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The Imperative tense: Commands

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1 The Imperative tense: Commands
Spanish 4 AP, Interacciones pages 204,283,300

2 Commands allow you to give a direct order
Commands allow you to give a direct order. There are several kinds of commands: Formal (Usted and Ustedes) Informal (Tú and Vosotros/as) Nosotros/as

3 Formal commands Formation:
Affirmative and Negative formal commands are derived from the present subjunctive so they are formed by starting with the yo form of the present tense, and interchanging the – AR and –ER/ -IR endings. Él/ella/Ud endings will work for the formal UD command, and ellos/ellas/Uds endings will work for the Uds (or you plural) command. Present tense stem changes apply as well as any present tense verb that has an irregularity in the yo form.

4 Examples: Infinitive Yo form Present Alt. Ending UD command
Uds. command Hablar Hablo -e/-en Hable Ud. Hablen Uds Comer Como -a/-an Coma Ud. Coman Uds Cerrar Cierro Cierre Ud. Cierren Uds Tener Tengo Tenga Ud. Tengan Uds Conducir Conduzco Conduzca Conduzcan Dormir Duermo Duerma Ud Duerman Uds

5 Negative Formal Commands
Formation of Negative Commands: To make the command negative, just add the word “no” before the conjugated command. Example: ¡No hablen Uds. cuando la maestra está enseñando! (Don’t talk when the teacher is teaching!)

6 Irregular Formal Commands
Infinitive Ud. Command Uds. Command Ir (to go) Vaya Ud. Vayan Uds. Ser (to be) Sea Ud. Sean Uds. Estar (to be) Esté Ud. Estén Uds. Dar (to give) Dé Ud. Den Uds. Saber (to know) Sepa Ud. Sepan Uds.

7 Car/Gar/Zar Spelling change:
*Note that the following verbs are regular, but they have a spelling change in the command form. Infinitive Ud Command Uds. Command Tocar Toque Ud. Toquen Uds. Picar Pique Ud. Piquen Uds. Jugar Juegue Ud. Jueguen Uds. Pagar Pague Ud. Paguen Uds. Agregar Agregue Ud. Agreguen Uds. Empezar Empiece Ud. Empiecen Uds.

8 Informal Commands 1. Negative informal commands for tú and vosotros are derived from the present subjunctive. This means you start in the yo form of the present indicative, drop the “o” and add opposite endings. Examples: Vosotros No compres más. No compréis más. No digas eso. No digáis eso.

9 Informal negative commands
The endings for tú are: AR verbs- es ER and IR verbs- as The endings for the vosotros are: AR verbs- éis ER and IR verbs- áis

10 Irregular Tú and Vosotros negative commands
There are 6 irregular negative familiar commands: Tú/ Vosotros Ir – no vayas/ no vayáis Dar- no des/ no deis Ser – no seas/ no seáis Estar-no estés/ no estéis Saber- no sepas/ no sepáis Haber-no hayas/ no hayáis

11 Informal Affirmative Commands
The Affirmative informal commands for tú and vosotros(as) have their own endings. The affirmative informal commands are derived from the present indicative tú form minus the person ending –s. Present Ind. Command Meaning Contestas el teléfono. Contesta el teléfono. Answer the phone.

12 Tú affirmative commands
The endings are: AR verbs- a ER and IR verbs- e The irregular affirmative tú commands are Decir – Di Poner - Pon Tener – Ten Ser – Sé Venir – Ven Hacer- Haz Ir – Ve Salir- Sal

13 Vosotros affirmative commands
3. The affirmative vosotros(as) commands are formed by replacing the –r if the infinitive with –d. They lose their final –d when the reflexive pronoun os is attached: acordaos. The one exception to this rule is irse= idos (go away). Examples- Hablar= Hablad Salir= Salid

14 Nosotros Commands 1.The present subjunctive forms of nosotros(as) are used as commands. Tomemos el tren.= Let’s take the train. No hagamos nada.= Let’s not do anything.

15 continued 2. The affirmative nosotros command is often replaced by vamos+a+infinitive. Vamos a estudiar may mean either we are going to study, or Let’s study. No vamos a estudiar can only mean We are not going to study. 3. Vamos is used instead of Vayamos for let’s go. The present tense subjunctive form is used for the negative: no vayamos. Vamos al centro. No vayamos al cine.

16 continued 4. In affirmative nosotros commands, the final –s of the verb ending is dropped when the reflexive pronoun nos or the indirect object pronoun se is added. An accent mark is written over the stressed syllable. For example: Lavémonos (Lavemos + nos) Let’s wash or Prestémoselo (Prestemos + se + lo) Let’s lendit to her. Other examples- (irse) Vámonos (Sentarse) Sentémonos

17 Practice (Informal commands)
Infinitive + Tú Command - Tú Command Aprender Abrir Pensar Decir Tener Venir Empezar Ser Cortar Ir

18 Practice 2: Informal Commands
Infinitive + Vosotros Command - Vosotros Command Cantar Escribir Cerrar Decir Tener Venir Comenzar Ser Correr Ir

19 Practice 3: Formal Commands
Infinitive Usted Ustedes Servir Querer Venir Doblar Escuchar Comer Poner Hacer Dormir Conocer *How would you make these commands negative?

20 Tarea: Textbook p205, exercises 6.8 and 6.9

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