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The Subjunctive We are going to look at a verb form that is not often used in English, but is SUPER common in Spanish – the SUBJUNCTIVE!

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Presentación del tema: "The Subjunctive We are going to look at a verb form that is not often used in English, but is SUPER common in Spanish – the SUBJUNCTIVE!"— Transcripción de la presentación:

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2 The Subjunctive We are going to look at a verb form that is not often used in English, but is SUPER common in Spanish – the SUBJUNCTIVE!

3 Indicative vs. Subjunctive INDICATIVE: This is the mood you have been using up to this point. This mood includes all of the tenses you have learned so far – present tense, imperfect tense, preterite tense, present/past progressive, present perfect etc. **This mood implies certainty and represents events that take/have taken place.

4 Indicative vs. Subjunctive SUBJUNCTIVE: This is a mood used when an opinion, uncertainty, possibility, emotion, want, doubt, or hope is being expressed.

5 Today we are going to focus on the Present tense Subjunctive **Remember, the subjunctive is not a tense, its a mood.

6 A few examples in English I want you to give me $5. Tom would like us to arrive before 5:00 pm. I order you to stop! In these three examples, one person is trying to get another person to perform an action.

7 I want you to give me $5. One person (I) wants another person (you) to do something (give $5). However, there is no guarantee that you will give me $5 just because I want you to.

8 Tom would like us to arrive before 5:00 am Tom would like us to arrive before 5:00 am. Likewise, one person (Tom) wants someone else (us) to do something (arrive before 5:00 pm). There is no guarantee that we will do so just because Tom would like that.

9 I order you to stop! This sentence is more forceful: one person (I) is telling another person (you) to do something (stop). Again, we dont know if you will stop.

10 The subjunctive In Spanish, we use a special verb form to show that the completion of these actions – give, arrive, stop – may or may not occur. This form is called the subjunctive (like the word subjective – influenced by opinions).

11 Examples in Spanish I want you to give me $5. Quiero que me des $5. Tom would like us to arrive before 5:00 pm. Tom quiere que lleguemos antes de las 5:00 de la tarde. I order you to stop. Te mando que pares.

12 How do we know when to use the SUBJUNCTIVE? The sentence structure in Spanish is a bit different from that of English. A word- for-word translation is Tom wants that we arrive before 5:00 pm. The word que is used to divide the sentence into two halves – the expression of wish or desire (Tom quiere) and the action that may or may not occur (lleguemos). The verb in the first half uses the normal (indicative) form, while the verb in the second half uses the subjunctive.

13 Notice… … the subject in the first half is different from the subject in the second half: – Quiero que me des $5. – Tom quiere que lleguemos... – Te mando que pares. The first subject is trying to spur the second subject into action, and we dont know if the action will ever happen.

14 Compare this… … sentences that DO NOT change in subject will NOT USE the word que and will be followed by the infinitive: – Quiero salir ahora. – Tom quiere llegar a las 5. – Me gustaría comer pizza. When the subject is the same, there is higher probability that the second action will take place. We use the infinitive.

15 Look familiar?? des, lleguemos, pares These follow the same rules as the negative tú and the negative and affirmative Ud. And Uds. Command forms.

16 15 ¿Cómo se forma el subjuntivo? 1.Start with the present tense YO form 2.Remove the o 3.Add the opposite present tense endings 4.-AR verbs: -e -emos -es -e-en 5.-ER / -IR verbs: -a-amos -as -a-an

17 A few examples What are the subjunctive forms of the following verbs? hablar hable, hables, hable, hablemos, hablen comer coma, comas, coma, comamos, coman vivir viva, vivas, viva, vivamos, vivan

18 Too easy! How about some trickier ones? Salir Salga, salgas, salga, salgamos, salgan – Remember to start with the yo form, salgo Poder Pueda, Puedas, Pueda, Podamos, Puedan – Remember that stem-changing verbs dont change in the nosotros form!

19 Exception for IR stem changing verbs….. Stem changing IR verbs change o to u and e to i in the nosotros form. The other forms change the same way as they do in the present tense.

20 Examples………. DORMIR duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, duerman PREFERIR Prefiera, prefieras, prefiera, prefiramos, prefieran SERVIR sirva, sirvas, sirva, sirvamos, sirvan

21 DONT FORGET….. VERBS ENDING IN CAR, GAR, ZAR change spelling in ALL forms in the subjunctive: C – qu G – gu Z - c

22 EXAMPLES…………… SACAR saque, saques, saque, saquemos, saquen PAGAR pague, pagues, pague, paguemos, paguen ABRAZAR abrace, abraces, abrace, abracemos, abracen

23 Lets look at the irregulars again! Remember DISHES!

24 23 DISHESDISHES ar r er aber star aber dé, des, dé, demos, den vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayan sea, seas, sea, seamos, sean haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan esté, estés, esté, estemos, estén sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepan

25 NOW LETS TALK ABOUT WHAT KINDS OF PHRASES TRIGGER THE SUBJUNCTIVE!!!

26 U. W. E. I. R. D. O. Heres an acronym to help you organize the major uses of the subjunctive: U. W. E. I. R. D. O.

27 U U ncertainty: No creo [I dont believe] que Laura venga a la fiesta. No pienso que pueda venir.

28 U. W. E. I. R. D. O. W W ishes/Wants Quiero que tú puedas visitarme durante las vacaciones.

29 U. W. E. I. R. D. O. E E motion Me alegro que haya muchos chicos guapos en mi clase. Me molesta [it bothers me] que Juan no trabaje más en este proyecto.

30 U. W. E. I. R. D. O. I I mpersonal expressions Es ridículo que Gloria sea la presidenta del club de alemán – ella recibió una D- en su clase el semestre pasado. – Impersonal expressions dont have a human subject. – Some impersonal expressions in Spanish include: es bueno que, es malo que, es necesario que, es difícil que, es imposible que, es triste que…

31 U. W. E. I. R. D. O. R egret Lo siento que tu abuela esté enferma. Lamento que no podamos asistir a la reunión.

32 D D oubt Dudo que alguien sea capaz de sacar un 100% en el examen final de física – ¡es un curso muy difícil!

33 U. W. E. I. R. D. O. O rder Te mando que pares. Te prohibo que uses tus apuntes [notes] durante el examen.

34 Lets practice! What are the appropriate subjunctive forms of the verbs in parentheses? Quiero que tú _____ (venir) a las 3:00 en punto.

35 Quiero que tú vengas a las 3:00 en punto. – We use the subjunctive because there is a change in subject after a verb of desire (quiero).

36 ¡Quiero que me des otro! ¿Quieres que nosotros ______ (ir) al cine o a la playa esta tarde? Pues, quiero que nosotros ______ (quedarse = stay) en casa porque hace frío.

37 ¿Quieres que nosotros vayamos al cine o a la playa esta tarde? Pues, quiero que nos quedemos en casa porque hace frío.

38 Uno más… Espero [I hope] que tu hermana ____ (hacer) bien en sus exámenes.

39 Espero que tu hermana haga bien en sus exámenes. – We use the subjunctive because we arent sure whether the second action will occur (Will your sister do well on her exams? That remains to be seen!).

40 Más ejemplos Mi mamá quiere que yo ____ (ser) doctor, y mi papá espera que yo_____ (estudiar) para ser profesor, pero yo quiero ____ (ser) actor.

41 Mi mamá quiere que yo sea doctor, y mi papá espera que yo estudie para ser profesor, pero yo quiero ser actor. – There is no change in subject in the third expression (yo quiero), so we dont use the subjunctive!

42 Otro uso Lo siento [Im sorry] que tu abuela ____ (estar) enferma. Espero que ___ (mejorarse = to get better) pronto.

43 Lo siento que tu abuela esté enferma. Espero que se mejore pronto.


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