Presentación del tema: "Espacios confinados que requieren permiso"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Espacios confinados que requieren permiso ParticipanteSlide Show NotesWelcome to the training session on permit-required confined spaces for workers designated as authorized entrants.Image credit: Northtree Fire International
2 Objetivos de la sesiónReconocer los peligros de entrada a espacios confinadosProbar y monitorear por peligrosColabore con el asistente o guarda entradaResponder en caso de emergenciaSlide Show NotesBy the end of the training session, you will be able to:Recognize the hazards of confined space entry, including the signs and symptoms of exposure to hazards;Test and monitor for hazards, especially atmospheric dangers;Work closely with the attendant to enable the attendant to monitor your exposure to dangerous situations; andRespond to emergencies, especially evacuating the confined space.
3 Estadísticas de lesiones Mueren 20 trabajadores anualmenteEl individuo de rescate es quien sufre el 60 por ciento de las lesiones en espacios confinadosMueren 20 trabajadores anualmenteEl individuo de rescate es quien sufre el 60 por ciento de las lesiones en espacios confinadosSlide Show NotesOSHA injury statistics illustrate:Twenty workers die every year in confined space accidents; andSixty percent of confined space injuries are sustained by the rescuer.
4 ¿Qué es un espacio confinado? El trabajador puede entrar y realizar trabajosMedios de entrada o salida limitadosNo ha sido creado para el ocupe continuoEl trabajador puede entrar y realizar trabajosMedios de entrada o salida limitadosNo ha sido creado para el ocupe continuoSlide Show NotesIn order for a space to be considered a “confined space” by OSHA, it must meet all three of these criteria:The space must be large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work. Note that the term “bodily enter” can mean there is enough space for an employee to at least get his or her upper body into the space.The space must have limited or restricted means of entry or exit. For example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry. Note that permanent stairways are not considered limited or restricted access and egress. Ladders and temporary stairs are considered limiting.Finally, the space is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.Make sure you know which spaces at your workplace meet these criteria.Discuss spaces at your workplace that meet all three of these criteria.
5 ¿Qué es un espacio que requiere permiso? Contiene o es posible que contenga una atmósfera peligrosaExiste el riesgo potencial de sepultar al trabajadorConfiguración interna que puede atrapar o asfixiar a quien ingresaCualquier otro peligro serio para la salud o la seguridadContiene o es posible que contenga una atmósfera peligrosaExiste el riesgo potencial de sepultar al trabajadorConfiguración interna que puede atrapar o asfixiar a quien ingresaCualquier otro peligro serio para la salud o la seguridadSlide Show NotesA confined space requires a permit for workers to enter it if any of these four conditions may exist in the space:Hazardous atmospheres, including oxygen-deficient, or containing toxic vapors, gases, fumes, or dust.Engulfment hazards, including grain, sand, and water.Inwardly converging walls are a perfect example of configurations that can trap the entrant.Finally, “any other serious safety or health hazard” is the catchall phrase in the standard that prevents any dangerous confined spaces from slipping through unintended regulatory loopholes.Make sure you know which permit-required confined spaces have been identified in your workplace.Discuss confined spaces in your workplace that have at least one of these characteristics and would be considered permit-required.Bring a list of permit-required confined spaces that have been identified in your workplace.Image credit: Northtree Fire International
6 Espacios típicos que requieren permiso Tanques de almacenajeDepósitos de granoTúneles subterráneosVagones de ferrocarril en obrasSlide Show NotesPermit-required spaces include:Storage tanks,Grain bins,Underground tunnels, andRailroad cars under construction.Make sure you know which of these—and any other—permit-required confined spaces exist in your workplace.If you have photos of these types of spaces, show them to the class.Include any permit-required spaces specific to your operation that are not explicit on this list.
7 Espacios que no requieren permiso Armarios de artículosZanjas bajo nivelBóveda de almacenajeSótanosSlide Show NotesNon-permit-required spaces do not expose entrants to the hazards identified for permit-required confined spaces. These include:Utility closets,Below-grade trenches,Storage vaults, andUtility subbasements.Again, make sure you know which confined spaces in your facility do not require permits to enter. Now that you know about the two primary types of confined spaces, we will discuss permit-required spaces for the remainder of this session.Include any non-permit-required spaces common at your facility.
8 ¿Qué es un permiso? Fecha/hora PPE requerido Resultados del aire Descripción del espacioFecha/horaLista de control de entradaPPE requeridoSlide Show NotesA permit is a form that is filled out prior to entering a confined space that gives important information. The permit shows:The date and time the space will be entered and a description of the work being done,A detailed description of the space and its location,An entry checklist of tasks to be completed before entering the space, such as identifying hazards and securing the area,What PPE is required for entering the space,The results from any air monitoring tests, and finally,An area for an authorized signature saying it’s safe for an entrant to go into the space.Resultados del aireAutorización
9 ¿Es un espacio confinado que requiere permiso? Bóveda de almacenajeTanque de almacenajeHoyo de almacenajeSótanoZanjaArmarioSILOSíNoSlide Show NotesLet’s see if you understand which confined spaces require a permit. Look at each one of these spaces that will be shown on the screen. Decide if each is a permit-required space or a non-permit-required space.If you’re still having trouble with the differences, be sure to see your supervisor, or review the first few slides of this session.
10 Cargos de los empleados en espacios confinados Participante autorizadoSupervisor de entradaAsistente o guarda entradaRescatadorSlide Show NotesThere are several groups of people who may work in or around confined spaces, and each of them has different authority and duties. These include:Authorized Entrants—These are employees who have clearance to enter any type of confined space. They know the hazards associated with confined spaces, and they know how to keep themselves safe. Authorized entrants must stay in constant contact with the entry supervisor and must exit if ordered to do so.Entry Supervisors—These employees oversee all of the operation of confined space entry, and are responsible for signing the permit that allows entry into the space.Attendants—The attendants oversee the entry into the confined space and must remain outside the space while other employees enter. They are responsible for calling for emergency help if needed.Rescuers—These employees respond in emergency situations. They must be specially trained to know the hazards of confined space entry and rescue. They must also have training in emergency first aid.Let’s go over each employee’s role in more detail.
12 Deberes del supervisor de entrada Verificar que el permiso esté completoSupervisar las operaciones de entradaAsegurara la disponibilidad de los servicios de rescatePoner término al permisoRecomendar cambios en los procedimientosVerificar que el permiso esté completoSupervisar las operaciones de entradaAsegurara la disponibilidad de los servicios de rescatePoner término al permisoRecomendar cambios en los procedimientosSlide Show NotesThe entry supervisor is responsible for the safety of all employees involved in the confined space entry. Supervisors must:Verify that all aspects of the confined space permit have been completed. Once he or she is sure the space is safe to enter, the entry supervisor signs the permit and authorizes entry into the space.Oversee all entry operations and ensure that entry operations and conditions remain consistent with the terms of the entry permit. The supervisor is responsible for the safety of all personnel before, during, and after the entry operation.Contact rescue services to ensure they are available and that they know a permit-required confined space is going to be entered.Terminate and cancel the permit if the entry operations have been completed or if conditions of the permit have been compromised, andNote any problems or difficulties that occurred so that changes can be made to the procedures to continually improve the process for the safety of the employees.
13 Deberes del asistente o guarda entrada Saber los peligrosPermanecer fuera del espacioComunicarse con los participantesNotificación de rescate o rescatar sin entrarMantener alejado a personal sin autorizaciónMantenerse concentrado en los participantesSaber los peligrosPermanecer fuera del espacioComunicarse con los participantesNotificación de rescate o rescatar sin entrarMantener alejado a personal sin autorizaciónMantenerse concentrado en los participantesSlide Show NotesAttendants also have several duties, including:Knowing the hazards that may be encountered during entry, including routes, symptoms, and consequences of exposure. They must know the effects of exposure to the hazards and be aware of behavioral changes in the entrants.Remaining outside the space during the operation at all times or until relieved by another attendant.Maintaining communication with entrants to monitor their activities and determine if it is safe for entrants to be in the space. Attendants must order entrants to evacuate immediately if permit-prohibited conditions are detected.Contacting the emergency rescue team and performing nonentry rescue as specified by the rescue procedures on the permit.Taking action when unauthorized personnel approach or attempt to enter a confined space while entry is under way. They must warn unauthorized persons to stay away or to exit the space immediately and inform authorized entrants and the entry supervisor if unauthorized persons have entered the space, andStaying focused on the entrants in the space and not becoming distracted with other duties that could interfere with the primary purpose of monitoring and protecting the entrants.
14 Responsabilidades del rescatador Entender los peligros del espacioEstar certificado en primeros auxilios de emergenciaEntender los procedimientos de entradaSaber cómo usar el equipo de rescatePracticar anualmente rescates en espaciosImage credit: Northtree Fire InternationalSlide Show NotesThe rescuer must:Know the hazards of the space so that they are not injured during the rescue attempt.Have emergency first-aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, training because confined space rescue is very serious and often difficult.Make sure that all are familiar with entry procedures so that their entry can be performed safely.Provide appropriate training for rescue equipment to minimize the potential for failure during the rescue attempt.Note that the confined space standard requires that emergency rescue drills be conducted at least once annually.Image credit: OSHA
15 Peligros atmosféricos Falta de oxígenoPolvos o gases combustiblesMonóxido de carbonoOtros gases tóxicosFalta de oxígenoPolvos o gases combustiblesMonóxido de carbonoOtros gases tóxicosSlide Show NotesOSHA requires monitoring a confined space for atmospheric hazards. It is important that the hazards of the space be tested in the following order:In a recent year, there were 63 deaths caused by oxygen deficiency in confined spaces. Therefore, the space should be tested for adequate oxygen. Safe oxygen levels are between 19.5 percent and 23.5 percent—anything outside this range is dangerous. Sixteen percent oxygen can make you drowsy and nauseated. Twelve percent oxygen will cause you to lose consciousness. Six percent oxygen will kill you.The space should then be checked for combustible gases, vapors, or dusts. This hazard is checked with a test called the Lower Explosive Limit, or LEL. A safe level of flammable gases or vapors is less than 10 percent LEL.Next, the space should be monitored for carbon monoxide.Finally, the space should also be checked for any other specific toxic materials that are known to be present. We have special kinds of air monitoring equipment that are designed to check atmospheres for specific materials.
16 Peligros introducidos en el espacio Materiales tóxicosHumos de soldadura y chispasEquipos eléctricosHerramientas mecánicasSlide Show NotesOther hazards that you need to consider as a confined space entrant are the hazards that you might bring in. For example:Materials used for cleaning or other purposes. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment, or PPE, and continue to monitor the atmosphere when you bring materials into a confined space.Welding fumes, electrical hazards, and the potential for fires or explosions. Be sure the atmosphere inside the space is not combustible. The space should be monitored for lower explosive limits, as well as for carbon monoxide, that can be generated from the welding process.Electrical hazards from lights or other electrical equipment and tools. Make sure the space does not have a combustible atmosphere before introducing electrical equipment.Finally, mechanical or physical hazards from power tools and equipment. For example, the use of powered grinders or chipping tools creates a hazard in a confined space.
17 ¿De quién es el trabajo? Participante Todos los empleados Salir inmediatamente si se lo ordenaNotificar al equipo de emergencia si hace faltaSaber los peligros del espacioSer certificado en primeros auxiliosFirmar el permiso¿De quién es el trabajo?ParticipanteTodos los empleadosSupervisor de entradaGuarda entradaRescatadorSlide Show NotesLet’s try an exercise to see how much you remember. This time, you will see a series of tasks on the screen. See if you can decide whose duty it is to complete that task from the list provided.Know the hazards of the space—This is important for all employees to know.Exit immediately when ordered to do so—This is the job of the entrant.Sign permit—This is done by the entry supervisor.Contact emergency team if needed—This is done by the attendant, and finally,Be certified in first aid—This is a requirement of the rescuer.
18 Espacios confinados y peligros: ¿hay preguntas? ¿Usted entiende:Qué es un espacio confinado?Los deberes del participante, el guarda entrada, supervisor de entrada o del rescatador?Los peligros de los espacios confinados?¿Usted entiende:Qué es un espacio confinado?Los deberes del participante, el guarda entrada, supervisor de entrada o del rescatador?Los peligros de los espacios confinados?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far. Do you understand what a confined space is?Do you understand the duties of the entrant, attendant, entry supervisor, and rescuer?Do you understand the hazards of confined spaces?It’s important for your safety and for your co-workers’ safety that you understand the dangers of confined spaces and the duties of the various parties who work in and around them.
19 Prueba y monitoreo de la atmósfera Instrumento de lectura directoCalibrado antes de usoCompruebe cada 4 pies de profundidadParticipantes observan el seguimientoInstrumento de lectura directoCalibrado antes de usoCompruebe cada 4 pies de profundidadParticipantes observan el seguimientoSlide Show NotesBefore workers can be authorized to enter a confined space, its atmosphere must be evaluated. Monitoring should be conducted by a qualified professional trained to use the monitoring device. Furthermore:A direct reading instrument that monitors the atmosphere for specific potential hazards should be used.Before each use, the monitoring device must be calibrated. Malfunctioning instruments should be returned to the manufacturer for repair. Records of monitoring equipment calibration should be maintained.The atmosphere should be tested every 4 feet of vertical distance, because the atmosphere at the top might be different from the atmosphere at the bottom. Many hazardous gases and vapors are heavier than air and will accumulate at the lowest point of the space. There might be sufficient oxygen at the top, but almost none at the bottom.Note that authorized entrants should observe the atmospheric monitoring.Make sure you know how to use the monitoring instruments in your workplace.Bring the monitoring instrument that your company uses to evaluate confined spaces. Demonstrate how the monitor works.
20 Lleve PPE Gafas, anteojos protectoras, mascarilla Ropa, guantes y botasRespidadorProtección de cabezaProtección de oídoSlide Show NotesYou need to use PPE to protect yourself in confined spaces. For example:Protect your eyes by wearing safety glasses, goggles, or a face shield. The type of work you are doing in the space will dictate the eye protection that is required.Select gloves, boots, and protective clothing that are appropriate for the type of material in the confined space or the type of material that workers are introducing into the space for cleaning or other purposes.Wear a respirator according to the hazard in the space. A self-contained breathing apparatus, or SCBA, or an air line with an egress bottle must be used in spaces with a lack of oxygen or a toxic atmosphere, including spaces with high levels of toxic gases that are considered Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health, or IDLH. Spaces with plenty of oxygen and low concentrations of toxic gases may require only air-purifying respirators with cartridges.Hard hats are required in most confined spaces to protect workers from falling objects and bump hazards.Hearing protection is required when doing noisy work such as grinding and power chiseling in confined spaces.Make sure you know which PPE you need to wear in the confined spaces at your workplace.Bring examples of PPE that your employees would wear when entering a confined space.
21 Herramientas y otro equipo de seguridad Image credit: ASIAUPS Electric Co.Extintor de incendiosPrimeros auxiliosHerramientas antichispasIluminación a prueba de explosionesEquipo de comunicaciónEquipo de rescateImage credit: Northtree Fire InternationalSlide Show NotesYou need the following safety tools and equipment on hand whenever you are entering confined spaces:A fire extinguisher nearby—especially if welding or torch cutting is being done.A first-aid kit should be available just outside the entrance to the space. An emergency eyewash station and/or emergency shower should also be available nearby—especially if the confined space contains toxic materials.Nonsparking tools made of brass or hard plastics if there are potentially flammable or combustible vapors in the space.Lighting fixtures only in the spaces that are “explosionproof” and designed to work in areas with flammable or explosive gases or vapors.Portable radios, cell phones, or other means of communicating with the attendant are very important.Finally, before entering any confined space, be sure there is nonentry and entry rescue equipment available outside the space, including a retrieval device and respiratory protection.Make sure you know which safety tools and equipment are required for the confined spaces in your workplace.Modify this slide to describe the tools and equipment used in your confined spaces. Bring examples of equipment and tools that are used by confined spaces entrants at your company.
23 Respuesta y rescate ante emergencia Si es posible, lleve a cabo un auto-rescateExtraer desde fuera del espacioEquipo de rescate de entradaSi es posible, lleve a cabo un auto-rescateExtraer desde fuera del espacioEquipo de rescate de entradaImage credit: Northtree Fire InternationalSlide Show NotesEven with a perfect permit system, the unforeseen can happen that requires the urgent removal of entrants from the space. Here are the options in order of preference:The primary emergency response is for the entrant to self-rescue if possible. This simply means the individual exits the space on his or her own accord. This is the quickest means of exit.If not possible, the next best option is a nonentry rescue where attendants extract or retrieve the entrants from outside the space.The last option is to use a rescue team that enters the space in order to retrieve the entrant.
24 Rescate sin entrada Arnés de cuerpo entero y cuerda de salvamento Confirmación visual o verbal de seguridadIntento de desenredar las cuerdasDispositivo mecánico o punto fijoSlide Show NotesAfter self-rescue, nonentry rescue is the preferred method. The attendant should be able to retrieve an unconscious worker while remaining outside the confined space.You should wear a full-body harness that is connected with a lifeline. Not only are the harness and lifeline used for retrieval, they can also be used as fall protection.Attendants should not attempt to retrieve an entrant unless he or she can visually or verbally confirm that the person can be moved safely. If the person cannot be seen or communicated with, entry rescue procedures should be initiated.Attendants should attempt to untangle retrieval lines that are wrapped around obstacles in the space. However, if the entrant is caught up on an obstacle, it is unsafe to continue to try to pull the entrant out.The end of the retrieval line that is outside the confined space should be attached to a mechanical device or a fixed point outside the space in such a manner that rescue can begin immediately. A mechanical device must be used to retrieve employees from a vertical permit-required space that is more than 5 feet deep.Bring examples of retrieval equipment that your company uses.
25 Rescate de entrada Escuadrón de rescate entrenado Entrenados en primeros auxilios y RCPSe practica el rescate anualmenteProvistos de equipo de protección personalNotificados y convocados por el asistenteServicios de rescate externosEscuadrón de rescate entrenadoEntrenados en primeros auxilios y RCPSe practica el rescate anualmenteProvistos de equipo de protección personalNotificados y convocados por el asistenteServicios de rescate externosSlide Show NotesEntry rescue is the last resort because the rescue squad will be exposed to the same hazards that caused the entrant to become trapped or unconscious. Here’s what you need to know:The confined spaces rescue squad must be thoroughly trained in rescue procedures, including the hazards of confined spaces, the use of PPE, and the use of rescue equipment.They should also be trained in first aid and CPR.The rescue squad must conduct a practice entry rescue at least once per year in one of the confined spaces in our workplace.The rescue squad must be provided with PPE and be able to put on the PPE quickly when their services are needed.The rescue squad must be notified that a confined space is being entered so that they are aware of the potential need for their services. If necessary, the attendant will call for their services using methods described by the permit.Outside rescue services, such as a local fire department, can also be used, as long as they can respond to a rescue summons quickly. They should also be evaluated for proficiency with rescue tasks as well as with the equipment it has available for rescue.
27 Un estudio: ¿Qué se pudo haber hecho? Slide Show NotesWhat could have been done to save this employee’s life? Let’s take a moment to review. It looks like the co-worker had the right idea by advising the employee not to enter the space without proper protection and paperwork.The worker who got injured tried to circumvent the rules and regulations in an attempt to save time—that was a big mistake. The regulations regarding confined space entry were put in place to keep all workers safe. In entering the space without proper protection in place, the worker not only endangered his own life, but also those of his co-workers and the rescue crew.Remember—never enter a confined space unless you’ve been authorized to do so!
28 Un estudio: ¿Qué tener a mano? Slide Show NotesIn this exercise, see if you can remember all of the important items you should bring with you when you enter a confined space.Here are the answers—can you think of anything else?1. PPE, for your eyes, head, ears, body, feet, hands, and lungs,2. Fire extinguisher, especially if you’re welding,3. First-aid kit, to be kept just outside the entrance,4. Nonsparking tools, to protect against fires and explosions,5. Explosionproof lighting, designed to work in areas where there might be flammable gases,6. Communication equipment, to stay in touch with the attendant, and finally7. Rescue equipment, also to be kept just outside the space.PPEExtintorBotiquín de primeros auxiliosHerramientas antichispasIluminación a prueba de explosiónEquipo de comunicaciónEquipo de rescate
29 Entrada y trabajo seguro: ¿hay preguntas? ¿Usted entiende:Sus deberes como participante autorizado?Los procedimientos y equipos de seguridad?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far. Do you understand your duties as an authorized entrant?Do you understand the safety procedures and safety equipment? It’s important for your safety and your co-workers’ safety that you understand the safety precautions for confined spaces.
30 Key Points to RememberAsegure que el permiso esté completo antes de entrar.Sepa sus deberes.Observe el monitoreo del aire.Siga prácticas seguras de trabajo.Esté preparado para las actividades de rescate.Slide Show NotesRemember these key points from this training session:Make sure the permit is complete before entering. Implementing a properly completed entry permit is essential to control the hazards of a confined space.Know your required duties.Observe air monitoring. Air monitoring is critical.Follow safe work practices as outlined in the entry permit.Finally, be prepared for rescue activities. Entrants should never remove their lifeline; attendants always need to be observant; and the entry supervisor must make sure all rescue equipment is positioned near the confined space before approving entry.This concludes this training session.Give quiz, if appropriate.