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Comportamiento del Consumidor

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Presentación del tema: "Comportamiento del Consumidor"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Comportamiento del Consumidor
Esta presentación es solo un complemento de la unidad. En ningún caso, exceptúa al alumno de la lectura de la bibliografía de la materia.

Proceso decisorio de compra Funciones en la Compra INICIADOR INFLUYENTE DECISOR COMPRADOR USUARIO

3 Proceso decisorio de compra
En general se pueden identificar 5 fases en los procesos de decisión complejos: Estará influido por variables internas, externas y el marketing mix; MARKETING MIX (4 P) RECONOCIMIENTO DEL PROBLEMA VARIABLES INTERNAS Características personales Motivación Percepción Aprendizaje Creencias y Actitudes VARIABLES EXTERNAS Entorno Culturas Grupo social Influencias personales Familia BUSQUEDA DE INFORMACION EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS DECISION DE COMPRA O NO COMPRA COMPORTAMIENTO POSTERIOR

4 Variables o factores que afectan el comportamiento del consumidor
Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior This CTR relates to Figure 5-2 on p.135 and previews the material on pp Variables o factores que afectan el comportamiento del consumidor Culturales Sociales Influences on Consumers Cultural. Culture is the most basic influence on a person's values, priorities, and beliefs. Cultural shifts make marketing opportunities although most such changes are in secondary rather than core cultural values. Subcultures are important markets as these groups are often significantly different in their needs to warrant different marketing approaches. Social. Social class is determined by a combination of income, occupation, education, wealth and other variables. Social factors within one's class that affect consumer behavior include reference groups & aspirational groups. Families also exert strong social influences. Finally, each relationship a person has with his or her group carries with it certain roles and status that may carry consumptive responsibilities. Personal. Major personal factors are age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, life style and personality/self-concept. Texts vary in their treatment of the PLC stages but it is clear that singles buy different products than do young marrieds with small children. Occupations differ in time constraints and social pressures to conform that affect consumption decisions. Lifestyles measured by AIO or VALS typologies can reveal different consumption patterns across otherwise dissimilar groups. The unique characteristics of each person that make up their personality also affect behavior. Psychological. Maslow's hierarchy reminds marketers that need states vary in their intensity or motivation. Perception is the process of organizing stimuli and is influenced by selective exposure, distortion, & retention. Learning occurs in response to the presentation of information linked to relevant drives, cues, responses, and reinforcement only some of which is under the control of the marketer. Beliefs and attitudes, though shaped by cultural and social forces, may vary considerably on the individual level. Personales Psicológicas Comprador

5 c) Clases sociales Niveles Socioeconómicos: Clase Alta A
Variables / Factores Culturales: a) Cultura b) Subcultura c) Clases sociales Niveles Socioeconómicos: Clase Alta A Clase Mediana B Clase Media Alta C1 Clase Media Baja C2 Clase Baja D Clase Baja Inferior E

6 INSE La AAM desde 1989 elabora un índice que tiene validez general: NIVEL CLASE INSTRUMENTALMENTE ABC1 Alta – Media alta C2 C3 Media Típica Media Baja C2 C3 D1 D2 E Baja superior Baja inferior Marginal DE

7 Factores Sociales: a) Grupos de referencias Grupos primarios
De Pertenencia De aspiración Disociativos Grupos primarios Grupos Secundarios Ascendencia b) Familia De Procreación

8 Factores Personales Influencias personales
Identificación con un estilo de vida Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Personal This CTR corresponds to Table 5-2 on p. 142 and the material on pp Factores Personales Edad y etapa del ciclo de vida familiar Ocupación Situación económica Personalidad y autoconcepto Personal Factors Age and Family Life-Cycle Stage. Buyers’ choices are affected by changes in their age and family structure over time. Young singles have different tastes in clothes, furniture, food, and recreation than do middle aged persons with their own children. Older consumers continue to change in their preferences and additionally acquire new buyer needs such as increased health care needs. Occupation. A person’s occupation carries with it distinct consumptive needs. White collar workers need different clothes than blue collar workers. Also, occupations usually carry their own subcultural norms and values that influence buyer behavior. Economic Situation. Means constrain buyer behavior for almost everyone except for the most wealthy. Personality and Self-Concept. Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting response to one’s own environment. Self-concept is the basic perception that people have about who they are. Lifestyle Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in her or his activities, interests, and opinions. Determining lifestyle involves measuring AIO dimensions -- the Activities, Interests, and Opinions of consumers. Psychographics. Lifestyle measures combined with demographic information can identify distinct market segments for consumer products and services. The best known of these methods, VALS 2, is addressed on the following CTR. Actividades Opiniones Intereses

9 Variables psicológicas
Factores Psicológicos Motivación Variables psicológicas Percepción Creencias y Actitudes Aprendizaje

10 Jerarquía de necesidades de Maslow
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs This CTR relates to the material on p and corresponds to Figure 5-4. Jerarquía de necesidades de Maslow De estima (autoestima, status) Necesidades sociales (sensación de pertenencia, amor) Necesidades de seguridad (tranquilidad, protección) Necesidades fisiológicas (hambre, sed) De auto- realización (autodesarrollo) Realización integral del potencial propio. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow suggests that lower level needs must be satisfied before individuals become motivated to satisfy higher level needs. Thus consumers will respond to lower level products and promotions until those needs are met. Only then can other marketing offers be of interest. Needs include: Physiological. Physical needs such as hunger, thirst, and bodily functions are the lowest level need and require satisfaction before other needs become important to the individual. Sometimes this helps students understand the difference between needs and wants. A thirsty person may still want an expensive car but if thirsty enough will take a drink of water. Safety. Safety needs for security and protection are the next level needs in the hierarchy. So long as physiological needs are met, safety needs will take precedence over other needs. Fear appeals for consumer products are often linked to safety needs. Social. Human beings are social, gregarious animals. We group together in part to fulfill physiological and safety needs but also because we enjoy and need the company of others. Going to malls to "hang out" fulfills social needs. Esteem. To be recognized as an individual fulfills esteem needs. Self-esteem is the value a person places on himself or herself. As lower level needs become more stable, esteem needs become more important to the individual. Self-actualization. Beyond esteem needs very successful people may still be driven to improve themselves and "accomplish something." These people are driven to self-actualize their potential.

11 Exposición a la información
Percepción Exposición a la información La percepción es selectiva; se percibe lo que interesa y cada consumidor puede tener una percepción diferente del mismo producto Atención Selectiva Distorsión selectiva Retención Selectiva P

12 Aprendizaje indicios Impulso estímulos reforzamiento respuestas
Cambios en la conducta del individuo originados por la experiencia. Suele llevar al hábito y a la lealtad de marca. Impulso estímulos reforzamiento indicios respuestas gratificante

13 Idea descriptiva que una persona tiene acerca de algo
Creencias Idea descriptiva que una persona tiene acerca de algo Actitudes Evaluaciones, sentimientos y tendencias consistentemente favorables o desfavorables de una persona hacia otra persona, un objeto o idea.

14 Diferencia entre un estado actual y uno deseado
Proceso de decisión del comprador Paso 1. Reconocer necesidades Diferencia entre un estado actual y uno deseado Estímulos internos Estímulos externos

15 Proceso de decisión del comprador Paso 2. Buscar información
Fuentes personales Proceso de decisión del comprador Paso 2. Buscar información Fuentes comerciales Fuentes públicas Anuncios, vendedores Fuente de la que más información recibe Experiencia propia

16 Proceso de decisión del comprador Paso 3. Evaluar alternativas
Atributos del producto Grado de importancia Creencias de marca Satisfacción total con el producto Procedimientos de evaluación

17 Proceso de decisión del comprador Paso 4. Decisión de compra
Intención de compra Deseo de comprar la marca preferida Factores de situación inesperados Actitudes de otros Decisión de compra o no compra

18 Proceso de decisión del comprador
Paso 5. Conducta posterior a la compra Expectativas del consumidor respecto del desempeño del producto Desempeño percibido del producto Disonancia cognoscitiva ¡Cliente satisfecho! Cliente insatisfecho

19 Tipos de Comportamiento
Alta participación Baja participación Comportamiento de compra complejo Comportamiento de compra que busca la variedad Diferencias significativas entre marcas Comportamiento de compra que reduce la disonancia Comportamiento de compra habitual Escasas Diferencias entre marcas

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