Presentación del tema: "Comunicación de riesgos"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Comunicación de riesgos Slide Show NotesHazard Communication—what does it mean to you? Specifically, it means knowing about the possible dangers of the hazardous chemicals you use in your job and how to protect yourself against those hazards.Employers are required to provide you with information about chemical hazards. You have a right to know about those hazards. And you also have a responsibility to use the information you are given about chemical hazards so that you can use them safely.
2 Los objetivos de la sesión Usted podrá:Entender los peligros de los productos químicos de su área de trabajoInterpretar la información de las etiquetas de advertenciaEntender las hojas de datos de seguridad de materiales (MSDS)ProtegerseResponder en caso de emergenciasSlide Show NotesThe main objective of this session is to tell you about the hazards of chemicals in the workplace, and how to find the information you need to protect yourself and work safely. By the time this session is over, you should be able to:Understand the hazards of chemicals in your work area;Interpret the hazard information on chemical container warning labels;Access and understand the information on Material Safety Data Sheets, or MSDSs;Protect yourself against chemical hazards, such as by wearing personal protective equipment; andRespond to emergencies involving hazardous chemicals.
3 Encuentros con químicos Casi todos los días nos encontramos con productos químicosAl repostar su vehículoAl limpiar la casaAl aplicar pesticidas o insecticidasAl usar solventes o ácidos en el trabajoMuchos productos químicos pueden causar lesiones o enfermedadesSlide Show NotesWe all use chemicals almost every day, both at home and at work. Here are some examples of how we encounter chemicals:Filling the car with gasoline, which can expose us to chemical vapors;Cleaning the house with liquid cleansers, which may contain harmful chemical ingredients;Using pesticides or insecticides—these are poisonous to plants and insects, and they can also be harmful to humans; andUsing solvents, acids, and other strong chemicals when we do our jobs.Not all chemicals are hazardous, and many chemicals are hazardous only if we are exposed to them in large quantities or over long periods of time. But there also are chemicals that can cause injury or illness if you don’t know how to handle them properly and safely.Think about the chemicals you use in the workplace. Have you ever felt sick after using a chemical? If so, you may have been overexposed to a hazardous chemical.Ask trainees for examples of chemicals they use in the workplace and how they work with them. Ask if a chemical has ever caused them to feel sick—hangovers from too much alcohol don’t count! Ask if they have ever burned their skin or eyes with a chemical.
4 Encuentros con químicos (cont.) 30 millones de operarios se exponen o corren el riesgo potencial de exponerse a productos químicos por añoincidentes de exposición por año dan como resultado días de trabajo perdidosSlide Show NotesHazardous chemicals are found in many workplaces, and millions of workers are exposed to them every day. Here are some facts:An estimated 30 million workers are exposed or potentially exposed to more than 650,000 hazardous chemicals each year; andThere are typically 20,000 incidents of exposure to hazardous chemicals annually that result in one or more lost workdays due to illnesses or injuries from these chemicals.Numbers like these show why it’s so important to know about chemical hazards in your workplace, and how to get the information you need to protect yourself. Think about the ways that you might be exposed to hazardous chemicals when doing your job.Describe injury or illness incidences or scenarios that could cause injury at your facility.
5 Ley de comunicación de riesgos Como empleador, debemos proporcionarle:Un programa escrito de comunicación de riesgosUna lista de productos químicos peligrososMSDSsCapacitaciónSlide Show NotesHazard Communication is a requirement of state and federal law. There is a government regulation called the “Hazard Communication Standard” that describes what employers must do to inform employees about chemical hazards. For example, under the law, employers must provide you with:A written Hazard Communication Program that explains how the information is communicated to you;A list of the hazardous chemicals used in your workplace, so you know that you might be asked to use a potentially hazardous substance;Material Safety Data Sheets, or MSDSs, for each type of hazardous chemical. These contain detailed information about the chemical, its possible hazards, and ways to protect yourself; andTraining that teaches you about the Hazard Communication Standard, tells you how to read and understand the information on MSDSs and container labels, and shows you ways you can protect yourself against chemical hazards.Your supervisor or safety manager can tell you how to obtain your company’s Hazard Communication Program and a copy of the Hazard Communication Standard.Tell employees where they can find the written hazard communication program and a copy of the hazard communication standard.
6 Ley de comunicación de peligros (cont.) Usted debe poder:Leer las etiquetas y las MSDSsSeguir las instrucciones y advertencias del empleadorIdentificar los peligros antes de empezar el trabajoParticipar en la capacitaciónSlide Show NotesAlthough the Hazard Communication Standard applies mainly to employers, hazard communication is not effective unless you also do your part in working safely with chemicals. As an employee, you must be able to:Read chemical labels and MSDSs and understand the information they contain. You should know where MSDSs are located and how to find the one you need to learn more about specific chemicals. And you should know how to find the specific information you need on each MSDS, such as how to protect yourself against exposure.Always follow instructions and warnings about how to use hazardous chemicals safely. These include both written instructions on labels and MSDSs, and also verbal instructions and safety information you may receive from supervisors or safety trainers.Identify the possible hazards of using a chemical BEFORE you start to use it. Don’t wait until you have already been exposed to find out that you’ve put yourself in danger.Finally, participate actively in the safety training that we provide. All the safety information in the world won’t help protect you if you don’t listen, pay attention, or understand the information you are given. Remember, you should never hesitate to ask questions so that you clearly understand what it takes to protect yourself from chemical hazards.
7 Tipos de productos químicos SólidosPolvos (suspendidos, asentados o contenidos)Humos y fibrasLíquidosFluido y brumaGases y vaporesImage Credit: State of WA-WISHA ServicesSlide Show NotesNow let’s consider the types of chemicals we use and the kinds of hazards they might represent.There are three basic forms of chemicals:Solids, such as dusts, powders, fumes, and fibers that might be dangerous if you touch or inhale them;Liquids, including both fluids and mists. Examples include gasoline and other fuels, as well as cleaners and solvents; andGases and vapors that are given off by solid or liquid chemicals— these can also be very dangerous if you inhale them.
8 Peligros físicos Inflamable Explosivo Reactivo Slide Show Notes Whether they are solid, liquid, or gas, hazardous chemicals present two basic types of hazards: physical hazards and health hazards.Chemicals with physical hazards include those that are:Flammable, meaning they can catch fire easily. Examples are gasoline, propane, and oil-based paints;Explosive, meaning they can explode, such as chemicals in aerosol cans; orReactive, meaning they can react dangerously if they come into contact with another substance, such as mixing bleach and ammonia.Think about the chemicals you use that have physical hazards, such as being flammable, explosive, or reactive.Modify this slide to include physical hazards of chemicals specific to your workplace.Discuss the health and physical hazards for some of the typical chemicals used by the trainees. If there are only a few chemicals in your workplace, you may want to discuss each one individually. Where there are large numbers of chemicals or the chemicals change frequently, you will probably want to train on the basis of the hazard categories (e.g., flammable liquids, corrosive materials, and carcinogens). Employees will have access to the substance-specific information on the chemical container labels and MSDSs.
9 Peligros para la saludEfectos a corto plazo como dolores de cabeza, mareos, irritación de la pielEfectos a largo plazo como daños al hígado o los pulmones o incluso el cáncerEjemplos de peligros para la salud:CorrosivoTóxicoSlide Show NotesIn addition to physical hazards, some chemicals have health hazards and can cause illnesses or other health problems. These problems can include:Short-term effects, such as headaches, dizziness, or skin irritation; andLong-term effects, such as damage to the liver or lungs, or even cancer.Chemicals with health hazards include those that are:Corrosive, meaning that they can eat away or otherwise damage other substances, including your skin; andToxic, meaning that they are poisonous; highly toxic chemicals can even cause death.Are any chemicals you work with corrosive or toxic? If you don’t know, talk to your supervisor or safety manager.Modify this slide to include health hazards of chemicals specific to your workplace.
10 Productos químicos peligrosos en esta planta Tipos de productos químicos peligrososUbicación de los productos químicos peligrososSlide Show NotesYou should know the types of hazardous chemicals that are used in your own workplace, and where they are located. Your supervisor or safety manager should provide you with that information. If you have any questions about what chemicals are used in your workplace or where they are located, be sure to ask.Note that some chemicals can have both physical and health hazards, while others may only have one type of hazard.Modify this slide to include the list of hazardous chemicals and where they are located in your facility.
11 Cómo entran los químicos en su cuerpo Absorción por la piel y contacto con los ojosInhalaciónSlide Show NotesChemicals can enter your body in several ways. Two common ways are:Skin absorption or eye contact; this is especially true of liquid chemicals; andInhaling hazardous fumes, vapors, mists, or dust. These can be taken into the lungs and travel from there into the bloodstream and to other organs of the body.Image Credit: State of WA-WISHA Services
12 Cómo entran los químicos en el cuerpo (cont.) Tragando (comiendo alimentos contaminados)Penetración (corte, pinchazo o inyección)Slide Show NotesOther ways chemicals can enter your body include:Swallowing, or ingestion. Even though you may not intentionally swallow hazardous chemicals, chemicals can be transferred onto food if your hands are contaminated, and then swallowed accidentally; andDirect penetration, such as when a chemical enters the body through an open cut or skin puncture.You work with chemicals; can you think of ways that chemicals might enter your body through skin contact, inhalation, ingestion, or penetration?Ask trainees to talk about experiences with skin exposure to chemicals, or chemical odors in their work areas. Ask if any trainees eat lunch in work areas with strong chemical odors or smoke and dust.
13 Cómo los químicos afectan su cuerpo DosisEfectos agudosEfectos crónicosSlide Show NotesThe kind of exposure you have to a chemical often determines how the chemical might affect your health.The dosage refers to the amount of the chemical you are exposed to. With some chemicals, it takes a very large amount to do any serious harm, but with others, only a tiny amount can be very dangerous.Acute effects are short-term effects on the body that usually disappear if you are no longer exposed. Examples include skin irritation from touching a chemical, or irritation of your nose and throat from inhaling fumes.Chronic effects are long-term effects that develop over a long period of exposure—even exposure to small amounts. Examples include damage to the liver or other organs, or developing cancer as a result of chemical exposure.Ask trainees to identify the acute or chronic effects of a chemical that they work with. If they don’t know, use an MSDS for a chemical in their workplace to describe the dosage and acute and/or chronic effects for them.
14 Límites de exposición Límites de exposición permisibles (PEL) Concentraciones expresadas en partes por millón (ppm) o miligramos por metros cúbicosValor umbral de exposición (TLV)TLV-Promedio de tiempo ponderado (TLV-TWA)TLV-Límite de exposición a corto plazo (TLV-STEL)TLV-Límite tope (TLV-C)Slide Show NotesTo guard against both acute and chronic health effects, scientists have identified exposure limits for different kinds of chemicals. Generally, these limits are the maximum quantity of a chemical that people can be exposed to without possibly suffering health effects.The permissible exposure limit (PEL) is often expressed as the quantity of hazardous chemical that an average employee can safely be exposed to in an 8-hour workday. This is just like your doctor telling you to take one pill every 8 hours. If you take two pills in an 8-hour period, you are technically overdosing and could suffer some side effects. We keep exposure levels below PELs with engineering controls, ventilation, and PPE. The limits are usually expressed as parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cu. meter). Your exposure to chemicals cannot exceed these limits.Threshold limit values (TLVs) are air quality standards developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. They are the model for many other air quality limits such as OSHA’s PELs. TLVs are the amounts of chemicals in the air that almost all healthy adult workers are predicted to be able to tolerate without adverse effects.They may be measured over an 8-hour workday (Time-Weighted Average or TWA); or a very short term of exposure (STEL). There also may be a Ceiling Limit, meaning the highest concentration anyone may be safely exposed to at any time.
15 ¿Qué está mal? Trabajador asignado a limpiar los tamices metálicos Le dan un limpiador, cepillo y un trapoIdentifique el peligro (o peligros)Slide Show NotesWhat’s wrong in this picture? This slide shows a situation that could potentially be very dangerous. A worker has been told to clean some screens. He’s given a container with diluted aluminum brightener, a very dangerous acid. He was provided no chemical information or protective equipment, except for the order to clean the screens with the container, brush, and rag provided. Think about the types of hazards this worker might be exposed to.Some of the hazards he might face include:Skin irritation or even serious skin damage from contact with the chemical;Contamination of his clothing that could spread the damage to his skin;Serious damage to his eyes; orInhaling toxic fumes that could cause him to become ill.
16 Peligros químicos ¿Entiende su “derecho a saber”? ¿Tiene preguntas sobre los peligros químicos?Slide Show NotesNow it’s time to ask yourself if you understand the information that has been presented so far.Do you understand your “right to know” about chemical hazards in your workplace under the Hazard Communication Standard?Do you have any questions about the different types of chemical hazards and ways in which chemicals might harm you?It’s important for your safety that you understand hazard communication and types of chemical hazards.Conduct an exercise if appropriate.
17 Lea la etiqueta Identidad química Información de contacto del fabricantePeligros físicos y de saludCargo especialRecomendaciones de PPEPrimeros auxilios, respuesta ante incendio y limpieza de derrameSlide Show NotesThe label on a chemical container is usually the first place to look for information about the chemical’s hazards. Each label is different, but every label should contain the same basic information about the chemical:The identity of the chemical;The company that manufactured or produced it;Its physical and health hazards;Special handling instructions;Personal protective equipment, or PPE, to wear when using the chemical; andWhat kind of first aid should be given in an emergency, as well as fire response and spill cleanup.Remember, every chemical container should have a label. This includes secondary containers used for chemicals that were dispensed from a larger container.
18 Qué tiene la etiqueta La etiqueta del producto muestra: El nombre del productoEl fabricanteInformación variadaAdvertencia de peligrosLista de ingredientes peligrososSlide Show NotesLet’s review the basic information that every chemical label should have, because reading the label is an important first step in using the chemical safely. Once you have completed this session, find some chemical labels in your facility and be sure you understand the information on them.The label includes:The name of the chemical;The manufacturer of the chemical;Miscellaneous safety information about handling and using the chemical;Hazard warnings about the chemical; andA list of the hazardous ingredients of the substance in the container.Never use a chemical without knowing what it is and its possible hazards. If a container does not have a label, or if you cannot read the information, notify a supervisor or your safety manager before using the substance inside.Show some sample labels and point out the information on them. Stress to trainees: Do not use containers that have illegible or incomplete labels or that have no labels. Notify a supervisor and ask for information.Image Credit: National Institutes of Health
19 Sistema de etiquetas de la NFPA Azul = Peligro para la saludRojo = InflamabilidadAmarillo = InestabilidadBlanco = Otros peligrosNúmeros: 0 (Sin peligro) a 4 (Peligro extremo)NFPA (Asociación Nacional de Protección contra Incendios)Slide Show NotesThe National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and other organizations have developed a color/number coded labeling system. The NFPA system was developed for short-term, often acute exposure to chemicals under conditions of fires or spills. The ratings are intended to provide fire-fighting and evacuation information. These labels are used as a quick identifier so you can easily determine the basic hazards associated with a chemical.Blue means there is a health hazard; the chemical can cause health problems, such as cancer;Red means flammability; the chemical can catch fire easily;Yellow means instability (formerly referred to as reactivity); the chemical can react if it contacts other substances;White means there are other hazards; andNumbers ranging from 0, for no hazard, to 4, for extremely hazardous, are also used.You should learn to recognize these codes when you see them on a label.Have trainees compare two chemical container labels that have an NFPA label—one with low numbers and the other with high numbers. They will find that the chemical with the high numbers will usually contain much more information about the hazards, PPE, special handling, and other information.
20 Etiquetado en la fábrica Se usa para:Envases secundariosEnvases o recipientes de procesos estacionariosEnvases portátiles o temporalesIncluye rótulosHojas de lotes en procesoSlide Show NotesIn-plant labeling refers to labeling systems that some companies develop for chemicals used at their plants.These systems are typically used for secondary containers, large containers that are fixed in place, and portable or temporary containers.In-plant labeling systems also include tags and process batch sheets.Modify this slide to describe your in-plant labeling system.
21 Recurso de información: la MSDS Es una descripción escrita de un producto químico peligrosoDescribe los riesgos, precauciones y medidas en caso de exposiciónEstá disponible fácilmenteLea la MSDS antes de trabajar con un producto químicoSlide Show NotesWhile labels are important, it’s the Material Safety Data Sheet, or MSDS, that provides the most complete and detailed information about a hazardous chemical. Depending on the format in which it was written, it may contain from 8 to 16 sections.The MSDS for each chemical:Is a written description of the chemical;Describes its risks, as well as precautions and remedies to exposure; andNeeds to be readily available for you to obtain and read.You should always read the MSDS before starting to work with a chemical.Distribute samples of MSDSs and have trainees follow along as you explain the contents. If time allows, ask them to identify common hazards and describe protective measures to take in the event of exposure.
22 MSDS (cont.) La identidad del producto químico y del fabricante Los ingredientes peligrososLas características físicas y químicasIncendio, explosión y reactividadSlide Show NotesThis slide and the next two slides describe the types of information you will find on an MSDS.The identity of the chemical and its manufacturer. This includes its chemical and common names, and the emergency phone number for the manufacturer.The hazardous ingredients of the chemical, including the percentage of different hazardous chemicals that are in the product. Exposure levels, such as the PEL or TLV, may also be included.Physical and chemical properties describe how the chemical appears, how it smells, and how it behaves. For example, does it give off vapors? Can it be mixed safely with water?Information on fire, explosion, and reactivity. For example, what should be used to fight a fire involving this chemical? Does it give off vapors that can burn? Does it create a hazard if it comes into contact with and reacts to other substances?
23 MSDS (cont.) Peligros para la salud Vías de entrada Niveles de exposición (PEL o TLV)Síntomas de la exposiciónInformación sobre primeros auxilios y emergenciaSlide Show NotesThe health hazards section of an MSDS is particularly important. This section should tell you:Routes of entry into the body, such as by skin contact, inhaling vapors, or swallowing.Exposure levels, meaning the maximum safe concentration of the chemical that the average person could be exposed to. These are safety guidelines established by OSHA and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) for the average adult. However, each person is affected differently. In fact, two people conducting the same work can react differently. One person could become sick from a chemical, while the other might not feel anything.Physical symptoms of exposure to the chemical; if these symptoms appear, you may have been overexposed and should stop using it immediately.First-aid and emergency response information if someone has been overexposed.
24 MSDS (cont.) PPE (equipo de protección personal) Manejo y almacenamiento seguroDerrames y fugasAsuntos de conformidadSlide Show NotesOther important safety information on the MSDS includes:Personal Protective Equipment. This is very important because it tells you how to protect yourself from hazards by wearing the right PPE.Information on safe handling and storage. For instance, how should it be handled to prevent spills or leaks? How should it be stored to reduce the possibility of fire or explosion?What to do in the case of a spill or leak.Compliance issues. This is information about complying with laws and regulations that apply to the chemical. This might include legal requirements for disposing of it or transporting it safely.
25 Etiquetas y MSDS ¿Tienen preguntas? Slide Show Notes Do you think you understand what you need to know about chemical labels and MSDSs?Conduct an exercise, if appropriate.
26 PPE: Protección física Protéjase:Caretas protectorasGuantesProtección para los piesProtección para la cabezaDelantales y trajes de cuerpo enteroSlide Show NotesUsing PPE is an essential way to give yourself physical protection against the potential hazards of chemicals you use. Here are some of the types of PPE that might be required:Face shields or safety goggles to protect you from chemical splashes—remember that regular prescription eyeglasses do NOT qualify as proper eye protection;Gloves to protect your hands from contact with chemicals;Foot protection, such as rubber boots, to guard against splashes;Head protection, such as hard hats or hoods, also to protect you from chemical splashes; andAprons or full bodysuits; again, these protect against splashes. A full bodysuit may also protect you from dust and vapors.Think about the situations in which you should wear PPE when using hazardous chemicals. What kinds of PPE should you wear in these situations?Discuss locations in the facility and situations where PPE would be used. Show trainees some of the PPE used at the facility. If several different types of PPE are offered, discuss and show each type.
27 PPE: Protección de respiración Durante la instalación de controles de ingenieríaDurante el mantenimientoTareas no rutinariasRespuesta a emergenciasCuando otros controles son inadecuadosCuando otros controles no son factiblesSlide Show NotesRespiratory protection is another important kind of PPE. This protects you from breathing in hazardous dust, vapors, or fumes. Respirators may be required when:Installing engineering controls intended to reduce exposure to hazardous chemicals;Performing maintenance of equipment;Doing nonroutine tasks that involve exposure to a high concentration of chemicals;Responding to an emergency involving hazardous chemicals;Other ways of controlling exposure to hazardous chemicals are not adequate; orOther types of controls are not feasible or available.Display and discuss the respirators used at the facility, if applicable. Call on volunteers to demonstrate how to don and doff respirators.
28 Procedimientos de emergencia Ojos: Enjuagar con agua durante 15 minutosPiel: Lavar con agua y jabón y quitarse la ropa contaminadaInhalación: Irse a un lugar con aire frescoTragar: Solicitar asistencia médica de emergenciaSlide Show NotesKnowing proper emergency procedures is another important part of chemical safety. That’s why you should always read the label and MSDS for every chemical to find out exactly what to do in case you or a co-worker is overexposed. Emergency procedures may include:Flushing eyes with water for 15 minutes in case of chemical contact;Washing skin with soap and water, and removing contaminated clothing;Moving to fresh air if a person has been inhaling hazardous dust, fumes, or vapors; andGetting emergency medical assistance if a person has accidentally swallowed a hazardous chemical.Think about the emergenccy procedures you should use if you or a co-worker are overexposed to a chemical. Do you know where eyewash stations, emergency showers, and first-aid kits are located? Do you know how to use them?Discuss your company’s emergency procedures, so employees understand how to report and handle medical emergencies. Where are first-aid kits and emergency shower and eyewash stations located? Is the employee permitted to take another employee to the eyewash station, or does a person trained in first aid need to do this? Display the contents of a first-aid kit, and show trainees the location(s) of emergency shower and/or eye wash station.
29 Respuesta de emergencia ante derrames o fugas Evacuar el áreaAvisar a un supervisor o al equipo de respuesta a emergenciasMantenerse alejadoSlide Show NotesMany chemical spills or leaks should be considered emergencies and responded to as such. The label and MSDS for the chemical should give you the specific information you need for responding to spills and leaks. As a general rule, when a hazardous chemical spills, you should:Evacuate the area of the spill unless you’ve been trained to handle it;Notify a supervisor or emergency response personnel; andStay away from the area until it has been contained or cleaned up.Even small spills or leaks should be taken seriously and reported to a supervisor, even if they seem to be too minor to bother with.Discuss your company’s emergency response safeguards: monitoring or inspection system, alarms, and signals. Either sound the alarm or play a tape recording so employees know what these systems sound like. Stress that employees must report accidental releases even if they’re embarrassed. Stress that the consequences of not reporting a release could be far more serious than any disciplinary action they might face.
30 ¿Qué se debe hacer? Recibir capacitación sobre el derecho a saber Acceso a la MSDSLeer las etiquetasUsar el PPESlide Show NotesDo you remember this worker and his assignment of cleaning screens with a hazardous chemical? To refresh your memory, he’s given a container of hydrofluoric acid, an aluminum brightener. He was provided no chemical information or protective equipment, except for the order to clean the screens with the container, brush, and rag provided.Based on what you have learned from this session, you should know the important steps that should have been taken before starting this task. These include:Receiving hazard communication, or “right-to-know,” training in how to use the chemical safelyObtaining and reading the MSDS for the chemicalReading the container label before starting to workWearing the right kind of PPE to protect himself against hazardsYou may want to delete or hide the text on the slide and allow trainees to identify the correct right-to-know procedures.
31 Puntos clave que recordar Identificar peligros químicosLeer las etiquetas y las MSDSsSeguir las advertencias e instrucciones o, en caso de duda, preguntar al supervisorUsar el PPE adecuadoAdoptar hábitos de trabajo sensatos y segurosAprender los procedimientos de emergenciaSlide Show NotesHere are the main points to remember from this session on Hazard Communication:Always identify the hazards of a chemical before you start to use it;Read the label and the MSDS for a chemical; these are the best ways to find out about hazards and what to do about them;Always follow the safety instructions and warnings for a chemical. If you’re not sure what to do, ask a supervisor or safety manager;Always use the correct PPE to protect yourself against hazards;Practice sensible and safe work habits when using hazardous chemicals; and, finally;Learn proper emergency procedures, because responding properly can help protect yourself as well as the people you work with.This concludes the Hazard Communication training session.Give trainees the quiz.