Commands allow you to give a direct order. There are several kinds of commands: Formal (Usted and Ustedes) Informal (Tú and Vosotros/as) Nosotros/as
Formation: Affirmative and Negative formal commands are derived from the present subjunctive so they are formed by starting with the yo form of the present tense, and interchanging the – AR and –ER/ -IR endings. Él/ella/Ud endings will work for the formal UD command, and ellos/ellas/Uds endings will work for the Uds (or you plural) command. Present tense stem changes apply as well as any present tense verb that has an irregularity in the yo form.
Formation of Negative Commands: To make the command negative, just add the word no before the conjugated command. Example: ¡No hablen Uds. cuando la maestra está enseñando! (Dont talk when the teacher is teaching!)
InfinitiveUd. CommandUds. Command Ir (to go)Vaya Ud.Vayan Uds. Ser (to be)Sea Ud.Sean Uds. Estar (to be)Esté Ud.Estén Uds. Dar (to give)Dé Ud.Den Uds. Saber (to know)Sepa Ud.Sepan Uds.
Spelling change: *Note that the following verbs are regular, but they have a spelling change in the command form. InfinitiveUd CommandUds. Command TocarToque Ud.Toquen Uds. PicarPique Ud.Piquen Uds. JugarJuegue Ud.Jueguen Uds. PagarPague Ud.Paguen Uds. AgregarAgregue Ud.Agreguen Uds. EmpezarEmpiece Ud.Empiecen Uds.
1. Negative informal commands for tú and vosotros are derived from the present subjunctive. This means you start in the yo form of the present indicative, drop the o and add opposite endings. Examples: TúVosotros No compres más.No compréis más. No digas eso.No digáis eso.
The endings for tú are: AR verbs- es ER and IR verbs- as The endings for the vosotros are: AR verbs- éis ER and IR verbs- áis
There are 6 irregular negative familiar commands: Tú/ Vosotros Ir – no vayas/ no vayáis Dar- no des/ no deis Ser – no seas/ no seáis Estar-no estés/ no estéis Saber- no sepas/ no sepáis Haber-no hayas/ no hayáis
The Affirmative informal commands for tú and vosotros(as) have their own endings. The affirmative informal commands are derived from the present indicative tú form minus the person ending –s. Present Ind.CommandMeaning Contestas el teléfono.Contesta el teléfono.Answer the phone.
The endings are: AR verbs- a ER and IR verbs- e The irregular affirmative tú commands are Decir – DiPoner - Pon Tener – TenSer – Sé Venir – VenHacer- Haz Ir – VeSalir- Sal
3. The affirmative vosotros(as) commands are formed by replacing the –r if the infinitive with –d. They lose their final –d when the reflexive pronoun os is attached: acordaos. The one exception to this rule is irse= idos (go away). Examples- Hablar= Hablad Salir=Salid
1.The present subjunctive forms of nosotros(as) are used as commands. Tomemos el tren.= Lets take the train. No hagamos nada.= Lets not do anything.
2. The affirmative nosotros command is often replaced by vamos+a+infinitive. Vamos a estudiar may mean either we are going to study, or Lets study. No vamos a estudiar can only mean We are not going to study. 3. Vamos is used instead of Vayamos for lets go. The present tense subjunctive form is used for the negative: no vayamos. Vamos al centro. No vayamos al cine.
4. In affirmative nosotros commands, the final –s of the verb ending is dropped when the reflexive pronoun nos or the indirect object pronoun se is added. An accent mark is written over the stressed syllable. For example: Lavémonos (Lavemos + nos) Lets wash or Prestémoselo (Prestemos + se + lo) Lets lendit to her. Other examples- (irse) Vámonos (Sentarse) Sentémonos
Infinitive+ Tú Command- Tú Command Aprender Abrir Pensar Decir Tener Venir Empezar Ser Cortar Ir
Infinitive+ Vosotros Command - Vosotros Command Cantar Escribir Cerrar Decir Tener Venir Comenzar Ser Correr Ir
InfinitiveUstedUstedes Servir Querer Venir Doblar Escuchar Comer Poner Hacer Dormir Conocer *How would you make these commands negative?
1. Textbook p205, exercises 6.8 and 6.9 2. Textbook p 284, exercises 8.7 and 8.8 3. Textbook p301, exercises 8.31,8.32, 8.33