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Venta al detalle y al mayoreo

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Presentación del tema: "Venta al detalle y al mayoreo"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Venta al detalle y al mayoreo
Marketing Octava edición Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong Capítulo 13 Venta al detalle y al mayoreo

2 ¿Qué es la venta al detalle?
Todas las actividades que intervienen en la venta de bienes o servicios directamente a los consumidores finales para su uso personal no comercial. Detallistas – negocios cuyas ventas provienen primordialmente de la venta al detalle. Los detallistas se pueden clasificar como: Detallistas de tienda como Home Depot, Sears, Walmart Detallistas sin tienda como el correo, el teléfono e Internet.

3 Clasificación de tiendas de venta al detalle
Cantidad de servicio Detallistas de autoservicio, servicio limitado y servicio completo Classification of Retail Stores This CTR relates to the material on pp Clasificación de tiendas de venta al detalle Línea de productos Longitud y amplitud del surtido de productos Precios relativos Estructura de precios empleada por el detallista Organizaciones de venta al detalle Organización de propiedad independiente, corporativa o contractual Store Retailing Classifications Retailing includes all the activities in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal, nonbusiness use. Retailers may be divided into two types: store retailing and non store retailing. Store retailing accounts for most retail business. Typical store classifications include: Amount of Service. Self-service retailing is used by convenience goods sellers and most discounters. Limited-service retailers provide sales service to support shopping goods lines carried and may offer additional services such as credit. Full-service retailers are often specialty stores with narrow product lines with deep assortment and knowledgeable salespeople. Product Line Sold. Specialty stores carry narrow product lines. Department stores carry a wide variety of lines. Supermarkets feature low-cost, high-volume, self-service on food, laundry, and household items. Convenience stores are small units that carry a limited line of high turnover items. Superstores, Combination Stores, and Hypermarkets are variations on much larger versions of supermarkets also offering other lines and/ore services. Relative Prices. Discount stores sell standard merchandise at lower prices by accepting lower margins and selling higher volumes. Off-price Retailers buy at lower than regular wholesale and sell under regular retail. The three major off-price retailers are: Factory Outlets that are owned & operated by manufacturers; Independents owned by entrepreneurs or divisions of larger corporations; and Wholesale clubs selling deeply discounted merchandise to paying members. Catalog Showrooms sell high-markup, fast-moving brand names at discount prices. Retail Organization % of retail operations are independents, although larger chains control a much larger share of the market (See following CTR).

4 Clasificación por línea de productos
Tipo de tienda Longitud y amplitud del surtido de productos Tiendas de especialidad Línea de productos reducida, surtido profundo Tiendas departamentales Gran variedad de líneas de productos, como ropa, muebles y artículos domésticos Supermercados Amplia variedad de productos alimenticios, de lavandería y domésticos Tiendas de conveniencia Línea limitada de productos de conveniencia con alto volumen de ventas Supertiendas Gran surtido de productos de rutina alimenticios y de otro tipo, más servicios Eliminadora por categorías Tienda especializada gigante con un enorme surtido de una línea específica Hipermercados Supertiendas enormes

5 Clasificación por organización de venta al detalle
Classification By Retail Organization This CTR relates to the discussion on pp Conglomerados de comerciantes Cadenas corporativas Control of Outlets Major forms of categorization of retailers by control of outlets include: Corporate Chains Corporate chains consist of two or more outlets that are commonly owned and controlled, employ central buying, and sell similar lines. Voluntary Chains. These are wholesaler sponsored chains that nominally independent outlets join to save in costs. The wholesaler controls centralized planning, buying, and promotion decisions. Retailer Cooperatives. These are jointly owned wholesale operations controlled by the retail members. Franchise Organizations. A franchise is a contractual association between a manufacturer, wholesaler, or service organization and independent businesspeople. Merchandising Conglomerates. These are corporations that combine several different retailing forms under central ownership and share distribution and management functions. Organizaciones de franquicia Cadenas voluntarias Organizaciones de venta al detalle Cooperativas de detallistas

6 Características del marketing directo
Characteristics of Direct Marketing This CTR relates to the material on p. 398. Características del marketing directo Es privado Individuos meta Medición de respuesta Oferta personalizada Características clave del marketing directo Direct Marketing Benefits to sellers include: Targeted Individuals. Customers can be selected from compiled list by almost any segmentation variable. Customized Offer. Specific characteristics of individual customers can be addressed in the offer. Immediate Orders. It is used to obtain immediate orders from targeted customers. Continuous Customer Relationship. Actual customer patterns of behavior and indicated preferences can be tracked, further narrowing subsequent offers to product known to be wanted by the customer. Higher Response. Direct marketing materials receive higher response rates than other forms of marketing communication. Testing. Variations on the marketing mix can be readily tested. Response Measurement. As customer response is directly related to specific materials, measurement is facilitated. Privacy. Some forms of direct media can be protected from viewing by competitors. Pruebas Pedidos inmediatos Mayor respuesta Relación continua

7 Venta al detalle fuera de tiendas
Types Of Nonstore Retailing This CTR refers to the discussion on pp Marketing directo Representa más del 14% de todas las compras de consumidores, y podría representar el 33% de todas las ventas para el 2000. Venta directa Expendios automáticos Catálogos y correo Direct Marketing Direct Marketing. Direct marketing uses various media to interact with consumers, generally calling for the consumer to make a direct response to the offer being made in real time. Direct marketing offers consumers the benefits of greater convenience and time and place utility. Direct Selling. Door-to-door retailing offers consumers products at their door. Automatic Vending. Automatic vending involves selling directly to customers through machines. This form offers time and place utility. Other forms include: Catalogs and Direct Mail. TV Shopping Shows. Online Shopping. Home and Office Parties. Compras por TV Compras en línea Tertulias de ventas

8 Decisiones de marketing de detallistas
Retailer Marketing Decisions This CTR relates to the material on pp Decisiones de marketing de detallistas Mezcla de marketing del detallista Estrategia de detallistas Surtido de productos y servicios Precios Promoción Plaza (Lugar) Retailer Marketing Decisions Target Market Decision. These decisions require that the retailer carefully consider exactly what kind of customer they want to serve. Store image should support the needs and expectations of the target market in every respect. Product Assortment and Services Decision. These decisions include matching product assortment width and depth and quality levels to shopper expectations. Variations in service mixed offerings can help retailers differentiate. Store atmosphere should be considered an assortment/service mix variable. Price Decision. These decisions revolve around high margin/low volume vs. low margin/high volume approaches. May include traffic builders or loss leader tactics. Promotion Decision. Promotions tools available to retailers include all elements of the promotional mix . Major decisions may include tie-ins with producer promotions. Place . Key place decisions remain three: location, location, location! Mercado meta Posicionamiento en tienda de venta al detalle

9 Surtido de productos Amplitud y profundidad del surtido Calidad de los productos Estrategias de diferenciación Decisiones de surtido de productos y servicios del detallista Click to add title Mezcla de servicios Herramienta clave para la competen- cia no por precios para distinguir una tienda de otra. Ambiente de la tienda Disposición física “Sensación” apropiada para el mercado meta que incita a comprar.

10 Surtido de productos y servicios Decisiones de promoción
Click to add title Decisiones de precio, promoción y plaza del detallista Decisiones de precio Mercado meta Surtido de productos y servicios Competencia Decisiones de promoción Uso de publicidad, ventas personales, promoción y relaciones públicas para llegar a los clientes. Decisiones de plaza Centros comerciales, distritos comerciales centrales, centros de poder o “malls”. ¡Ubicación!

11 La rueda de ventas al detalle
The Wheel of Retailing This CTR relates to the discussion on pp. 406. Instructor’s Note: The CTR and Notes contain substantial extra-textual material for expanded in-class discussion. Margen alto Precio alto Status alto The Future of Retailing The wheel of retailing concept states that new retailing forms begin as low-margin, low-price, high volume, low status operations that slow evolve and upgrade their facilities over time. The advent of category killers and inventory tracking using high technology may signal a new development whereby value pricing retailers stay on the low-margin, high-volume end of the retailing scale while constantly improving product quality and consumer value. The Wheel of Retailing is a theory that attempts to explain how new retail institutions enter the marketplace and how they tend to evolve and eventually decline. Outlined and summarized briefly, the theory is presented below: Entry. New retail forms emerge on the low-price end of the market. These stores offer low-price, usually supported by poor location related to convenience, and few services. Evolution. As the store form becomes more popular, customer demands increase the pressure to offer more services and better location. As the store form incorporates these needs into their product offerings, costs rise. Decline. Continuing increases in costs eventually make the store form vulnerable to low-price, bare-bones store forms. Each generation of new store form entrants modifies the formula somewhat, so that low-margin store forms continue to innovate . Teaching Tip: Many new upscale store forms do not fit into the wheel of retailing schema. For example, Wal-Mart continues to grow by not allowing costs to rise. You may wish to point out to students the descriptive, rather than predictive, nature of the model. 1 3 2 2 3 Margen bajo Precio bajo Status bajo 1 1 1 = Descuento 2 = Supertienda 3 = Club de bodega 4 = Tienda combinada 2 3 4

12 El futuro de la venta al detalle
Nuevas formas de venta al detalle para acortar el ciclo de vida Mayor venta fuera de tiendas Mayor competencia entre tipos El futuro de la venta al detalle Surgimiento de megadetallistas Creciente importancia de la tecnología de ventas al detalle Expansión global de los grandes detallistas Tiendas de venta al detalle como “comunidades” o “sitios de reunión”

13 ¿Qué es la venta al mayoreo?
Todas las actividades que intervienen en la venta de bienes y servicios a quienes los compran para revenderlos o darles un uso comercial. Mayorista – empresa dedicada primordialmente a actividades de venta al mayoreo.

14 ¿Por qué hay mayoristas?
Wholesaling This CTR relates to the material on p ¿Por qué hay mayoristas? Los mayoristas suelen ser mejores para desem-peñar una o más de estas funciones del canal: Funciones de los mayoristas Servicios gerenciales y asesoría Venta y promoción Información de mercado Compra y prepara- ción de surtidos Aceptación de riesgos Fragmentación de lotes Transporte Financiamiento Almacenamiento Wholesaling Wholesaling includes all activities involved in selling goods and services to those buying for resale or business use. Wholesaler Functions Selling and Promoting. Contacts and small retailer connections help wholesalers reach more buyers than distant manufacturers. Buying and Assortment Building. Wholesalers can select items and build assortments needed by their customers better than manufacturers. Bulk-Breaking. Wholesalers save customers money by buying large quantities and lots and breaking them into smaller lots. Warehousing. Wholesalers hold inventories, reducing inventory costs and risks to suppliers and customers. Transportation. Wholesalers provide quicker transport of orders to customers than do producers. Financing. Wholesalers extend credit. Risk Bearing. Wholesalers take title and absorb risks for loss, damage, or theft. Market Information. Wholesalers provide information to suppliers and customers about competitors, new products, and price developments. Management Services and Advice. Wholesalers provide training to retailers on sales, improved store layouts, displays, and accounting and inventory control procedures.

15 Tipos de mayoristas Corredores/Agentes Comerciante mayorista
No asumen la propiedad de la mercancía y sólo desempeñan unas cuantas funciones. Comerciante mayorista Dueño independiente Asume la propiedad de la mercancía que maneja. Sucursales y oficinas de fabricantes Venta al mayoreo manejada por quienes venden o compran, no mayoristas inde- pendientes.

16 Decisiones de marketing de mayoristas
Wholesaler Marketing Decisions This CTR relates to the discussion on pp Mezcla de marketing de mayorista Estrategia de mayorista Surtido de productos y servicios Precios Promoción Plaza (Lugar) Wholesaler Marketing Decisions There are important differences among the marketing decisions made by wholesalers, retailers, and manufacturers, although each element of the marketing system addresses the five key decision areas: Target Market Decision. Like all marketing operations, wholesaling needs focus. Wholesalers may target by size of customer, need for service, or other factors. Product Assortment and Services Decision. Assortment is the product of the wholesaler. Still immediate availability of items made possible through large inventory is giving way to better stocking of faster-moving items. Inventory costs are balanced against the profitability of each line. Price Decision. Traditionally, wholesalers markup products by a fixed percentage. Costs are deducted from this markup, leaving low single digit profits. Volume is the key. Discussion Note: The Sam’s Club membership wholesaler chain aims that pricing to exactly cover costs. Profit is to come from the sale of memberships alone. Promotion Decision. In general, wholesalers are not promotion-minded. But as competition increases and the wholesale market becomes more fragmented, more attention to promotion tools, especially nonpersonal ones, is likely. Place Decision. Traditional place decisions were made on low cost factors, with little investment in facilities. Modern inventory tracking, loading, and routing systems are making place locations more strategic than simply finding large, empty, low-cost buildings. Mercado meta Posicionamiento en tienda de venta al detalle

17 Tendencias en venta al mayoreo
Aprender a competir eficazmente en áreas más amplias y diversas Tendencias en venta al mayoreo Las consolidaciones reducirán el número de mayoristas Avances que deben tomarse en cuenta Los mayoristas que sobrevivan crecerán mediante fusiones y adquisiciones La integración vertical seguirá siendo importante Expansión global

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