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How to form the subjunctive mood

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1 How to form the subjunctive mood
The subjunctive mood is used a great deal in the Spanish language. For example, the subjunctive can help a person to talk about something wished for, something about which a person feels some special emotional reaction, or something that is not real in some way.

2 Before you see any examples of the subjunctive in action, you will learn the proper forms of this mood. This first section will simply teach you how to form the subjunctive. Consider this section a boot camp for forming the subjunctive. For now, all you will have to do is conjugate, memorize, conjugate, and then memorize some more.

3 Regular verbs Casar Meter Vivir
Case Casemos Cases Caséis Case Casen Meta Metamos Metas Metáis Meta Metan Viva Vivamos Vivas Viváis Viva Vivan -ar verbs: take off the “-ar” ending to the infinitive Add “e, es, e, emos, éis, en” -er/-ir verbs: take off the “-er/-ir” ending of the infinitive Add “a, as, a, amos, áis, an”

4 Stem-changing (boot) verbs
-ar and –er “boot” verbs What happens with “boot” verbs in the subjunctive? –Ar and –Er “boot” verbs operate the same way “boot” verbs do in the present tense. The stem change occurs only inside the boot in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd person singular, and in the 3rd person plural. The endings are typical subjunctive endings: -ar verbs “e, es, e, emos, éis, en”; -er verbs “a, as, a, amos, áis, an”

5 Examples: Cerrar = (e- ie) Volver (o-ie) Cierre Cerremos
Cierres Cerréis Cierre Cierren Vuelva Volvamos Vuelvas Volváis Vuelva Vuelvan Contar (o-ue) Entender (e-ie) Cuente Contemos Cuentes Contéis Cuente Cuenten Entienda Entendamos Entiendas Entendáis Entienda Entiendan

6 -Ir boot verbs -ir “boot” verbs are a little bit different in the subjunctive. The expected stem changes occur inside the boot (in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd person singular and in the person plural) In addition, changes are required in the 1st person and 2nd person plural as well. These special out of the boot changes are the same changes found with these –ir verbs in the 3rd person singular and plural of the preterite. (ex. Sentir = sintió; dormir= durmió)

7 -IR Boot Verbs Sentir Dormir Sienta Sintamos Sientas Sintáis
Sienta Sientan Duerma Durmamos Duermas Durmáis Duerma Duerman Pedir Morir Pida Pidamos Pidas Pidáis Pida Pidan Muera Muramos Mueras Muráis Muera Mueran

8 Irregular Verbs You remember that there were a number of verbs that had irregular conjugations in the present tense in the 1st person singular (ex. oigo, quepo, veo, etc…). Because the subjunctive generally builds on the 1st person singular, you will notice those irregularities played out in every form of the subjunctive.

9 Irregulars: Caber = quep- Caer = caig- Decir = dig- Hacer = hag-
Oir = oig- Poner = pong- + opposite endings (-ar) Salir = salg- (e, es, e, emos, éis, en) Tener = teng- Valer = valg- Venir = veng- Ver = ve-

10 Verbs with special spelling changes:
car = que Sacar cer/cir = zca Conocer gar = gue Pagar Saque Saquemos Saques Saquéis Saque Saquen Conozca Conozcamos Conozcas Conozcáis Conozca Conozcan Pague Paguemos Pagues Paguéis Pague Paguen ger/gir = ja Escoger zar = ce Rezar Escoja Escojamos Escojas Escojáis Escoja Escojan Rece Recemos Reces Recéis Rece Recen

11 Super-irregulars Finally, there are 6 verbs whose subjunctive forms are just “locas.” They are not built upon the 1st person singular of the present tense. You will have to memorize these special verbs.

12 Dar Estar Haber Dé Demos Des Deis Dé Den Esté Estemos Estés Estéis
Esté Estén Haya Hayamos Hayas Hayáis Haya Hayan Ir Saber Ser Vaya Vayamos Vayas Vayáis Vaya Vayan Sepa Sepamos Sepas Sepáis Sepa Sepan Sea Seamos Seas Seáis Sea Sean

13 Now that you know the conjugations for the subjunctive mood conjugate the following verbs:
Caminar Meter Subir Sentar Mover Dormir Tener Salir Conocer Pagar Dirigir Buscar Ir Ser Saber

14 Caminar Camine Caminemos Camines Caminéis Camine Caminen

15 Meter Meta Metamos Metas Metáis Meta Metan

16 Subir Suba Subamos Subas Subáis Suba Suban

17 Sentar Siente Sentemos Sientes Sentéis Siente Sienten

18 Mover Mueva Movamos Muevas Mováis Mueva Muevan

19 Dormir Duerma Durmamos Duermas Durmáis Duerma Duerman

20 Tener Tenga Tengamos Tengas Tengáis Tenga Tengan

21 Salir Salga Salgamos Salgas Salgáis Salga Salgan

22 Conocer Conozca Conozcamos Conozcas Conozcáis Conozca Conozcan

23 Pagar Pague Paguemos Pagues Paguéis Pague Paguen

24 Dirigir Dirija Dirijamos Dirijas Dirijáis Dirija Dirijan

25 Buscar Busque Busquemos Busques Busquéis Busque Busquen

26 Ir Vaya Vayamos Vayas Vayáis Vaya Vayan

27 Ser Sea Seamos Seas Seáis Sea Sean

28 Saber Sepa Sepamos Sepas Sepáis Sepa Sepan

29 Write the forms of the subjunctive mood that corresponds to these verb forms of the present indicative tense. Comen Dormimos Piden Buscan Protegen Va Se sienten Son Podemos Comienzan Morimos Dices Enciendo Vemos Cerráis Pago Pedís Tienes

30 Answers: Coman Durmamos Pidan Busquen Protejan Vaya Se sientan Sean
Podamos Comiencen Muramos Digas Encienda Veamos Cerréis Pague Pidáis Tengas

31 From which infinitives did the following subjunctive forms come?
Sean Muramos Tengan Oigan Se sientan Practiquen Compréis Sepas Conozcáis Des

32 Answers: Ser Morir Tener Oír Sentirse Practicar Comprar Saber
Conocer Dar

33 The Subjunctive mood after indirect commands
An indirect command features a main clause that asks someone to do something, and a dependent clause (the part of the sentence that follows the word “que”) that mentions the action that the speaker wants the other person to do. The subjunctive is used in that dependent clause because the action being described has not happened yet. There is a certain level of uncertainty inherent in the sentence, and the use of a verb in the subjunctive mood helps to express that uncertainty.

34 Examples: Quiero que mi amiga baile conmigo esta noche.
I want my friend to dance with me tonight.

35 Mi madre insiste en que comamos la ensalada primero.
My mother insists that we eat the salad first.

36 Pedimos que los oficiales nos escriban más tarde.
We are asking the officials to write to us later.

37 In all of the previous sentences, the action in the dependent clause hasn’t happened yet.
It is not verifiable. For example, in the first sentence, I want my friend to dance with me, but she just might not. In sentence 2, my mom wants us to eat the salad first, but we may choose to eat dessert first. In the third sentence, we ask the officials to write us later, but maybe they will choose to write us now or not at all. The subjunctive beautifully helps to convey that level of uncertainty.

38 Common verbs that express commands that would be found in the main clause of these types of sentences. Decir Pedir(i) Dejar(to allow, permit) Permitir Desear Preferir(ie) Esperar Prohibir Exigir(to demand) Querer(ie) Hacer Recomendar (ie) Insistir en (to insist on) Rogar(to beg)(ue) Mandar(to order) Sugerir(to suggest)(ie)

39 Here is a review of the “formula” found in this section:
Subject #1 + verb #1 + que + subject #2 + verb #2 The first person (subject #1) wants, wishes, insists, suggests (verb #1) that (que) (subject #2) do something (verb #2)

40 Translate the following sentences into Spanish.
1. I’m telling you to shut your mouth immediately! 2. My friends recommend that I return home immediately. 3. My grandmother wants me to see the film “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” with her. 4. My girlfriend insists that I wear a white suit at our wedding, but the idea doesn’t appeal to me at all. 5. The sergeant orders us to write down the orders in a notebook. 6. That cook prohibits me from making bread in her kitchen. 7. The boys are begging that the witnesses tell the truth.

41 ¡Te digo que cierres la boca inmediatamente!
Mis amigos recomiendan que vuelva a casa enseguida. Mi abuela quiere que yo vea la pelicula “Harry Potter and the Socerer’s Stone” con ella. Mi novia insiste en que yo lleve un traje blanco en la boda (a nuestra boda), pero no me apetece nada la idea. El sargento nos manda que escribamos las órdenes en un cuaderno. Esa cocinera prohibe que yo haga pan en su cocina. Los chicos ruegan que los testigos digan la verdad.

42 El Fin Information cited from:Conner, John Breaking the Spanish Barrier 2006

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