Presentación del tema: "English II Unit 1. Tiempos Verbales (Tenses) Tense shows the time of a verb's action or being. There are three inflected forms reflected by changes in."— Transcripción de la presentación:
Tiempos Verbales (Tenses) Tense shows the time of a verb's action or being. There are three inflected forms reflected by changes in the endings of verbs. The present tense: "She is a student. She drives a new car." The simple past tense: "She was a student. She drove a new car." Unlike other languages, English does not have inflected forms for the future tense. Instead, English future forms are created with the use of auxiliaries: "She will be a student. She is going to drive a new car." English can even create the future by using the present tense, "The bus arrives later this afternoon," or the present progressive, "He is relocating to Portland later next month."
THE INDEFINITE TENSE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE (or Simple Present) AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEINTERROGATIVE I work I do not work Do I work? You workYou do not workDo you work? He worksHe does not workDoes he work? She worksShe does not workDoes she work? It worksIt does not workDoes he work? We workWe do not workDo we work? You workYou do not workDo you work? They workThey do not workDo they work? (yo trabajo...)(yo no trabajo...)(Trabajo yo...?)
Usos Expresa una acción o estado habitual Un hecho universal o una verdad general Se usa la forma simple del verbo, con el agregado de una s en la tercera persona del singular (HE- SHE-IT). En las formas interrogativa y negativa usamos el auxiliar To Do (DO-DOES), en la tercera persona del singular. Suele relacionarse con expresiones tales como: every day, every week, always, once a week, etc.
Examples: I read PC magazine every month. I work on my PC in the morning. These PCs do not work. These PCs dont work. Where do you find the newest softwares? This manual specifies the characteristics of this motherboard. What does that manual show? That manual does not present the BIOS software = That manual doesnt present the BIOS software.
NOTICE: To finish-he finishesTo wash-he washes To teach-he teachesTo dress-he dresses To pass-he passesTo study-he studies To copy-he copiesTo go-he goes To do-he does
PAST INDEFINITE TENSE (Simple Past) Se usa para denotar una acción o estado que está completado en o durante algún tiempo pasado definido. Se lo acompaña frecuentemente con palabras como Yesterday, last week, last month, ago, etc.
Examples Charles delivered the softwares. He did not deliver the softwares. Did he deliver the softwares? Nancy bought a computer yesterday. She did not buy a computer yesterday. Did she buy a computer yesterday?
Regular Verbs Regular Verbs - Spelling III InfinitivePastInfinitivePast to like -he liked to copy -he copied to live -he lived to study -he studied to use -he used to apply-he applied III Infinitive Past to stop-he stopped to rub-he rubbed to fit-he fitted
FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE (Simple Future) Se usa para indicar una acción que tiene lugar en algún tiempo definido o indefinido en el futuro: Examples: I shall see you tomorrow He will not do it They will return next week Will Betty be present at the party? We shall go there next month The girls will not sing with us Este tiempo responde al futuro simple del indicativo en castellano, y se forma con los auxiliares Shall (primera persona singular y plural) y Will (segunda y tercera del singular y plural), con la forma simple del verbo. Dejamos aclarado que estos auxiliares tienen otros usos e implicaciones.
Going to (Future) Este tiempo verbal se utiliza para expresar una acción que está siendo planeada y que se concretará en un futuro. Se forma utilizando el verbo To Be (am - is- are) y Going to como auxiliares seguido por el verbo principal que expresa la acción en infinitivo. Examples: - They are going to sit for the test next week. -The student is going to see the experiment in ten minutes.
THE CONTINUOUS TENSES (Auxiliar To Be y Verb-ing) Usos: Se expresa una acción que se desarrolla en el momento de hablar (Present Continuous), o se estaba desarrollando en determinado momento del pasado (Past Continuous), o estará ocurriendo en algún instante del futuro (Future Continuous). Dos elementos lo caracterizan: el auxiliar To Be en su acepción ESTAR y el participio presente (ING) del verbo que se mantiene invariable en todas las personas.
PRESENT CONTINUOUSPAST CONTINUOUS He is reading now He was reading at 6 (él está leyendo ahora) (él estaba leyendo a las 6) They are not eating lunch They were not eating lunch (No están almorzando) (No estaban almorzando) Are you writing with a pen? Were you writing with a pen? (¿Estás escribiendo con lapicera?) (¿Estabas escribiendo con lapicera?) FUTURE CONTINUOUS He will be reading (él estará leyendo) etc., etc., etc.
Present Perfect Tense Este tiempo de verbo se usa: a) para denotar una acción o estado que se ha completado durante algún período de tiempo presente reciente, tales como today (hoy), this week (esta semana), this month (este mes), etc. Examples: She has not come today Have you seen Mr. White this week? I have visited the museum this afternoon
b) para indicar una acción o estado que tiene lugar durante un período de tiempo que dure hasta el momento de hablar. Palabras tales como lately (ultimamente), recently (recientemente), ever (alguna vez), never (nunca), etc. se usan junto con este tiempo verbal. Examples: I have never seen a U.F.O (Unknown Flying Object) Have you ever been to London? He hasnt spoken to me lately.
c) para denotar una acción que acaba de completarse: Examples: She has just arrived I have just read the newspaper He has come at last
d) Cuando la acción está completada, pero no se ha expresado ningún tiempo. En este caso, el resultado de la acción puede experimentarse ahora (NOW): Examples: She has had a difficult life so far. Have you slept well? I have closed the door
Past Perfect Tense Se usa para indicar una acción que está completada en el pasado y es anterior a alguna otra acción pasada o a algún tiempo pasado: Examples: When I came back home, Father had left La acción de salir es anterior a la de volver He had finished his work at 8 oclock last night We had arrived at the station before the train started Hugh had lived in Rosario for ten years When it rained they had finished the football game
Future Perfect Tense No es muy frecuente este tiempo, por lo que sólo nos limitamos a dar unos ejemplos: Examples: She will have seen it in B.A. I shall have visited him there The teacher will have taught you the passive voice.
Activity 1 Identify what tense each sentence belongs to. 1. I have been working all day. 2. I went to the supermarket. 3. I like making cakes. 4. I have been to Scotland many times. 5. I will have been studying for five years when I finish my degree. 6. I had studied French before I went to Paris. 7. I will go to the beach on Friday. 8. I eat vegetables every day. 9. I will have been to ten more cities by the time I leave Europe. 10. I had been running for three kilometres when I had an accident. 11. I will be cooking dinner at this time tomorrow. 12. I was eating dinner when he arrived.
Activity 2 Make sentences using the following words in the tense given. 1. I/be/walk/park (past continuous) 2. We/arrive/last night (past simple) 3. He/have/cook/three hours/when/she/come (past perfect continuous/past simple) 4. We/be/watch/TV /when he/knock/on/the door (past continuous/past simple) 5. I/be/Switzerland/next week (simple future) 6. She/training/for five years before the next Olympic games (future perfect progressive) 7. I/study/English/next year (Future continuous)
Modo Mood in verbs refers to one of three attitudes that a writer or speaker has to what is being written or spoken. The indicative mood is used to make a statement or ask a question. The imperative mood is used when we're feeling sort of bossish and want to give a directive, strong suggestion, or order: Get your homework done before you watch television tonight. Please include cash payment with your order form. Get out of town! The subjunctive mood is used to: 1) express a wish; 2) begin with if and express a condition that does not exist (is contrary to fact); 3) begin with as if and as though when such clauses describe a speculation or condition contrary to fact; and 4) begin with that and express a demand, requirement, request, or suggestion She wishes her boyfriend were here. If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player. We would have passed if we had studied harder. He acted as if he were guilty. I requested that he be present at the hearing.
References Alexisbenglishclass - Irregular verbs https://alexisbenglishclass.wikispaces.com/Irregu lar+verbs Retrieved on 17th March, 2014. https://alexisbenglishclass.wikispaces.com/Irregu lar+verbs Compendio de Gramática Inglés II. Tecnicatura Superior en Programación. The English Coffer 1 http://englishcoffer- cse.blogspot.com.ar/2011_05_01_archive.html Retrieved on 17th March, 2014.http://englishcoffer- cse.blogspot.com.ar/2011_05_01_archive.html Verbs and Verbals http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/verb s.htm#tense Retrieved on 17th March, 2014. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/verb s.htm#tense