Presentación del tema: "Trabajador no calificado"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Trabajador no calificado Seguridad eléctricaTrabajador no calificadoSlide Show NotesThis training session covers electrical safety for unqualified workers. “Unqualified” workers are machine operators, operators of powered industrial trucks, construction workers, and others who are not qualified to perform electrical work, but who need to know important information about the hazards of electricity and how to prevent serious injury.Additional training is required for workers who are authorized to work on or near energized electrical equipment and wiring.
2 Objetivos de la sesión Comprender los peligros de la electricidad Identificar los peligros eléctricos comunesCumplir con las prácticas de trabajo seguras con equipos eléctricosSlide Show NotesThe objectives of this session are to inform unqualified workers about the basic points of electrical safety. By the end of the session, you will be able to:Understand the hazards of electricity;Identify and avoid common electrical hazards; andFollow safe work practices around electrical equipment.
3 ¿Cómo funciona la electricidad? Slide Show NotesHow does electricity work? In order to recognize and avoid the hazards, it’s important to understand the basics of electricity.Electricity is the flow of electrons, similar to the flow of water through a pipe. All electricity follows what’s known as “Ohm’s Law”: E, or voltage, equals I, or amperage, times R, or resistance. Let’s compare electricity to the flow of water in a pipe to explain the relationship between voltage, amperage, and resistance.Voltage can be compared to pressure or force. The higher the voltage, the more likely it is to cause injury, just like the difference in force between high and low water pressure.Amperage can be compared to flow. Higher amperage means a higher volume of electricity, in much the same way as a large-diameter pipe will allow a greater flow of water than a small-diameter pipe.Finally, resistance can be compared to restrictions in a water pipe. When electricity has resistance, this generates heat, which can result in fires or damaged equipment.
4 Peligros eléctricos Contacto con cables de alta tensión Contacto con equipos eléctricos dañadosCableado equivocadoSobrecargaPrácticas de trabajo riesgosasSlide Show NotesHere are some of the more common electrical hazards that you might encounter:Contact with power lines, either overhead or buried in the ground, or contact with equipment that is touching these lines;Contact with electrical equipment or tools that are damaged or have damaged insulation;Improper wiring or repairs or loose connectors that can cause a short circuit;Overloading of circuits or wiring; orUnsafe work practices, such as using a metal ladder near or against power lines.Take a moment to think about some of the potential electrical hazards you might encounter in your workplace.Modify this slide to describe the specific electrical hazards at your facility.
7 Gravedad de la descarga eléctrica La cantidad de corriente eléctrica: más alta, más peligroLa duración: más larga, más riesgoLa trayectoria: por el corazón es más peligrosoSlide Show NotesThe severity of an electrical shock depends on a number of factors:First, the amount of electrical current or amperage—the more current, the more dangerous it is. Amperage can be likened to mass—the higher the mass, the more force, or damage, it will do as it falls. The higher the voltage, the more dangerous it is because the voltage is equivalent to the force of the current. Think of a hose with water flowing through it—if you constrict the opening, yet the amount of water flowing stays the same, the force of the water will be greater.Second, the duration, or length of time, the current passes through the body. The longer the duration, the more dangerous it is.Finally, the specific path the current takes through the body; it is most dangerous if it travels through the heart.Note that you cannot know the path the current might take through your body once it enters.
8 Efectos de la corriente eléctrica en el cuerpo 0.5–3 mAmpSensación de hormigueo, débil1–4 AmpFibrilación ventricular, daños de nervios, la muerte es probable6–30 mAmpDescarga dolorosa, contracción grave de músculo, falta de control de músculos10 AmpParo cardíaco, quemaduras graves, la muerte es más probable50–150 mAmpDescarga muy dolorosa, paro respiratorio, contracción grave de músculos, posibilidad de muerteSlide Show NotesThe table on this slide shows the effects of different flows of electrical currents or amperage on the body when the current flows for one second. Note that the designation “mAmp” means milli-amp, or one one-thousandth of an amp.You’ll see that a small fraction of one amp of electricity is enough to cause a painful shock, respiratory arrest, and even death. At more than one amp, cardiac arrest and death is likely.According to the slide, a shock of 0.5–3 mAmp will cause you to feel a faint, tingling sensation.At 6–30 mAmp, you will feel a painful shock and experience severe muscle contractions—to the point where you cannot control your muscles.At 50–150 mAmp, you will experience an extremely painful shock, along with respiratory arrest, severe muscle contractions and, possible even death.A shock of 1–4 Amps will cause ventricular fibrillation and nerve damage. You are likely to die from a shock of this magnitude.And finally, at 10 Amps, you will experience cardiac arrest, severe burns, and probably death.Now think about common everyday electrical equipment and appliances. For example, a 100-watt lightbulb has 833 milli-amps of electricity flowing through it, which could be enough to kill you. A typical kitchen toaster has more than 9 amps of current, which is certainly enough to kill you. So remember, the electrical equipment we use every day has enough current to cause serious injury and death if we’re not careful.
9 Lesiones por descarga eléctrica ElectrocuciónLesionesHeridas secundariasElectrocuciónLesionesHeridas secundariasSlide Show NotesElectrical shock causes many kinds of serious injuries.“Electrocution” simply means that the shock is powerful enough to cause death. Hand-held power tools typically carry more than enough current to cause electrocution.Injuries from electrical shock happen because electricity follows the path of least resistance which, in the body, means your blood. Electrical current can damage nerves and body organs. Burns occur because of the resistance of the body as electricity flows through it.And, secondary injuries occur when someone receives an electrical shock and as a result has another type of accident. An example would be someone on a ladder with an electric drill, who receives a shock and falls off the ladder. Another example would be someone working on a machine who gets a small shock that causes him to pull his or her hand or arm back quickly, striking a piece of metal and causing serious trauma to the hand or arm.
10 Relámpago y ráfaga de arco Relámpago: la electricidad circula por el aireRáfaga de arco: onda de presión de un relámpagoRelámpago: la electricidad circula por el aireRáfaga de arco: onda de presión de un relámpagoSlide Show Notes“Arc flash” and “arc blast” are types of electrical accidents that are extremely dangerous.An arc flash occurs when electricity travels through the air. This can happen when electrical devices such as circuit breakers and disconnects are opened and closed, when energized equipment is touched with a tool, or when equipment fails. An arc flash last only a fraction of a second, but it can create temperatures of up to 35,000 degrees, which is enough to vaporize metal. Needless to say, an arc flash causes severe skin burns. An arc flash can also travel—consider it a lightning bolt of sorts. Being in the path of the arc flash can cause traumatic injury. Therefore, always position yourself so that you are not in the pathway in the event of an arc flash.An arc blast is a pressure wave from an arc flash—it is essentially an electrical explosion that causes severe injuries and death, as well as major damage to facilities and equipment.Image Credit: OSHA
11 Quemaduras eléctricas Quemaduras son lesiones comunesLa electricidad genera calor en el cuerpoQuemaduras térmicas por superficies calientes e incendiosQuemaduras son lesiones comunesLa electricidad genera calor en el cuerpoQuemaduras térmicas por superficies calientes e incendiosSlide Show NotesElectrical burns are a very common and serious injury caused by electrical shock.Electricity in the body generates heat because the body produces resistance. The heating of body tissues results in electrical burns.Second-degree and third-degree burns can occur on the skin, or they may be internal, so that the person may not look seriously injured.While electrical burns may look minor from the outside, they might be severe on the inside because of the damage they have caused to internal organs and tissues.Thermal burns also can occur from contacting surfaces that are extremely hot because of electricity, or when clothing or equipment catches fire.
12 Quemaduras eléctricas (cont.) Encuentre la reacción de cuerpo que corresponde a la corriente0.5 to 3 mAmp6 to 30 mAmp50 to 150 mAmp1 to 4 Amp10 AmpFibrilación ventricular, la muerte es probablePara cardíaco, muerte es más probableDescarga muy dolorosa, posibilidad de muerteSlide Show NotesIt’s time for an exercise. On this screen, you’ll see various amperage amounts on the left, followed by effects on the body on the right—but these are not matched correctly. Can you match them correctly?Here are the answers—how did you do?0.5 to 3 mAmp—Faint, tingling sensation6 to 30 mAmp—Painful shock, muscle contractions severe, cannot control muscles50 to 150 mAmp—Extremely painful shock, respiratory arrest, severe muscle contractions, death may occur1 to 4 Amp—Ventricular fibrillation, nerve damage, death is likely10 Amp—Cardiac arrest, severe burns, death is probableDescarga dolorosa, falta de control de músculosSensación de hormigueo, débil
13 Peligros eléctricos: ¿Preguntas? ¿Comprende:Los peligros y las lesiones de la electricidad en el lugar de trabajo?Slide Show NotesDo you understand the hazards of electricity and the injuries it can cause in the workplace? Now it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far.It is important for your safety that you understand the hazards of electricity and the injuries it can cause.
14 Respuesta a emergencias y primeros auxilios ¡No toque!Corte la corriente eléctricaPida ayudaAdministre primeros auxilios y RCP¡No toque!Corte la corriente eléctricaPida ayudaAdministre primeros auxilios y RCPSlide Show NotesNow we’ll discuss what to do in the event of an electrical shock, and review the safe practices and procedures that will help make sure an electrical shock doesn’t happen in the first place.Proper emergency response and first aid can be a lifesaver in the event of an electrical shock. If a person is shocked:Do not touch the person if he or she is still being shocked. This is very important! The electrical charge could pass through to you.Shut off the electrical equipment that is causing the shock, if the shock is continuing.Call for trained first-aid personnel immediately; orIf you are appropriately trained, administer first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as necessary.Modify this slide if necessary to describe your facility’s first-aid procedures.
15 Usar un DEA (Defibrilador Automático Externo) Ayuda a tratar fibrilación ventricularLleva un shock al corazón para volverlo a un ritmo normalSalva vidas si se usa bienAyuda a tratar fibrilación ventricularLleva un shock al corazón para volverlo a un ritmo normalSalva vidas si se usa bienSlide Show NotesSince electrical shock often causes ventricular fibrillation, or not producing a proper heartbeat, you may need to use an automated external defibrillator, or AED, to monitor the situation and help start the heart beating properly again. Be sure you have been trained to use an AED correctly before you attempt to use it.If a person has no pulse, it may be advisable to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). A person is said to have ventricular fibrillation when the brain is sending signals to the heart but the heart is not able to produce a beat. An AED can help in these situations, even if CPR is not effective.An AED works by shocking the heart so it can restore a normal beating rhythm.AEDs can dramatically increase survival rate when used properly and in the first few minutes of when a person is suffering a cardiac arrest.Many AEDs have a built-in system that “talks” the user through the instructions. However, if your organization has an AED on-site, you should be trained to use it properly.
17 Denuncie los equipos dañados y no los use Cubiertas rotas o faltantesHerramientas dañadasCables dañadosEquipos dañadosCubiertas rotas o faltantesHerramientas dañadasCables dañadosEquipos dañadosSlide Show NotesDamaged equipment and insulation, loose connectors, or lack of grounding can result in serious electrical hazards. Stop using, and report to your supervisor:Any damaged electrical covers on electrical panels, junction boxes, and other equipment where live electrical parts and wiring may be exposed.Damaged tools that may expose live electrical parts and wiring to a person. Report the damage to your supervisor.Electrical cords, which are easily damaged, exposing live wires; andDamaged equipment.Modify this slide to describe your facility’s policies on damaged equipment and the procedures for reporting damage.Discuss your facility’s damaged equipment reporting procedures.
18 Asegure que los equipos están conectados a tierra Las partes expuestas pueden energizarseSiempre conecte herramientas y equipos eléctricos a tierraLa trayectoria de la conexión debe ser continuaLas partes expuestas pueden energizarseSiempre conecte herramientas y equipos eléctricos a tierraLa trayectoria de la conexión debe ser continuaSlide Show NotesEnsuring that all electric-powered equipment is properly grounded is another good way to prevent an electrical shock.If there is no safe path to the ground, exposed parts can become energized. The purpose of grounding is to provide a safe path for electricity to travel to the ground. If the grounding path is broken—for instance, by not having a ground prong on a plug—electricity will take the path of least resistance, which may be through your body.Electric power tools and equipment must be grounded or double insulated. Double-insulated tools do not have to be grounded, because they are designed not to have electrical hazards as long as their insulation has not been damaged. This kind of equipment will show a “D” in a box, or will bear the words “Double Insulated.” If these designations aren’t there, the equipment should be grounded.Remember that the path to ground must be continuous. If there is a break in the path, the current may flow to you rather than to ground.
19 Dispositivos protectores de circuitos Los cortacircuitos se activan si se sobrecarganNo reajuste sin ser autorizadoPóngase en contacto con alguien calificado para investigarSlide Show NotesCircuit protective devices are designed to protect you against possible electrical shock, so understand their purpose and what to do if they trip.Devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are intended to allow a certain amount of amperage into the circuit before tripping, blowing, or otherwise breaking the circuit. They are designed to protect wiring and equipment in the system from being damaged by too much current.Don’t reset a circuit breaker or fuse unless you are authorized to do so. If something trips or blows, that may be a sign of a problem, such as a short or some other hazard. An authorized employee should inspect the system before it is reset.Finally, for any problem involving a circuit protective device, call a qualified person to investigate rather than taking chances with a potential electrical hazard.
20 Interruptores de circuito con pérdida a tierra (GFCI) Detectan corriente entre dos cables de corrienteSaltan a unos 5mAmpPuede llevar un shock antes de saltarSi sigue saltando hay un problemaSe necesitan probar con regularidadDetectan corriente entre dos cables de corrienteSaltan a unos 5mAmpPuede llevar un shock antes de saltarSi sigue saltando hay un problemaSe necesitan probar con regularidadSlide Show NotesA Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter, or GFCI, provides excellent protection against electrical shock.A GFCI can detect if there is a current flowing between two circuit wires, and will trip, or shut off the current, before a serious shock can occur.GFCIs trip at about 5 mAmp in a fraction of a second.It is still possible to receive a brief shock before the GFCI trips.If a GFCI keeps tripping, a serious problem may exist. Don’t assume that the GFCI is defective and substitute a non-GFCI outlet. Instead, have a qualified person check for the cause of the tripping.Finally, GFCIs need to be tested periodically. The test button should be pushed according to the manufacturer’s instructionsModify or delete this slide to best describe GFCIs at your facility.
21 Siga los procedimientos de cierre/etiquetado Dispositivos que evitan el acceso a energía peligrosaEl cierre asegura que el equipo no se ponga en marcha por accidenteEl etiquetado se usa cuando el cierre no es factibleDispositivos que evitan el acceso a energía peligrosaEl cierre asegura que el equipo no se ponga en marcha por accidenteEl etiquetado se usa cuando el cierre no es factibleSlide Show NotesFollowing lockout/tagout procedures is an essential way to prevent serious electrical shock. These procedures lock, block access to, or warn people away from sources of electricity and other hazardous energy used by machines and equipment while they are being repaired or serviced.Devices that prevent access to hazardous energy, or that clearly warn people to stay away from hazardous energy, are known as lockout/tagout.Lockout ensures that equipment is not accidentally restarted by making sure that it is shut down, de-energized, and locked.Tagout is used where lockout is not feasible. It involves placing warning tags on the equipment.Always follow the requirements of the lockout/tagout program and procedures in your workplace.Describe the lockout/tagout procedures at your facility.
22 Siga las prácticas de trabajo seguras Trabaje con equipos eléctricos sólo si es calificadosUse equipos de seguridadIlumine su área de trabajoUse escaleras de mano no conductiblesSlide Show NotesFollow safe work practices for working around electricity. Most such practices are simply commonsense rules to keep you from being shocked.Only qualified persons are allowed to work on or near exposed electrical equipment or wiring;Always wear proper safety equipment, such as insulating gloves, rubber boots, and insulating sleeves;The work area should be well-illuminated so that you can see if there are any electrical hazards present; andUse nonconductive ladders for working anywhere near electrical equipment. Generally, this means wooden ladders only.Modify this slide to describe specific safe work practices and procedures at your facility. Show trainees a copy of any written safe work practices adopted by your company related to electrical safety.
23 Siga las prácticas de trabajo seguras (cont.) No lleve ropa conductibleNo use líquidos conductiblesNo violar enclavamientos eléctricosSlide Show NotesFollow safe work practices for working around electricity. Most such practices are simply commonsense rules to keep you from being shocked.Don’t wear clothing that can conduct electricity when working with electric-powered equipment. This includes anything with metal, such as metal-rimmed glasses, metal hard hats, steel-toed shoes, or wire-mesh gloves;Don’t use conductive liquids such as water—or for that matter, any conductive items—anywhere near exposed electrical equipment; andDo not defeat or try to circumvent electrical interlock devices.Modify this slide to describe specific safe work practices and procedures at your facility. Show trainees a copy of any written safe work practices adopted by your company related to electrical safety.
24 Use los equipos eléctricos portátiles con seguridad Inspeccione por dañosControle los cables y la conexión a tierraNo los levantes por los cordonesSeque su manos al enchufar y desenchufarGFCI en lugares mojadosInspeccione por dañosControle los cables y la conexión a tierraNo los levantes por los cordonesSeque su manos al enchufar y desenchufarGFCI en lugares mojadosSlide Show NotesMake sure you know how to use portable electrical equipment, such as power tools, safely. Before you use such equipment:Inspect it for damage. Never use it if it smokes or sparks.In particular, make sure the cord is not damaged and that the ground prong is present, unless it is a double-insulated tool. If it is double-insulated, make sure there is no damage and the insulation properties are not compromised.Don’t lift portable electrical equipment by the cord, or pull the plug by tugging on the cord. This could damage the connection from the cord to the equipment.Make sure your hands are dry before plugging or unplugging electrical equipment.Finally, always plug the equipment into a GFCI outlet if the work area is wet or has moisture present.Describe the portable electrical equipment used by unqualified workers at your facility and discuss safety procedures for using them.
25 Aléjese de las áreas de trabajo eléctrico Las áreas de trabajo eléctrico deben estar aisladasTécnicas de avisoEtiquetas y señales de seguridadVallasAsistentesLas áreas de trabajo eléctrico deben estar aisladasTécnicas de avisoEtiquetas y señales de seguridadVallasAsistentesSlide Show NotesIt’s extremely important to stay away from electrical work areas – that is, areas where qualified personnel are working on energized electrical equipment.These areas need to be isolated so that unqualified personnel are not exposed to electrical hazards.Alerting techniques used to keep these areas isolated include safety signs and tags, barricades, and attendants guarding the area. Never try to go around or ignore these warning methods.Discuss electrical work areas at your facility and the procedures for isolating them from unauthorized access.
26 Siga el programa de seguridad eléctrica Los procedimientos escritos incluyen:ResponsabilidadesProcedimientosPrácticas de trabajo seguroEquipo de protección personal¡Sólo el personal calificado puede trabajar con equipos expuestos energizados a cerca de ellos!Slide Show NotesAlways follow the rules and guidelines of our electrical safety program.This written program includes responsibilities, procedures, safe work practices, and personal protective equipment for work that may involve electrical hazards.And remember that only qualified personnel may work on or near exposed, energized electrical equipment.Discuss the facility’s written electrical safety program.
27 Trabaje con equipos eléctricos si es calificado Prácticas segurasTrabaje con equipos eléctricos si es calificadoIlumine el área de trabajoLleve ropa conductibleUse escaleras no conductiblesUse líquidos conductibles cerca de la electricidadViole enclavamientos eléctricosPracticas insegurasSlide Show NotesIt’s time to for another exercise. You will see a series of six statements appear on the screen. Decide if they are safe practices or unsafe practices.Work on electrical equipment if qualified—this is a safe practice.Illuminate work area—this is a safe practice.Wear conductive apparel—this is an unsafe practice.Use conductive liquids near electricity—this is an unsafe practice.Use nonconductive ladders—this is a safe practice.Defeat electrical interlocks—this is an unsafe practice.
28 Prácticas de seguridad: ¿Preguntas? ¿Comprende:Los primeros auxilios?Equipos eléctricos?Circuitos eléctricos?Cierre/etiquetado?Prácticas seguras de trabajo?El programa de seguridad eléctrica?¿Comprende:Los primeros auxilios?Equipos eléctricos?Circuitos eléctricos?Cierre/etiquetado?Prácticas seguras de trabajo?El programa de seguridad eléctrica?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far on electrical safety practices. In the previous slides, we’ve covered:First aid;Electrical equipment;Electrical circuits;Lockout/tagout;Safe work practices; andOur electrical safety program.It is important for your safety that you understand these topics.
29 Key Things to Remember La exposición a la electricidad es peligrosa Esté atento de peligros eléctricosSiga las prácticas seguras de trabajoSiga el programa de seguridadBusque ayuda de una persona calificadoSlide Show NotesThe key things to remember about electrical safety include the following:Exposure to electricity is dangerous—it can cause electrocution, shock, electric and thermal burns, arc flash and arc blast burns, and secondary injuries such as falls.Watch carefully for possible electrical hazards—for instance, never use damaged tools, cords, or electrical equipment.Always follow safe work practices, including proper emergency response procedures.Always follow our electrical safety program, which is designed to protect you and other workers from electrical hazards.And finally, seek assistance from a qualified person whenever you have any doubt about electrical safety or think there might be an electrical hazard. Too many things can go wrong with electricity for you to take risks.This concludes the training session on Electrical Safety for the Unqualified Worker.Modify this slide or add a slide to describe any other key points specific to your facility’s electrical safety program.