Presentación del tema: "Mrs. O. Pacheco Spanish I-IV"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1Mrs. O. Pacheco Spanish I-IV El PretéritoMrs. O. PachecoSpanish I-IV
2The Preterite TenseThe preterite tense tells what happened or what you did. It is used when the action described has already been completed. Regular preterite verbs, like present tense verbs, are formed by adding tense endings to the stem.Note: the nosotros form is the same both in present and preterite tenses. But we can usually tell if someone is referring to the past or present from the context.For example, Abuela says:Yo viajé a Costa Rica el verano pasado. Acampamos en un parque y caminamos por San José.I traveled to Costa Rica last summer. We camped in a park and walked through San José.Even though Abuela uses the words acampamos and caminamos, we know that she is talking about an event that happened in the past because she used the word viajé in the previous sentence.
3El Pretérito: is a past tense (“-ed”) talks about what happened is a completed actionI went to the store.I bought a shirt.I paid in cash.
4The stem for regular verbs in the pretérito is the infinitive stem. Tomar tom-Hablar habl-Comer com-Beber beb-Abrir abr-Salir sal-
5Pretérito endings for -ar verbs are: -é-aste-ó-amos-asteis-aron
6Pretérito endings for –er / -ir verbs are: -í-iste-ió-imos-isteis-ieron
7REMEMBER: accents on the “yo” form and the “él / ella / Ud.” form -ar / -ir “nosotros” form is the same in present and pretérito
23Vocabulario El tiempo libre Acampar en las montañas (to camp in the mountains)Bajar un río en canoa (to go down a river by canoe)Cantar en el coro (to sing in the chorus)Disfrutar con los amigos (to enjoy time with friends)Estudiar las artes marciales (to study martial arts)Jugar (u-ue) al aljedrez (to play chess)Tomar un curso de natación (to take a swimming class)¿Qué te gusta hacer?
24¡Vamos a Practicar! Mis abuelos _________ tarde del viaje. (llegar) Yo __________ arroz en mi casa. (comer)Ella ______ conmigo antes de partir. (hablar)Tú _______ llamarme antes de ir. (deber)Laura ________ mucha suerte. (tener)Nosotros _______ lo mejor de nosotros. (dar)
25El verano pasado…Habla/escribir: Explica lo que pasó el verano pasado. (hint: tell what they did last summer.)Example: mi hermana/caminar con el perro =Mi hermana (no) caminó con el perro.Yo/alquilar un video.Mi primo/bajar un río en canoa.Los estudiantes/cantar en el coro.Yo/comprar un juejo de ajedrez.Mis padres/disfrutar con los amigos.Yo/tomar un curso de natación.Mi mejor amigo(a)/estudiar las artes marcialesTú/acampar en las montañas.
27Irregular Preterite forms There are a fair number of verbs with irregular conjugation forms in the Preterite. These Irregular forms in the Preterite are said to have "radical" changes, that is, vowel and consonant changes in the root (or stem of the verb.) Furthermore, these changes occur in all of the conjugations (including the nosotros form.) These Irregular preterite changes are NOT for orthographic (spelling) reasons (like the verbs ending in -Car, -Gar and -Zar) nor are the changes in vowels similar to regular stem-changing verbs which affect certain -Ir conjugations in the Preterite. Verbs which have an Irregular Preterite form have their own conjugation - different from the established -Ar, -Er/-Ir Preterite conjugation pattern.
28Irregular changesAll Verbs with grossly irregular changes in the Preterite follow this conjugation:-Ar, -Er, -Ir Irregular VerbsYo-eTú-isteÉl, ella, usted-oNosotros-imosEllos, ellas, ustedes -ieron** * Verbs with a "J" at the end of the stem drop the "i" and just use: -eronNotice that none of these conjugation endings have accent marks!
30Orthographic Changes Verbs that end in -gar change g to gu Verbs that end in -car change c to quVerbs that end in -zar change z to cVerbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, -oer, and uir change ió to yó and ieron to yeronVerbs that end in -ucir are irregular and conjugated as follows:Producir, produje, produjiste, produjo, produjimos, produjisteis, produjeron
32NoteHacer in the third person singular changes out the "c" for a "z" to reflect the correct pronunciation.Irregulars which use a "J" in the Preterite only add "-eron" (NOT "-ieron") to the third-person plural
33Other verbs which are irregular in the Preterite Dar-di diste dio dimos dieronDar is often humorously referred to as the "cross-dressing" verb, because in the Preterite Dar takes on the -Er/-Ir preterite verb endings rather than -Ar verb endings.Ver-vi viste vio vimos vieronVerbs with only 2 or 3 letters, such as Dar, Ser, Ir and Ver, also do not wear accent marks in the Preterite.Remember that Spanish only uses accent marks when required for pronunciation or differentiation.
34Sharing same forms Ir & Ser-fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron Notice that Ir and Ser share the same forms in the Preterite. This is not as confusing as it may appear. Since Ser refers to existence and identification, it is nearly impossible to use this in the Preterite which handles only completed actions. This preterite conjugation form will nearly always be Ir (an action verb) rather than Ser (a descriptive verb) which is usually conjugated in the Imperfect Past tense.Also the context of a sentence or a conversation will let you know which is being used. For example:Fui al supermercado clearly means "I went to the supermarket," not *"I was to the supermarket."
35NoteWhile there are more irregulars in the Preterite past tense than in any other tense, the good news is that Spanish makes up for it with a 99.99% regular Imperfect past tense!