1 How to make commands in Spanish. First of all, commands in Spanish come in two kinds: formal and informal.
2 Por ejemplo: * Formal commands are used to talk to older or respected people. * Familiar or informal commands are used to talk to a friend or a pet.
3 To make a formal command : Start with the "yo" form of the present tense verb. Examples: Hablar = Habl o Comer = Com o Vivir = Viv o Tener = Teng o
4 Examples: Hablar = Hablo = Habl__ Comer = Como = Com__ Vivir = Vivo = Viv__ Tener = Tengo = Teng__ Drop the "O"
5 Add opposite endings. That means, for -ar verbs you are going to be adding an -e if you are talking to one person and an -en if you are talking to more than one person. Examples: Ud. Uds. Hablar = Hablo = Habl_ = Hable / Hablen *Pensar = Pienso = Piens_ = Piense / Piensen * Stem changing verb e-ie.
6 For -er and -ir verbs you are going to be adding an -a if you are talking to one person and an -an if you are talking to more than one. For example: Ud. Uds. Add opposite endings. Comer = Como = Com_ = Coma / Coman Vivir = Vivo = Viv_ = Viva / Vivan Tener = Tengo =Teng_ = Tenga / Tengan
7 To make a negative formal command, add a no before the command and an n to the ending if plural. For example: Ud. Ud. Uds. Comer = Coma = No coma = No coman Vivir = Viva = No viva = No vivan Tener = Tenga = No tenga = No tengan
8 Of course, there are some irregular formal commands. They are: Ud. Uds. Ser (no) sea (no) sean Ir (no) vaya (no) vayan Dar (no) dé (no) den Estar (no) esté (no) estén
9 Commands are often used when giving directions. These are some useful verbs and expressions for giving directions. ir por la calle… Vaya(n) por la Calle San Juan. to take …street doblar a la derecha/ Doble(n) a la derecha/a la izquierda en… izquierda en … right/left on…
10 Commands are often used when giving directions. These are some useful verbs and expressions for giving directions. seguir derecho hasta.. Siga(n) derecho hasta la to keep going straight to… esquina… subir/bajar…hasta llegar a Baje(n) la calle hasta to go up/down…until you get to llegar al museo. Remember other expressions we already learned. Hay que, deber, tener que
11 To make an informal command, start with the "tú" form of the present tense verb. Examples: tú Hablar = Hablas Correr = Corres Vivir = Vives
12 Drop the "s". That's it! You've got your informal command! Examples: Hablar = Hablas = Habla Correr = Corres = Corre Vivir = Vives = Vive
13 To make an informal command negative, drop the "O". Add opposite endings. Examples: Hablar = no hables Comer = no comas Vivir = no vivas
15 These are the irregular informal commands. They are not irregular in the negative, or formal. Venir = Ven Tener = Ten Poner = Pon Salir = Sal Hacer = Haz Decir = Di Ir = Ve = No vengas = Venga(n) = No venga(n) = No tengas = Tenga(n) = No tenga(n) = No pongas = Ponga(n) = No ponga(n) = No salgas = Salga(n) = No salga(n) = No hagas = Haga(n) = No haga(n) = No digas = Diga(n) = No diga(n) = No veas = Vea(n) = No vea(n)
16 Commands with pronouns Object and reflexive pronouns are attached to the end of affirmative commands. For negative commands, they are placed just before the verb. -¿Todavía necesitan dinero? - Sáquenlo del cajero automático. No se bajen del autobús aquí. Dele el periódico y el café al señor García. For charts, go to page R34 (at the end of the book). Imperative mood (commands).