Presentación del tema: "Medidas de emergencia y prevención de incendios"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1Medidas de emergencia y prevención de incendios Slide Show NotesWelcome to the Emergency Action and Fire Prevention training session. Your role in an emergency is vital whether it is preventing a fire, reporting an incident, responding to the incident, or evacuating the area.
2Objetivos de la sesión Usted podrá: Comprender los peligros que llevan a una emergenciaEvacuar un área ante una emergenciaResponder en caso de emergenciaProtegerse del fuego y de otros peligrosPrevenir incendiosResponder ante incendios y derramesSlide Show NotesAfter this training session is completed, you will be able to:Understand hazards that lead to an emergency.Evacuate an area in an emergency.Respond to an emergency.Protect yourself from fire and other hazards.Prevent fires; andRespond to fires and spills.
3¿Está preparado?Cada año mueren 200 personas y resultan lesionadas en incendios y explosiones en el lugar de trabajo.¿Cuál sería su reacción si suena una alarma de incendios?¿Cuál es su papel si hubiera un derrame de sustancias químicas?¿Qué haría en caso de una catástrofe natural como una tormenta violenta?Slide Show NotesNo one expects an emergency situation to happen; fortunately, they are not common occurrences. But even if there’s only a minute possibility of an emergency where you work, you need to be prepared. Knowing what to do in the event of an emergency could save your life—as well as the lives of your co-workers. Consider these facts:According to the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, workplace fires and explosions in U.S. workplaces kill 200 and injure more than 5,000 workers each year, at a cost of $2.3 billion annually. Major causes are electrical problems (39%), arson (21%), and smoking (14%).So do you know how to react to a fire alarm?Do you know your role in the event of a chemical spill?And, what would you do if there was a tornado or other violent storm?
4Requisitos reglamentarios Título 29 del CFR, artículos alVías de salida y evacuaciónSistemas de alarmasMedidas de protecciónCapacitaciónPlanes de medidas de emergencia y prevención de incendiosSlide Show NotesThere are several regulatory requirements for emergency planning:Emergency action plans and fire prevention plans are required by federal rules under the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Sections toOur company is responsible for ensuring that you know what to do in an emergency and how to evacuate the workplace if disaster strikes. We’re also responsible for complying with OSHA’s emergency preparedness and response rules concerning exit routes.We must provide appropriate alarm systems for informing you about emergencies.We must provide you with the means to protect yourselves from hazards.We must train you in appropriate emergency response procedures.Finally, we must comply with the requirements for employee emergency and fire prevention plans whenever a workplace activity or process covered by a specific OSHA standard requires such plans. OSHA requires certain employers to have written emergency action and fire prevention plans. These plans must contain information such as evacuation procedures, alarm systems, fire hazards and prevention, fire response procedures, fire protection equipment, and training information.
5Peligro de incendio Combustibles Líquidos inflamables y combustibles fuentes de igniciónRecalentamiento de máquinasSoldadurasFumarSlide Show NotesNow let’s look at the potential hazards that can lead to companywide emergencies. We’ll start with fires, a leading workplace hazard and cause for emergencies. Fires need three things to start and to stay burning—fuel, oxygen, and an ignition source. If any one of these is missing, a fire will not exist.Examples of fuel sources are:Flammable and combustible liquids like gasoline and naphtha, and combustible solids like aluminum dust.Ignition sources include:Overheated machines. Even your computer could overheat and melt down if the cooling fan failed but the computer remained on. Electrical malfunctions usually go hand in hand with machines overheating; a motor burns up, fuses are overloaded, and wiring is frayed.Welding and torch cutting are obvious fire hazards.And, poor smoking habits are another obvious fire hazard.Make sure you know the types of flammable and combustible materials used by your facility and where they are stored. Know and follow your organization’s smoking policy.Modify this slide to list fire hazards at your facility. Describe the types of flammable and combustible liquids used by your facility and indicate where each is stored. Describe the smoking policy of your facility.
6Peligro de incendio eléctrico Sistemas eléctricos sobrecargadosCables deshilachados o averiadosMaquinaria o herramientas a motor defectuosasSlide Show NotesLet’s examine electrical hazards:Have you ever overloaded an outlet with Christmas lights? You can also overload a circuit by putting too much electrical load on the wires. If you have to use extension cords, make sure they are rated for the load you plan to put on them. Have you ever blown a fuse when you turned on a hair dryer? You just came close to overloading the electrical circuit; however, instead of burning up a wire, the protective fuse popped. Have you ever put too much load on a motor and tried to make it do more than it is capable of doing? You are overloading the motor, which could cause it to overheat and create a hazardous situation.Do you look for damaged wiring before plugging in an appliance? A toaster or coffee machine could easily overheat if the electrical cord is damaged.Never use a power tool that has a damaged electrical cord.Make sure you are familiar with the electrical fire hazards in your workplace. Know and follow your organization’s electrical hazard prevention policies. For example, make sure you know what to do if you notice a damaged power tool or frayed wiring.Describe the electrical fire hazards that are specific to your company. Describe your company’s electrical hazard prevention policies. Ask trainees what they do if they encounter a damaged power tool or frayed wiring.
7Peligros de químicos inflamables No fumeAlmacénelos correctamenteSuministre en forma adecuadaLea las MSDS y las etiquetasSepa el punto de igniciónSepa el sistema de etiquetas de la NFPAResponda en forma correcta ante un derrameSlide Show NotesFlammable chemicals are another hazard that could cause an emergency. Follow these precautions:Obey the “No Smoking” signs posted near our flammable liquids and gases and don’t smoke when these chemicals are in use.Don’t store flammable and combustible liquids and gases near heat sources such as hot machinery.Follow proper procedures when dispensing flammable chemicals. For example, make sure the containers are properly grounded and bonded.Read the material safety data sheet, or MSDS, and container label for each chemical. The MSDS contains information on proper storage, dispensing, flammable limits, reactivity hazards, and fire-fighting procedures. Labels also provide information similar to that on the MSDS but probably not as detailed. Make sure you look for the following crucial information:The flash point is the temperature at which a liquid chemical gives off enough vapors to ignite. A lower flash point indicates a more flammable substance.The National Fire Protection Association, or NFPA, labels also help determine a chemical’s fire hazard. A 4 in the red portion of the label indicates a severe hazard; a 3 indicates a serious hazard.Don’t attempt to clean up a chemical spill unless you’ve been properly trained. Notify your supervisor of a chemical spill immediately!
8Peligro de emisión de químicos Envases que se fuganOlor fuerteDerrame visibleNube de polvoSlide Show NotesSome signs of a chemical spill that can lead to an emergency include:A leaking container with a hazardous substance;A strong chemical odor;A visible discharge of liquid; andA cloud of dust around a work area known to contain combustible solids.Make sure you know the types of chemicals used in your workplace, including their color, odor, or viscosity, where they’re located, and their hazards.Describe the types of chemicals used at your facility. Provide a map (if available) so employees can picture the locations of chemicals. Describe the color, odor, or viscosity of certain chemicals located in your facility so employees can recognize a leak. Emphasize the dangers of hazardous chemicals, where the chemicals are located, and how a leak is most easily detected.
9Peligro de catástrofes naturales TerremotoInundaciónTornado o huracánSlide Show NotesThe best way to manage a natural disaster is to have a plan in place that can be implemented when an event occurs. For example:In an earthquake, seek protective cover (i.e., under a table or in a doorway). Once the earthquake has subsided, evacuate the building. Earthquakes may result in structural damage to the building, equipment, or chemical storage tanks. Shut off natural gas and electrical services. Do not reenter the building until the “all-clear” signal has been given by the evacuation coordinator.In a flood, make sure you have flood shields or sandbags on hand. Board up windows. Raise machinery or stored goods off the ground or remove from a basement. Shut off gas and close valves to any tanks.Finally, in a tornado or hurricane, board up windows. Bring in loose items from outside or secure them. Inspect roof coverings to make sure they are secure. Have radios, flashlights, and other emergency items available. Take shelter.Make sure you’re ready for the natural disasters that may happen in your location. Know and follow your organization’s emergency procedures for these situations.Modify this slide to cover natural disasters specific to your location. Discuss natural disasters that may occur in your area and describe your company’s emergency procedures related to such an event.
10Peligro de violencia Disturbios civiles Violencia en el lugar de trabajoSlide Show NotesViolent acts, such as the following, can also cause emergencies in the workplace:A civil disturbance, such as a riot or violent protest; andViolence that results in bodily injury or trauma to an employee. About 1,000 people die each year as the result of violent acts in the workplace.
11Identificación de los peligros ¿Comprende cuáles son los peligros específicos que pueden provocar una emergencia?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far. Do you understand specific hazards that can cause an emergency associated with our company? It’s important for your safety that you understand the hazards and what to do about them.Conduct an exercise that helps trainees identify specific hazards in their workplace that can lead to an emergency.
12Evacuación: suene la alarma Aléjese del peligroAlerte a los demás, active el sistema de alarmaAlarma de reservaNotificación automáticaSlide Show NotesHere’s what to do when a workplace emergency is discovered:Your first action should be to remove yourself from imminent danger.Then, alert others to the danger. Follow your organization’s procedures, whether it’s yelling, phoning, paging, or triggering an alarm.Activate the backup alarm system according to procedure.In case of fire, be aware that most companies’ fire suppression systems are connected to security agencies that notify the fire department if the system experiences a flow or a drop in pressure. This way the fire department will be on its way if, for example, a sprinkler head discharges.Make sure you know how to activate your organization’s alarm system. Also, follow procedures for reporting an emergency and activating a backup alarm system, if applicable.Modify this slide to describe the company’s alarm system and procedures for reporting an emergency. Discuss your company’s procedures for sounding the alarm and for activating the backup alarm system, if applicable.
13Evacuación: contactos de emergencia Departamento de bomberosDepartamento de policíaAmbulanciaClínica médicaHospitalSlide Show NotesBe prepared for emergency evacuations by having phone numbers for these emergency services readily available in all areas of the company:Fire department;Police department;Ambulance;Medical clinic; andHospital.Follow your organization’s procedures for notifying these emergency services in a crisis situation at your workplace.Tell trainees where they can find emergency notification numbers and describe the procedures for notification.
14Evacue Coordinadores de evacuación Encargado del recuento de personas MédicosEncargado de desconectar los equiposPersonal de auxilio ante incendios o incidentes químicosSlide Show NotesDuring an evacuation, every employee will have a specific role. Specific assignments include:Evacuation coordinators.Someone to ensure that all evacuated employees are accounted for. Evacuation does not mean that you can sit in your car and listen to the radio or go run some errands. Evacuation means going to the assembly area so the head-count person knows that you are safely out of the building.Medical treatment or first-aid coordinator.Someone to ensure that specific equipment is shut down. Some employees may stay behind to shut down critical operations.Fire and chemical incident responders.Make sure you know and perform your evacuation assignment.Describe the evacuation assignments for each trainee or group of trainees.
15Preparación para evacuaciones Mantenga las salidas de incendios despejadasParticipe en los simulacros y haga comentarios y sugerenciasFamiliarícese con los coordinadores de evacuación y con el personal de recuento de personasSlide Show NotesEvacuations are successful when you are prepared for them and take the proper steps. For example;It is extremely important to keep all fire exits clear.It is also important for you to participate in all emergency drills and to provide feedback. For instance, did you hear the alarm? Were exits clear? Are there any other important details?Finally, know who the evacuation coordinators are, and respond to personnel responsible for accounting for everyone after the evacuation.Make sure you know your evacuation routes and assembly areas.Provide an evacuation map and go over the assembly areas with employees. If possible, insert a slide here with the map scanned in or a picture showing the assembly area.
16Procedimientos de evacuación Reconozca la señal de evacuación y escuche las instruccionesDesconecte los equipos usando el apagado de emergenciaVaya directamente a la salida segura más cercanaDiríjase al área de reuniónSlide Show NotesFollow these steps during an actual evacuation:Recognize the evacuation signal and listen for instructions.Shut down equipment using the emergency stop.Go directly to the nearest safe exit.And, proceed to the assembly area.Follow your organization’s evacuation procedures if they differ from these steps.Modify this slide to describe your company’s evacuation procedures.
17Desconexión de emergencia Los empleados designados desconectan las operaciones no esencialesSlide Show NotesIn the case of an emergency shutdown:Designated employees should shut down all nonessential operations during an emergency.Know and follow your organization’s emergency shutdown procedures.Modify this slide to describe your company’s emergency shutdown procedures, if applicable.
18Rescate y tratamiento médico Deje el rescate para los profesionales capacitadosLos socorristas designados administran primeros auxiliosCumpla con los procedimientos médicos de emergenciaSlide Show NotesTake these steps in the case of a rescue and medical treatment:If a worker is trapped or badly injured, leave the rescue work to trained and certified first responders.If you or a co-worker is injured, provide medical help for which you are trained. Whenever possible, alert designated first-aid providers or medical personnel to your needs or the needs of co-workers.And, follow the company’s written medical emergency procedures.Follow your organization’s medical emergency procedures if they differ from these steps.Modify this slide to describe your company’s medical emergency procedures.
19Notificación y evacuación ¿Alguna pregunta?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far. Do you understand evacuation procedures, emergency shutdown, and medical emergency procedures? Do you understand your role in an evacuation? It’s important for your safety and your co-workers’ safety that you know what to do in the case of emergencies.Conduct an evacuation drill, if appropriate.
20Prevención de incendios: limpieza y mantenimiento Mantenga su área de trabajo limpia y organizadaMantenga los polvos lejos de motores y maquinarias calientesDeseche los trapos aceitosos o empapados de solvente de manera adecuadaNo deje que se acumulen los materiales combustiblesMantenga las salidas despejadasCuide el acceso al equipo para combatir incendiosSlide Show NotesNow let’s look at fire prevention and housekeeping:Housekeeping plays a critical role in fire prevention. Keeping your workplace clean and organized not only prevents the ignition and spread of a fire, it also helps keep exits clear and fire response equipment accessible.Keep all dusts under control, particularly around motors and hot machinery.Dispose of rags contaminated with oils or solvents in appropriate metal containers.Don’t allow combustible materials such as cardboard, paper, or wood to accumulate.Keep exits clear.And, keep access to emergency response equipment clear.Know what housekeeping fire hazards are present in your workplace and follow all housekeeping procedures to prevent fires.Describe your facility’s largest housekeeping concern related to potential fire hazards (e.g., combustible dusts, accumulation of cardboard boxes or wooden crates, or oily or solvent-soaked rags). Discuss housekeeping issues that are specific to your company.
21Respuesta ante derrames químicos Evacue el áreaNotifique a un supervisor o al equipo de respuesta ante emergenciasRetire las fuentes de ignición (si es seguro hacerlo)Slide Show NotesIn the case of a chemical spill, don’t attempt to clean it unless you’re part of an emergency response team. Instead, take these steps:Immediately evacuate the area and help others get out.Notify a supervisor or the emergency response team.And, remove ignition sources only if it is safe to do so.Be prepared by knowing what types of chemical spills or leaks could happen in your workplace. In addition, follow your organization’s chemical spill response procedures for how to report and evacuate.Discuss your company’s specific emergency response plan and the procedures to spot a spill, report a spill, and evacuate. Describe the process for spotting a spill or leak, how to report it, and how to evacuate the area. Discuss what types of spills or leaks might occur at your company.
22Respuesta ante incendios Aléjese del peligroNotifique a los demás; active la alarmaRecoja un extintor de incendiosPida ayuda adicionalSi combate un incendio, evalúe constantemente la necesidad de evacuarNo combata los incendios estructurales soloSlide Show NotesIn the case of fire, follow these steps:Your first action should be to remove yourself from immediate danger.Then, alert others to the danger. Follow your organization’s procedures whether they are yelling, phoning, paging, or triggering an alarm.Find a fire extinguisher or fire hose. Even if you are not trained to use the extinguisher or are not comfortable using the extinguisher, go get one. Bring it back to the scene so someone else or your supervisor can use the equipment.If necessary, call for additional help.When fighting a fire, the supervisor or incident commander will continuously evaluate the situation to make sure it is still safe to fight the fire.Don’t fight a large fire or a structural fire unless trained to do so as a member of a fire brigade that meets OSHA requirements. Fight “incipient” stage fires only. These are fires that are just beginning and can be controlled by the use of portable fire extinguishers.Follow your organization’s fire protection plan for emergency notification and fire response.Provide a copy of the company’s Fire Protection Plan if appropriate. Modify this slide to describe the emergency notification and fire response process at your company.
23Respuesta ante incendios: equipo de extinción Extintor portátilManguera de incendiosSistemas de supresión de incendiosSlide Show NotesHere are the three primary categories of fire extinguishing equipment:Portable extinguisher;Fire hose; andFire suppression systems.Know which fire extinguishing equipment your organization uses, where it’s located, and how to operate it, if that is one of your emergency roles.Modify this slide to describe your company’s fire-fighting procedures. Describe the fire-fighting equipment used at your facility, if applicable. Show the locations of fire extinguishers and fire hoses. (If possible, bring a map showing their locations.)
24Tipos de extintoresA: para elementos combustibles como basura, madera o papelB: para líquidos o gases inflamablesC: para incendios por causas eléctricasD: para metales combustiblesSlide Show NotesHere are the four types of extinguishers and the types of fires they are used to fight:“A” extinguishers are used for combustibles such as trash, wood, or paper and must be located so that the travel distance for employees to the extinguisher is 75 feet or less.“B” extinguishers are used for flammable liquids or gases and must be located so that the travel distance for employees to the extinguisher is 50 feet or less.“C” extinguishers are used for electrical fires and are grouped with either an “A” or “B” class extinguisher, so its location is based on the pattern required by the extinguisher class it is grouped in.“D” extinguishers are required in areas where combustible metal powders, shavings, or similarly sized products are generated at least once every 2 weeks and must be located so that the travel distance for employees to the extinguisher is 75 feet or less.OSHA requires fire extinguishers to be maintained within certain distances from every point within a facility (29 CFR ). However, your local fire department may have different requirements.
25Uso del extintor Tire del anillo Apunte a la base del fuego Apriete el gatilloMuévalo rápidamente de atrás a adelanteSlide Show NotesRemember the four steps to using a portable fire extinguisher by thinking of the acronym, P-A-S-S, or PASS:Pull the pin;Aim at the base of the fire;Squeeze the trigger; andSweep back and forth. Most extinguishers are emptied in less than one minute, so aim carefully.Bring an extinguisher to show the class. Let the employees hold the extinguisher, if they wish. Ask them if they have ever had to use an extinguisher before.
26Prevención y respuesta ante incendios ¿Comprende de qué se trata la respuesta ante emergencias?¿Tiene alguna pregunta acerca de su papel?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information presented so far.Do you understand how to respond to an emergency? Do you know your role in this response? It’s important for your safety that you know how to respond to workplace emergencies.Conduct an exercise, drill, or scenario that tests the trainees’ ability to respond to an emergency.
27Puntos clave para recordar Los incendios, los químicos, las catástrofes naturales y la violencia son causas de emergenciasEs mejor la prevención que la reacciónProtéjase; alerte a los demásConozca su papel en una evacuaciónUse el equipo de extinción de incendios sólo si está entrenado para hacerloConsulte con su supervisorSlide Show NotesHere are some key points to remember from this training session:Fires, chemical discharges, natural disasters, and workplace violence are leading causes of workplace emergencies.Measures to prevent emergencies are much easier and safer to implement than emergency response.The first thing to do in the event of an emergency is to remove yourself from danger and alert others to the hazard.Know your role in an evacuation.Use fire-fighting equipment only if trained.And, if you have any questions or concerns, ask your supervisor.This concludes this training session.Give the quiz, if appropriate.