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16.3 The past subjunctive ANTE TODO You will now learn how to form and use the past subjunctive (el pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo), also called the.

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Presentación del tema: "16.3 The past subjunctive ANTE TODO You will now learn how to form and use the past subjunctive (el pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo), also called the."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 16.3 The past subjunctive ANTE TODO You will now learn how to form and use the past subjunctive (el pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo), also called the imperfect subjunctive. Like the present subjunctive, the past subjunctive is used mainly in multiple-clause sentences which express states and conditions such as will, influence, emotion, commands, indefiniteness, and non-existence.

2 16.3 The past subjunctive The past subjunctive is used in the same contexts and situations as the present subjunctive and the present perfect subjunctive, except that it generally describes actions, events, or conditions that have already happened. In other words, the verb in the second clause (dependent) must refer to the past.

3 Era importante que estudiáramos. (Impersonal expression) It was important for us to study./It was important that we studied. Me pidieron que no llegara tarde. (Verb of will) They asked me not to arrive late. Me sorprendió que ustedes no vinieran a la cena.(Verb of emotion) It surprised me that you didnt come to the dinner. No creías que ellos trabajaran mucho. (Verb of doubt, denial, uncertainty) You didnt believe that they worked much. Salió antes de que yo pudiera hablar contigo. (Conjunctions: ESCAPA/ChadAte) He left before I could talk to you. Buscaban un profesor que supiera hablar español. (Fantasma/adjective clause) They were looking for a teacher who knew how to speak Spanish.

4 16.3 The past subjunctive If the verb in the first clause is in the preterit, imperfect, conditional, pluperfect, or conditional perfect, and the sentence calls for subjunctive in the second clause, the verb in the second clause MUST BE a past subjunctive. Me sorprendió de que llegaras a tiempo. It surprised me that you arrived on time.

5 16.3 The past subjunctive If the verb in the first clause is present, present perfect, future, future perfect or command forms, and the sentence calls for subjunctive, the verb in the second clause must be in the past subjunctive ONLY IF it refers past action. Me alegro de que llegaras a tiempo. I am happy that you arrived.

6 16.3 The past subjunctive If the sentence calls for the subjunctive, and if the verb in the main clause is in the: Then use: present/present perfect/future/future perfect/command form a present or past subjunctive* (i.e. present subjunctive, present perfect subjunctive, imperfect subjunctive, or past perfect subjunctive.) *The action in the dependent clause must be in the past to call for past subjunctive: Im glad (now) that you sang last night. = Me alegro (ahora) de que cantaras anoche. However, if the sentence calls for the subjunctive, and if the verb in the main clause is in the: Preterit Imperfect Pluperfect Conditional Conditional perfect Then you must use: A past subjunctive (i.e., imperfect subjunctive or past perfect subjunctive)

7 16.3 The past subjunctive The past subjunctive is formed using the Uds. / ellos / ellas form of the preterit. By dropping the –on ending from this preterit form, you establish the stem of all the past subjunctive forms. To this stem you then add the past subjunctive endings. The past subjunctive endings are the same for all verbs. -a-amos -as-ais -a-an INFINITIVE PRETERITE FORM STEM PAST SUBJUNCTIVE hablar ellos hablaronhablar- hablara …etc. beber ellos bebieronbebier- bebiera …etc. escribir ellos escribieronescribier- escribiera…etc.

8 16.3 The past subjunctive ¡ATENCIÓN! Note that the nosotros/as forms of the past subjunctive always has a written accent on the vowel right before the letter r. -ar-er/-ir -áramos -iéramos/yéramos

9 16.3 The past subjunctive estudiaraprenderrecibir SINGULAR FORMS yo estudiaraaprendierarecibiera tú estudiarasaprendierasrecibieras Ud. / él / ella estudiaraaprendierarecibiera PLURAL FORMS nosotros/as estudiáramosaprendiéramosrecibiéramos vosotros/as estudiaraisaprendieraisrecibierais Uds. / ellos / ellas estudiaranaprendieranrecibieran

10 16.3 The past subjunctive For verbs with irregular preterit forms, add the past subjunctive endings to the irregular stem. Dont forget the nosotros accents. INFINITIVE PRETERITE FORMSTEM PAST SUBJUNCTIVE (a, as, a, amos,ais,an) dar dierondier- diera…etc. decir dijerondijer- dijera…etc. estar estuvieronestuvier- estuviera…etc. hacerhicieronhicier- hiciera…etc. ir/ser fueronfuer- fuera…etc. poderpudieronpudier- pudiera…etc. ponerpusieronpusier- pusiera…etc. quererquisieronquisier- quisiera…etc. sabersupieronsupier- supiera…etc. tener tuvierontuvier- tuviera…etc. venir vinieronvinier- viniera…etc.

11 16.3 The past subjunctive The –ir stem-changing verbs and other verbs with spelling changes follow a similar process to form the past subjunctive. Dont forget the accents on nosotros. INFINITIVE PRETERITE FORM STEM PAST SUBJUNCTIVE (a,as, a, amos, ais, an) preferirprefirieronprefirier- prefiriera…etc. repetirrepitieronrepitier- repitiera…etc. dormirdurmierondurmier- durmiera…etc. conducir condujeroncondujer- condujera…etc. creer creyeroncreyer- creyera…etc. destruirdestruyerondestruyer- destruyera…etc. oíroyeronoyer- oyera…etc.

12 16.3 The past subjunctive ¡INTÉNTALO! Indica la forma apropiada del pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo de los verbos entre paréntesis. 1.Quería que tú ____ (venir) más temprano. vinieras 2. Esperábamos que ustedes ____ (hablar) mucho más en la reunión. hablaran 3. No creían que yo ____ (poder) hacerlo. pudiera

13 16.3 The past subjunctive 4. Sentí mucho que ustedes no ____ (estar) con nosotros anoche. estuvieran 5. No era necesario que ellas ____ (hacer) todo. hicieran 6. Me pareció increíble que tú ____ (saber) dónde encontrarlo. supieras

14 16.3 The past subjunctive 7. No había nadie que ____ (creer) tu historia. creyera 8. Mis padres insistieron en que yo ____ (ir) a la universidad. fuera 9. Queríamos salir antes de que ustedes ____ (llegar). llegaran 10.Esperabas que nosotros no _________(tener) exámenes. tuviéramos


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