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REVISION 2º BTO. Present simple + - ? he/ she / it : -s -es (plays, goes) Conson + y = – ies (study- studies) O = es (go – goes) S, x, ch, sh = es (watch-

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Presentación del tema: "REVISION 2º BTO. Present simple + - ? he/ she / it : -s -es (plays, goes) Conson + y = – ies (study- studies) O = es (go – goes) S, x, ch, sh = es (watch-"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 REVISION 2º BTO

2 Present simple + - ? he/ she / it : -s -es (plays, goes) Conson + y = – ies (study- studies) O = es (go – goes) S, x, ch, sh = es (watch- watches/ mix-mixes ) Don`t Doesn´t + verb We don´t study She doesn´t study A + S + V ? Do you study ? Does she study? We study English My sister watches TV present continuous Am Is Are + V-ing V monosilábicos q terminan en 1 vocal + 1 cons., doblan cons. Runrunning swimswimming V de dos sílabas y acento en la 2ª, doblan consonante Beginbeginning Verbos que acaban en l, doblan l Traveltravelling Verbos que acaban en -ie, cambia a y + ing Diedying + I am studying you are studying he is studying - I am not studying You aren´t studying He isn´t studying ? A + S + V ? Am I studying? Are you studying? Is he studying ? Study- studying Play-playing

3 Present simple The simple present is used for two main types of action: actions which happen regularly o on Sundays o Frequency Adverbs : -always, usually, often – o every day, every week, Once a month, etc. Habits States Things which do not often change ( opinions, conditions, etc) present continuous A temporary action happening now : Something which is going on right now (but it will stop in the future) Algo que está ocurriendo ahora pero parará en el futuro) A definite plan for the future : Something we intend to do, usually in the near future. Algo que tenemos la intención de hacer en un futuro cercano The present continuous tense is used for two main types of action:

4 There are some verbs that you don't usually use in the continuous form, just as in Spanish. Generally speaking they're verbs that describe states and not actions, such as these: verbs describing thought processes and opinions: think, believe, remember, know, forget, agree, disagree… verbs describing emotions: want, like, love, hate, adore, detest… verbs describing the senses: see, hear, taste, feel, smell… This doesn't mean that it's impossible to use these verbs in the continuous. It just means that it's unusual and would probably be very specific in a particular situation. Non-continuous verbs / Stative verbs

5 Frequency adverbs and time expressions Always Usually Often Sometimes Hardly ever Never Every day Once a day / week / month.. Twice a day / week / month.. Three times a day / week / month.. Twelve times a day / week / month.. How often..? Before the verb She often plays golf After to beThey are always hungry At the end of the sentence I do yoga twice a week

6 Past Simple Monosyllabic ending in 1 vowel+1 conson, double conson Stopstopped 2 syllables & stress in the 2nd, double consonant Permitpermitted V ending in conson + y i + ed Studystudied Vowel + y + ed play - played Suj ? V+ -ed 2 nd col I played I sang Suj + didn´t + verb I didn´t playI didn´t sing Did+ Suj + verb ? Did you play? Did you sing? A+S+V ? Us e Past and finished actions. We visited the museum last week A series of completed actions in the past When I opened the door, the dog barked at the postman. Past states. The old lady lived in this house in 1887 TIME EXPRESSIONS Yesterday last week/year 2 days ago In 2002 in the 80s when then

7 + - ? I was playing You were singing I wasn´t playing You weren´t singing Was I playing? Were you singing? Remember I, He, She, It Was/ wasn´t Were/weren´t You, we, they Past Continuous Was Were + V-ing Was Were + V-ing Suj + Wasn´t Weren´t + V-ing Suj + Was Were + Suj + V-ing Time expressions: While, as, last night / week, at 3 o´clock A+S+V ?

8 Usos : 1.Para decir lo que estaba ocurriendo en un momento concreto del pasado (no algo puntual, sino algo en proceso). La acción comenzó antes de dicho momento y seguramente continuó después. Fíjate que suelen expresar acciones largas. I was studying all day yesterday I studied all day yesterday Parece q la acción d estudiar fue algo muy largo Solamente informas, no quieres dar la idea de cuánto tiempo pasaste estudiando 2. Para 2 acciones que estuvieron ocurriendo al mismo tiempo. While you were reading the newspaper, I was doing my homework 3. Para la mas larga de las acciones, que suele ser interrumpida x una mas breve. I was walking by the street when it began to rain.

9 Present perfect Have Has + V-ed 3ª col + - ? I have worked She has written I haven´t worked She hasn´t written Have you worked? Has she written ? A+S+V ? Time expressions Ever, never, yet, just, Already, lately, how long..? For, since, in recent years

10 TIME EXPRESSIONS EVER : (Interrogativas)(alguna vez) Entre el auxiliar y el verbo. Have you ever been to London? NEVER : (Nunca) Siempre con el verbo afirmativa. I have never seen a class like this. FOR : Indica un periodo de tiempo, cuánto ha durado una acción. (durante-desde hace) I´ve known him for twenty years. (Le conozco desde hace 20 años) DURING: + noun. Indica cuando ocurrió algo (not how long) during our holiday during the summer during the night SINCE : Indica el momento o circunstancia concreta en que comenzó la acción. I´ve known her since (La conozco desde 1994) JUST : Indica que la acción acaba de concluir. Va entre el auxiliar y el verbo. Have + just + Past Participle = acabar de + infinitivo I´ve just washed my hair ( Me acabo de lavar el pelo). ALREADY : Va con oraciones afirmativas e interrogativas. (Entre el auxiliar y el verbo).( Ya ) I´ve already seen that film ( Ya he visto esa película) Have you already washed the dishes? (¿Ya has lavado los platos?) YET : Va con oraciones negativas e interrogativas. ( Al final de la frase) Negativas. (aún,todavía). I haven´t found it yet. (Aún no lo he encontrado) Interrogativas (ya) Has the doctor come yet? (¿Ha venido ya el médico?)

11 usos Para hablar de experiencias y hechos pasados que han ocurrido a lo largo del tiempo sin especificar el momento. I have eaten Chinese food many times Para hablar de acciones que aún continúan aunque empezaron tiempo atrás.(Suele llevar for y since ). Las preguntas se hacen con How long..? I´ve lived here for five years ( Vivo aquí desde hace 5 años-todavía vivo aquí) Para acciones que ocurrieron en un momento indeterminado del pasado y cuyo resultado podemos ver. We´ve painted the kitchen Expresar que una acción acaba de ocurrir. Entonces añadimos just entre el aux. y el verbo The team has just scored a goal

12 CONTRASTE PAST SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT Past Simple: acciones que ocurrieron en un momento concreto del pasado. When did Sam go to India? Last June Present Perfect: experiencias que han ocurrido en algún momento indeterminado. Sam has been to India. Past Simple: acciones completamente acabadas. I lived in India in Present Perfect: acciones que comenzaron en el pasado pero que continúan en el presente. I´ve lived in India since Past Simple: se acompaña de expresiones de tiempo pasado yesterday, 2 years ago. Present Perfect: se acompaña con ever, never, yet, already….

13 Present perfect continuous Present perfect of to be Have been Has been + V-ing + - ? I have been working She has been studying I haven´t been working She hasn´t been studying Have you been working ? Has she been studying ? Time expressions For a year, since 2002, how long..? All day / night / week … Use An action that started in the past and which still continues in the present. Or has recently stopped. (Como todos los contínuos resalta el tiempo que está durando la acción) ( llevar + gerundio) You´re out of breath. Have you been running? She has been working here for 2 years Actions repeated over a period of time. She´s been playing tennis since she was 8 An action whose results are still apparent. I´m still tired.. I have been studying all night

14 Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous Period of time : I´ve been washing the car. I´m rather wet Completed action: I´ve washed the car. It looks a lot cleaner now The CONTINUOUS here focuses on the action going on The SIMPLE focuses on the result of the action Continuous : For an activity that is still happening. How long ? How long have you been reading that book? Simple : Completed actions. How much? How many? How many times? How many pages of the book have you read? Mary is still writing letters. She´s been writing letters all day Mary has written ten letters today. Non-continuous verbs: like, know, believe, etc. Not normally used in CONT Live & work : we use either CONTINUOUS or SIMPLE John has been living/has lived in London for a long time With always we use the SIMPLE. John has always lived in London

15 Past perfect Had + V-ed 3ª col + - ? I had worked I hadn´t worked Had you worked ? Time expressions Already, by the time, after, Before, Until, never, just Use A completed action which took place before another action in the past By the time we arrived at the cinema, the film had already started Present Future Past Perfect By + a time = no later than I´ll have finished my work by 11:30 (I´ll have finished it no later than 11:30)

16 Past perfect continuous Past perfect of to be had been + V-ing + - ? I had been I hadn´t been Had you been ? Time expressions For hours, since last year All morning, when, until, before Use Para hablar de una acción prolongada que ocurrió en el pasado antes que otra acción breve también pasada. Suelen ir unidas por una expresión de tiempo de las del cuadro, o although, because. We had been driving for 5 hours when we ran out of petrol. (llevaba + gerundio)

17 Future TO BE GOING TO + INFINITIVO ( Futuro de intención) Para hablar de nuestras intenciones, planes cercanos, o preguntar a otros lo que han pensado hacer en un futuro próximo. Next week I´m going to celebrate my birthday. Para hacer predicciones basadas en una evidencia en el momento en que hablamos. Listen to the wind. It´s going to be a storm. FUTURE SIMPLE will + inf Para expresar decisiones espontáneas en el momento en que hablamos (ofrecimientos, peticiones, promesas, advertencias, amenazas..) I think you´ll learn this very quickly The window is open. Don´t worry I´ll close it Para hacer predicciones basadas en nuestra opinión. He won´t come.

18 FUTURE CONTINUOUS Future de to be + V-ing + - ? I will be studying I won´t be studying Will you be studying ? Time expressions At this time, at this time next… On Thursday, in the next decade Use An action in progress at a certain time in the future At this time next year, I will be studying Law in Madrid FUTURE perfect Future de have + V-ed 3ª co l + - ? I will have studied I won´t have studied Will you have studied? Time expressions By this time next week, by 10 o´clock…, In three months Use A completed action at a certain time in the future. By the end of June, we will have finished our exams

19 1.When you get home from the shop, I ……………………… (help) you carry in the bags. 2.By the end of the school year, I ……………………… (speak) French very well. 3.……………………… you ……………………… (pay) the water bill yesterday? 4.We ……………………… (not usually eat) a big meal in the evening. 5.While he ……………………… (reach) for his cup of coffee, he accidentally knocked it over. 6.Next week, Emma ……………………… (visit) me. 7.Today, our teacher ……………………… (take) us to the British Museum in London. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use a present, past or future tense. will help will be speaking Did pay dont usually eat was reaching is going to visit / is visiting is taking / is going to take

20 Reported speech

21 Cambios en los tiempos verbales Tense Direct Speech Tense Indirect Speech Present simpleHe works as an editorPast simpleHe said that he worked as an editor Present continuousHe is working as an editor Past continuous He said that he was working as an editor Past simpleHe worked as an editorPast perfectHe said that he had worked as an editor Past continuousHe was working as an editor Past perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Present perfect simple He has worked as an editor Past perfectHe said that he had worked as an editor Present perfect continuous He has been working as an editor Present perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Past perfect simple He had worked as an editor Past perfect simple He said that he had worked as an editor Past perfect continuous He had been working as an editor Past perfect continuous He said that he had been working as an editor Future simpleHe will work as an editorWould + infin.He said that he would work as an editor

22 Cambios en los modales Can May Must / have to Will Could Might Must / had to Would Cambios en otras palabras NowThen TodayThat day TonightThat night YesterdayThe previous day / the day before Last weekThe previous week / the week before A month agoThe previous month / the month before TomorrowThe following day / the next day / the day after Next weekThe following week / the week after HereThere ThisThat TheseThose

23 Reported questions LAS YES / NO QUESTIONS son las que se contestan con un si o un no. para ponerlas en estilo indirecto utilizamos el verbo ask, y a continuación if o whether. Entonces la pregunta deja de serlo y se convierte en una frase afirmativa, ya no hay inversión sujeto-verbo(A+S+V), ni signo de interrogación, ni comillas. Did you speak to John last night? She asked She asked if / whether I had spoken to John last night LAS WH-QUESTIONS son las que empiezan por una palabra interrogativa (Wh- word) Al pasarlas al estilo indirecto ponemos dicha palabra (wh-) y luego el sujeto + verbo. Who told you that story? She asked She asked who had told us that story Hay dos tipos de preguntas: Who are you writing to? She asked She asked who I was writing to

24 Reported orders Para poner una orden en estilo indirecto cambiamos el imperativo por un infinitivo con to. Pero antes del infinitivo debemos poner un verbo que exprese mandato, como Tell u order, seguido del complemento indirecto. Hay otros verbos que siguen esta estructura aunque no expresen orden. Ask o beg para peticiones. Warn para advertir a alguien de algo. Advise para dar consejo Invite para hacer una invitación. Stop driving so fast. My mother ordered me to stop driving so fast. Si la oración es negativa, ponemos not delante de to. Don´t tell anybody He begged me not to tell anybody

25 Reported suggestions Primero ponemos el sujeto y el verbo suggest en pasado y después lo que se sugirió. Las sugerencias se pueden pasar a estilo indirecto de dos formas: usando una oración introducida por that, con su sujeto y el verbo en la forma base. (El verbo demand, que expresa mandato, también sigue esta estructura) Let´s watch the news Tom suggested Tom suggested that we watch the news Usando el gerundio, sin especificar ningún sujeto. Let´s phone the police inmediately He suggested phoning the police inmediately

26 Reported verbs + Admit Agree Answer Apologise Boast (presumir, alardear) Claim Complain Declare Deny Explain Inform Insist Mention Offer Promise Refuse Remind Reply ? Enquire Request Want to know Wonder Órdenes Demand Order Shout Warn SÚPLICAS Y RUEGOS Beg Sugerencias Advise Invite Suggest Recommend

27 Passive voice The reward of a thing well done is to have done it. Ralph Waldo Emerson

28 They gave Diana a camera last week SUJETO (OD) + BE+PARTIC. + OI + CC + (BY+SUJ) A camera was given to Diana last week SUJETO + VERBO + OI + OD + CC Diana was given a camera last week SUJETO (OI) + BE+PARTICIPIO + OD + CC + (BY+SUJETO) 1.Identificar el objeto de la activa(OD/OI) 2.Lo ponemos de sujeto de la pasiva 3.Identificamos el tiempo del verbo. 4.Ponemos to be en el mismo tiempo + Past Participle (3ª column /-ed) del verbo 5.Ponemos el sujeto de la activa como agente de la pasiva precedido por by

29 + Se forma con el verbo to be + el participio ( -ed / 3ª c) del verbo principal An astronaut was sent into space - Hay que añadir not (n´t) al to be. Si la frase lleva un modal, un verbo en futuro simple o un tiempo compuesto, lo que negamos es el modal, will o have / has. An astronaut wasn´t sent into space ? El orden es to be + el sujeto + el participio. Si es un modal, un verbo en futuro simple o un tiempo compuesto, la pasiva empieza con el modal o el auxiliar, igual que en la activa. Was an astronaut sent into space?

30 TEN EN CUENTA QUE… Al poner en pasiva una frase afirmativa cuenta el número de palabras que tiene el verbo en activa. En pasiva tiene que haber una más. Al poner en pasiva una frase interrogativa debes empezar por el auxiliar. Are they preparing the meal? Is the meal being prepared? Si la pasiva es negativa, not va con el primer auxiliar They are not making the meal. The meal is not being prepared It is said that.. / He is said to.. Con verbos como believed, thought, expected, said, estimate, known, considered, reported… la pasiva se hace de dos formas: Experts expect that the Chinese economy will grow 1. The Chinese economy is expected to grow 2. It is expected that the Chinese economy will grow

31 HAVE / GET SOMETHING DONE Cuando alguien hace las cosas x nosotros, ej cortar el pelo, pintar un piso, etc. Have/get + object (my room, my hair,..)+ Participio (-ed/3ªc) En cualquier tiempo = I´m having, I´ve had, I´ll have I´m having my house painted (Me están pintando la casa) When are you going to have your hair cut? (¿Cuándo te vas a cortar el pelo?)

32 Conditionals

33 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Summing up…. If + present simple, future simple Unless = if not Modal Imperative If + past simple, would + infinitivo Could might If + past perfect, would have + participio Could have might have

34 Oraciones temporales Se forman como las de 1st conditional : Present Simple, Future Simple. Lo que cambian son las conjunciones : as soon as, by the time, when, the moment (that), etc She´ll buy a car as soon as she passes her driving test When I get home, I´ll help you with your homework

35 Wish / if only + Past simple Situaciones presentes que quisiéramos cambiar/mejorar He wishes his house were bigger If only I lived near the school Wish / if only + Past Perfect Hechos pasados lamentando lo Ocurrido Pam wishes she and Tom hadn´t broken up If only Sarah had arrived earlier Wish / if only + Could Would + base form Deseos sobre situaciones futuras, indicando q es poco probable q ocurran I wish I could improve my marks If only he would call me Wish Clauses

36 RELATIVE PRONOUNS & RELATIVE CLAUSES RELATIVE PRONOUNS & RELATIVE CLAUSES

37 Who & that para referirnos a personas Which & that para referirnos a cosas When & that para referirnos a un momento en el tiempo Where para referirnos a lugares Whose expresa posesión ( cuyo) (* Nunca es sujeto y no se puede omitir) Omisión Nunca se puede omitir si es el sujeto de la oración de relativo del relative pronoun The man who visited us yesterday is a professor The house that was so old was rebuilt Sujeto = sustituye a The man sujeto = sustituye a The house Podemos omitirlo si no es el sujeto de la oración de relativo The man (who) we met at the bus stop told me the truth The house (that) we bought is very comfortable Sujeto de la or. de relativo Pron. Relat. + Verbo = NO Pron. Relat + Suj + Verbo = SI

38 Hay dos tipos de oraciones de relativo Defining relative clauses Non-Defining relative clauses Defining relative clauses imprescindibles para definirel antecedente. Sin ellas el sentido de la oración quedaría incompleto. The computer which we bought is very expensive ( si no especificamos de qué ordenador hablamos no queda claro el sentido) Los pronombres who, which y that pueden omitirse si no hacen de sujeto. Whose no se puede omitir ni sustituir. This is the blog whose author is unknown When y where son los adverbios relativos. When puede omitirse y sustituirse por that. I´ll never forget the day (when/that) I met him. Where no puede sustituirse por that y no suele omitirse. I visited the area where all the trendy shops are. Si el relativo lleva preposición, lo mas común es omitirlo y poner la preposición detrás del verbo. The boy (who/that) I talked to was nervous Pron. Relat. + Verbo = NO Pron. Relat + Suj + Verbo = SI

39 Non-Defining relative clauses Nos dan información extra que no es esencial sobre su antecedente. Si quitamos la or. de relativo la frase tiene sentido The king of Spain, who lives in Madrid, is called Juan Carlos Siempre van entre comas. No se puede usar that. Se forman con who, which, when, where y whose. Nunca se omiten. Se utilizan en el lenguaje escrito y formal.

40 I work at an animal shelter (1) ……………………… takes in homeless animals. The shelter is the place (2) ……………………… the animals are fed and taken care of. On the day (3) ……………………… animals are brought to the shelter, Dr Sloan is the vet (4) ……………………… examines them and gives them medical treatment. Anyone (5) ……………………… pet is lost can come to the shelter to see if its there. Complete the passage with relative pronouns. which where when who whose 1.Here is the box. I keep my discs in it. 2.Look at that park. I used to play there. 3.I graduated from university. Ill never forget that day. 4.We invited Jane to dinner. Her family is abroad. 5.My sister studied medicine. Shes a good doctor. Combine the sentences using a relative clause. Here is the box where I keep my discs. Look at that park where I used to play. Ill never forget the day when / that I graduated from university. We invited Jane, whose family is abroad, to dinner. My sister, who studied medicine, is a good doctor.

41

42 USEMODAL EXAMPLE OBLIGATION tengo la obligación de, debo, tengo que Must # Have to (no modal: has to) They have to wear a uniform I must finish this exercise NECESSITY Need to (no modal)(+)She needs to speak to you NO OBLIGATION No hace falta que Needn´t = Don´t have to(no modal) You needn´t come if you don´t want to You don´t have to come if you don´t want to PROHIBITION no puedes Mustn´tYou mustn´t smoke at school ABILITY Se, puedo, soy capaz Can (presente) Could (pasado) Be able to -todos los tiempos I can play the piano I could climb mountains I will be able to drive a bus POSSIBILITY May (puede que) Might (pudiera ser que) (posib + remota) Could (puede que) They may begin acting like criminals He might come They could be on the train now DEDUCTION/ CERTAINTY Must (I´m sure) Can´t (It´s imposible) That must be your mother (esa debe ser tu madre) That can´t be true (eso no puede ser verdad)

43 ModalUsoExample Can Habilidad Permiso Posibilidad Pedir algo I can drive a bus Can I go to the toilet? She can come to the party Can you lend me some money Can´t Imposibilidad Deducción I can´t lift this box Those can´t be my keys. I´ve got them Could Habilidad en el pasado Preguntar formalmente Especular Sugerir I could play the guitar when I was five Could you tell me the time, please? Whose could these glasses be? We could go to the theatre Couldn´tImposibilidad en el pasadoI couldn´t ride a bike when I was five Be able toHabilidadI will be able to pass this subject May / MightPosibilidadIt might rain tomorrow MayPedir algo educadamenteMay I borrow your book, please? Would Pedir algo formalmente Ofrecer (con like) Hábitos en pasado(used to) Would you come with me to the wedding? Would you like some tea? She would tell us stories Must Obligación, Deducción You must be quiet in the library John must be very busy. He didn´t come Have toObligaciónI have to study hard if I want to pass Need toObligaciónI need to buy some meat for dinner Needn´tNo obligaciónYou needn´t do all the exercises Don´t have toNo obligaciónWe don´t have to attend the conference Mustn´tProhibiciónYou mustn´t step on the grass Should /ought toConsejo, opiniónYou should tell the truth


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