays balanced attention to both customers and competitors in designing its marketing strategy.Product-Centered Company. This is a company that is neither customer- nor competitor-centered. Although the nature of some products and/or industries may make this orientation a successful one, it is generally not a good approach for most companies.