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Sequence of Tenses Spanish 3. Here we will look at when and why to use any and all tenses in Spanish, indicative or subjunctive. 14 tenses in all.

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Presentación del tema: "Sequence of Tenses Spanish 3. Here we will look at when and why to use any and all tenses in Spanish, indicative or subjunctive. 14 tenses in all."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Sequence of Tenses Spanish 3

2 Here we will look at when and why to use any and all tenses in Spanish, indicative or subjunctive. 14 tenses in all

3 Indicative verses Subjunctive Spanish has 2 moods, indicative and subjunctive. All the tenses you have learned so far have been in the indicative mood. What is the difference? The indicative mood talks about what definitely is or a FACT. The subjunctive on the other hand talks about what may be or a DESIRE which may or may not happen. Examples: I: Carlos siempre hace su tarea. Carlos always does his homework. S: La profesora quiere que Carlos haga su tarea siempre. The teacher wants Carlos to always do his homework.

4 Examples: I: Carlos siempre hace su tarea. Carlos always does his homework. S: La profesora quiere que Carlos haga su tarea siempre. The teacher wants Carlos to always do his homework. *Notice the formation of the sentence. The independent clause has one subject and a verb in the indicative, the dependent clause has a different subject and a verb in the subjunctive, and they are connected by the word "que."

5 Review of phrases that require the use of the subjunctive: 1) Desear-to desire 2) Esperar-to hope 3) Temer-to fear 4) Tener miedo de-to be afraid 5) Perferir-to prefer 6) Mandar-to order Espero que vengan mis amigos. (I hope that my friends come.)

6 Es imposible Es posible Es probable Es improbable Es necesario Es bueno Es mejor Es fácil Es difícil Es importante Es necesario que sean corteses. (It is necessary that they be courteous.)

7 1)Pedir-to ask for 2)Rogar-to beg, plead 3)Sugerir-to suggest 4)Aconsejar-to advise 5)Exigir-to demand 6)Decir-to tell (as a command) 7)Escribir-to write (as a command) Example:Ella me pide que yo vaya. (She asks me to go)

8 1)alegrarse de-to be happy that 2)estar alegre-to be happy 3)estar contento(a)-to be content 4)estar triste-to be sad 5)sentir-to feel (badly) 6)ser una lástima-to be a shame 7)sorprender-to surprise Examples: Estoy alegre que mi hermana venga a mi casa. (I am happy that my sister comes to my house.)

9 Examples: Yo creo que hablaré con mi madre hoy. (I believe/think that I will talk to my mom today.) [INDICATIVE] Yo no creo que hable con mi abuela hoy. (I do not believe/think that I will talk to my Grandma today.) [SUBJUNCTIVE] SubjunctiveIndicative Dudar – to doubtNo dudar –not to doubt Es dudoso – it is doubtfulNo es dudoso – it is not doubtful No estar seguro (a) – to be unsure Estar seguro (a) – to be sure No creer – to disbelieveCreer –to believe/think No es cierto – it is not trueEs cierto – it is true No pensar- to not thinkPensar- to think No saber- to not knowSaber- to know

10 New considerations 1) El Subjuntivo con Expresiones Indefinidas p259 Expressing Whoever, Whatever, Whenever, Wherever, and However 1. Many words can be made indefinite by adding the suffix –quiera to the word (chart on next slide).

11 2. The subjunctive follows such indefinite expressions when uncertainty is implied. Observe and analyze the following. Quienquiera que seas, adondequiera que vayas y cuando quiera que salgas, como quiera que vayas y dondequiera que estés, espero que tengas suerte y que te diviertas. Whoever you may be, wherever you may go and whenever you may leave, however you may go and wherever you may be, I wish you luck and hope you enjoy yourself. quienquierawhoever dondequierawherever adondequiera(to) wherever cuando quierawhenever como quierahowever cualquierawhatever

12 El Subjuntivo en Cláusulas Relativas p A relative clause modifies or describes a noun. If the noun refers to a definite person or thing, the indicative is used in the relative clause. If the noun refers to an indefinite person or thing, the subjunctive is used in the relative clause. Donato tiene un amigo que habla español. Donato quiere un amigo que hable español. Note that the personal a is omitted when the noun is indefinite and after the verb tener. 2. The subjunctive is used in a relative clause that modifies a superlative statement or a negative expression. Es el mejor libro que exista en el mundo. No hay nadie que lo haga como él.

13 El Subjuntivo en Cláusulas Adverbiales p154/ Using the Subjunctive after Certain Conjunctions 1. The subjunctive is always used after the following conjunctions because the information that follows is not necessarily real. Victoria no irá a menos que tú vayas. Ella haría el viaje con tal de que fuéramos en tren. para queso that de modo queso that, in such a way that de manera queso that, in such a way that con tal de queprovided that sin queunless, without a menos queUnless

14 2. The tense of the verb in the main clause determines the tense of the subjunctive in the dependent clause. Main ClauseDependent Clause Present FuturePresent Subjunctive Preterite Imperfect Conditional Imperfect Subjunctive

15 El Subjuntivo con Conjunciones de tiempo. P204 Using Time Expressions 1. The subjunctive is used with adverbial expressions of time when the verb of the main clause is in the future, since it is uncertain if the action in the adverbial clause will really take place. When the verb in the main clause is in the past, the indicative is used since the action of the clause has already been realized. Ella nos hablará cuando lleguemos. Ella nos habló cuando llegamos. 2. Some frequently used adverbial conjunctions of time are: cuandowhen en cuantoas soon as tan prontoas soon as hasta queuntil después de queafter

16 3. The conjunction antes de que, before, is an exception. Antes de que is always followed by the subjunctive. The imperfect subjunctive is used after antes de que when the verb in the main clause is in the past. Ellos saldrán antes de que nosotros lleguemos. Ellos salieron antes de que nosotros llegáramos

17 El Subjuntivo con aunque p307 Expressing Although The conjunction aunque, although, may be followed by the subjunctive or the indicative depending upon the meaning of the sentence. Study the following sentences. Ellos jugarán aunque haga mucho frío. (even if) Ellos jugarán aunque hace mucho frío. (even though) In the first sentence, the subjunctive is used to indicate that it is not very cold now but that they will play even if it gets cold. The indicative is used in the second sentence because it is a fact that it is very cold and, although it is very cold, they will still play.

18 El subjuntivo con quizás, tal vez, y ojalá p308/ Introducing sentences with perhaps or maybe 1. The expressions quizá(s), perhaps, and ojalá, I wish, would that, are always followed by the subjunctive. Quizás nos llamen hoy. Ojalá nos inviten a la fiesta. Ojalá (que) nos invitaran a la fiesta. Note that ojalá can be followed by either the present or the imperfect subjunctive. 2. The expression tal vez, perhaps, can be followed by either the subjunctive or the future indicative. Tal vez lleguen hoy. Tal vez llegarán hoy.

19 Cláusulas con Si p311 Discussing Contrary-to-fact Situations 1. Si (if) clauses are used to express contrary-to-fact conditions. Si clauses conform to a specific sequence of tenses. Study these examples. Si tengo tiempo, iré al cementerio. (If I have time, I will go to the cemetery.) Si tuviera tiempo, iría al cementerio. (If I had time, I would go to the cemetery.) Si hubiera tenido tiempo, habría ido al cementerio. (If I had had time, I would have gone to the cemetery.)

20 2. The sequence of tenses for si clauses is as follows. Main ClauseDependent Clause FuturePresent Indicative ConditionalImperfect subjunctive Conditional PerfectPluperfect subjunctive

21 Trabajo/ tarea (Sp 3) Textbook pages 204 exercise 9, p259 exercise 9, p260 exercise 10, p307 exercise 2

22 Trabajo/ tarea (Sp 4) Textbook pages (None)


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