Presentación del tema: "How to form the subjunctive mood The subjunctive mood is used a great deal in the Spanish language. For example, the subjunctive can help a person to talk."— Transcripción de la presentación:
How to form the subjunctive mood The subjunctive mood is used a great deal in the Spanish language. For example, the subjunctive can help a person to talk about something wished for, something about which a person feels some special emotional reaction, or something that is not real in some way.
Before you see any examples of the subjunctive in action, you will learn the proper forms of this mood. This first section will simply teach you how to form the subjunctive. Consider this section a boot camp for forming the subjunctive. For now, all you will have to do is conjugate, memorize, conjugate, and then memorize some more.
Regular verbs CasarMeterVivir Case Casemos Cases Cas é is Case Casen Meta Metamos Metas Met á is Meta Metan Viva Vivamos Vivas Viv á is Viva Vivan -ar verbs: take off the -ar ending to the infinitive Add e, es, e, emos, éis, en -er/-ir verbs: take off the -er/-ir ending of the infinitive Add a, as, a, amos, áis, an
Stem-changing (boot) verbs -ar and – er boot verbs What happens with boot verbs in the subjunctive? – Ar and – Er boot verbs operate the same way boot verbs do in the present tense. The stem change occurs only inside the boot in the 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd person singular, and in the 3 rd person plural. The endings are typical subjunctive endings: - ar verbs e, es, e, emos, é is, en ; -er verbs a, as, a, amos, á is, an
Examples: Cerrar = (e- ie)Volver (o-ie) Cierre Cerremos Cierres Cerr é is Cierre Cierren Vuelva Volvamos Vuelvas Volv á is Vuelva Vuelvan Contar (o-ue)Entender (e-ie) Cuente Contemos Cuentes Cont é is Cuente Cuenten Entienda Entendamos Entiendas Entend á is Entienda Entiendan
-Ir boot verbs -ir boot verbs are a little bit different in the subjunctive. The expected stem changes occur inside the boot (in the 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd person singular and in the person plural) In addition, changes are required in the 1 st person and 2 nd person plural as well. These special out of the boot changes are the same changes found with these – ir verbs in the 3 rd person singular and plural of the preterite. (ex. Sentir = sinti ó ; dormir= durmi ó )
-IR Boot Verbs SentirDormir Sienta Sintamos Sientas Sint á is Sienta Sientan Duerma Durmamos Duermas Durm á is Duerma Duerman PedirMorir Pida Pidamos Pidas Pid á is Pida Pidan Muera Muramos Mueras Mur á is Muera Mueran
Irregular Verbs You remember that there were a number of verbs that had irregular conjugations in the present tense in the 1 st person singular (ex. oigo, quepo, veo, etc … ). Because the subjunctive generally builds on the 1 st person singular, you will notice those irregularities played out in every form of the subjunctive.
Irregulars: Caber = quep- Caer = caig- Decir = dig- Hacer = hag- Oir = oig- Poner = pong-+ opposite endings (-ar) Salir = salg-(e, es, e, emos, é is, en) Tener = teng- Valer = valg- Venir = veng- Ver = ve-
Verbs with special spelling changes: car = que Sacar cer/cir = zca Conocer gar = gue Pagar Saque Saquemos Saques Saqu é is Saque Saquen Conozca Conozcamos Conozcas Conozc á is Conozca Conozcan Pague Paguemos Pagues Pagu é is Pague Paguen ger/gir = ja Escoger zar = ce Rezar Escoja Escojamos Escojas Escoj á is Escoja Escojan Rece Recemos Reces Rec é is Rece Recen
Super-irregulars Finally, there are 6 verbs whose subjunctive forms are just locas. They are not built upon the 1 st person singular of the present tense. You will have to memorize these special verbs.
DarEstarHaber D é Demos Des Deis D é Den Est é Estemos Est é s Est é is Est é Est é n Haya Hayamos Hayas Hay á is Haya Hayan IrSaberSer Vaya Vayamos Vayas Vay á is Vaya Vayan Sepa Sepamos Sepas Sep á is Sepa Sepan Sea Seamos Seas Se á is Sea Sean
Now that you know the conjugations for the subjunctive mood conjugate the following verbs: Caminar Meter Subir Sentar Mover Dormir Tener Salir Conocer Pagar Dirigir Buscar Ir Ser Saber
Caminar CamineCaminemos CaminesCamin é is CamineCaminen
Meter MetaMetamos MetasMet á is MetaMetan
Subir SubaSubamos SubasSub á is SubaSuban
Sentar SienteSentemos SientesSent é is SienteSienten
Mover MuevaMovamos MuevasMov á is MuevaMuevan
Dormir DuermaDurmamos DuermasDurm á is DuermaDuerman
Tener TengaTengamos TengasTeng á is TengaTengan
Salir SalgaSalgamos SalgasSalg á is SalgaSalgan
Conocer ConozcaConozcamos ConozcasConozc á is ConozcaConozcan
Pagar PaguePaguemos PaguesPagu é is PaguePaguen
Dirigir DirijaDirijamos DirijasDirij á is DirijaDirijan
Buscar BusqueBusquemos BusquesBusqu é is BusqueBusquen
Ir VayaVayamos VayasVay á is VayaVayan
Ser SeaSeamos SeasSe á is SeaSean
Saber SepaSepamos SepasSep á is SepaSepan
Write the forms of the subjunctive mood that corresponds to these verb forms of the present indicative tense. ComenDormimos PidenBuscan ProtegenVa Se sientenSon PodemosComienzan MorimosDices EnciendoVemos Cerr á isPago Ped í sTienes
From which infinitives did the following subjunctive forms come? SeanMuramos TenganOigan Se sientanPractiquen CompréisSepas ConozcáisDes
Answers: SerMorir TenerO í r SentirsePracticar ComprarSaber ConocerDar
The Subjunctive mood after indirect commands An indirect command features a main clause that asks someone to do something, and a dependent clause (the part of the sentence that follows the word que ) that mentions the action that the speaker wants the other person to do. The subjunctive is used in that dependent clause because the action being described has not happened yet. There is a certain level of uncertainty inherent in the sentence, and the use of a verb in the subjunctive mood helps to express that uncertainty.
Examples: Quiero que mi amiga baile conmigo esta noche. I want my friend to dance with me tonight.
Mi madre insiste en que comamos la ensalada primero. My mother insists that we eat the salad first.
Pedimos que los oficiales nos escriban más tarde. We are asking the officials to write to us later.
In all of the previous sentences, the action in the dependent clause hasn t happened yet. It is not verifiable. For example, in the first sentence, I want my friend to dance with me, but she just might not. In sentence 2, my mom wants us to eat the salad first, but we may choose to eat dessert first. In the third sentence, we ask the officials to write us later, but maybe they will choose to write us now or not at all. The subjunctive beautifully helps to convey that level of uncertainty.
Common verbs that express commands that would be found in the main clause of these types of sentences. DecirPedir(i) Dejar(to allow, permit)Permitir DesearPreferir(ie) EsperarProhibir Exigir(to demand)Querer(ie) HacerRecomendar (ie) Insistir en (to insist on)Rogar(to beg)(ue) Mandar(to order)Sugerir(to suggest)(ie)
Here is a review of the formula found in this section: Subject #1 + verb #1 + que + subject #2 + verb #2 The first person (subject #1) wants, wishes, insists, suggests (verb #1) that (que) (subject #2) do something (verb #2)
Translate the following sentences into Spanish. 1. I m telling you to shut your mouth immediately! 2. My friends recommend that I return home immediately. 3. My grandmother wants me to see the film Harry Potter and the Sorcerer s Stone with her. 4. My girlfriend insists that I wear a white suit at our wedding, but the idea doesn t appeal to me at all. 5. The sergeant orders us to write down the orders in a notebook. 6. That cook prohibits me from making bread in her kitchen. 7. The boys are begging that the witnesses tell the truth.
¡ Te digo que cierres la boca inmediatamente! Mis amigos recomiendan que vuelva a casa enseguida. Mi abuela quiere que yo vea la pelicula Harry Potter and the Socerer s Stone con ella. Mi novia insiste en que yo lleve un traje blanco en la boda (a nuestra boda), pero no me apetece nada la idea. El sargento nos manda que escribamos las ó rdenes en un cuaderno. Esa cocinera prohibe que yo haga pan en su cocina. Los chicos ruegan que los testigos digan la verdad.
El Fin Information cited from:Conner, John Breaking the Spanish Barrier 2006