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El pretérito. 2 forms of (indicative) past tense –Preterite –Imperfect.

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Presentación del tema: "El pretérito. 2 forms of (indicative) past tense –Preterite –Imperfect."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 El pretérito

2 2 forms of (indicative) past tense –Preterite –Imperfect

3 Uses of preterite tense Describe an action or several actions completed at a fixed time in the past. –ayer, anteayer, el año pasado, Discuss actions/events completed in the past. –even if action occurred over a period of time, the focus is action is completed.

4 Ejemplos Ayer tuve un examen de química. –Yesterday I had a chemistry exam. Se encontró con Lola anoche. –Last night he ran into Lola. Escribí una carta a mi madre. –I wrote a letter to my mom. All occurred at a specific time in the past and are definitely completed.

5 Foreshadowing... Generally any time you talk about an emotional state or mental activity in the past you would use the imperfect –He believed, I knew, We doubted... Unless conveying that state or activity is definitely over. Until we learn imperfect, focus on writing and talking about concrete/specific past activities, NOT emotional/mental states.

6 How to form?

7 Regular –ar verbs Take off infinitive ending and to the stem add the following endings. –éamos –asteasteis –óaron

8 Ejemplos Yo hablé Tú hablaste Ella habló Nosotros hablamos Vosotros hablasteis Ellos hablaron

9 Exceptions When a regular verb ends in: –car (buscar, explicar, tocar, sacar) –gar (jugar, llegar, apagar, colgar) –zar (empezar) a spelling change occurs in the yo form. –car c changes to qu Buscar yo busqué –gar g changes to gu Llegar yo llegué –zar z changes to c Empezar yo empecé

10 Regular –er & -ir verbs íimos isteisteis ióieron

11 Ejemplos Comer to eat –comícomimos –comistecomisteis –comiócomieron Escribir to write –escribíescribimos –escribisteescribisteis –escribióescribieron

12 Stem-changing verbs

13 -ar and –er verbs -ar and –er stem-changing verbs in the present tense do NOT have a stem change in the preterite.

14 -ir verbs -ir verbs with a stem-change in the present tense, continue to have a stem-change in the preterite tense –but it is a different stem-change

15 In the present tense the stem- change occurs in all singular forms and 3 rd person plural –aka the boot verbs

16 In the preterite tense, the stem- change occurs ONLY in 3 rd person both singular and plural. –Aka the BRICK verbs

17 Also, the stem-change is not the same as it is in the present-tense. –Basically your two options are –u or –i. -ue in present tense -u in preterite tense -ie in present tense -i in preterite tense -i in present tense -i in preterite tense

18 While this may seem like a lot of new stuff to learn, you already know these stem-changes. They are the same stem-changes that occur in the present participle. –durmiendo, viniendo, sirviendo

19 In your book, stem-changes are shown in () after the verb. If you see something like (ue, u), this means that the stem changes to ue in the present tense and u in the preterite tense (and also present participle)

20 Irregular Verbs

21 Ser to be & Ir to go fuifuimos fuistefuisteis fuefueron Ayer fue el 18 de septiembre. Yo fui a mi clase de yoga el lunes.

22 Dar to give didimosYo di el libro a Juan distedisteisElla dio una carta a él diodieron Note: endings for dar are –er/-ir endings sans accents.

23 Estar to be estuveestuvimos estuvisteestuvisteis estuvoestuvieron Estuve con mi hijo en el mercado ¿Estuviste a casa ayer?

24 leer to read oír to hear leíleímosoíoímos leisteleísteisoísteoísteis leyóleyeronoyóoyeron The -i changes to a –y in 3 rd person. (–i between 2 vowels changes to a –y) Note use of accents!

25 Ver to see vivimos vistevisteis viovieron Conjugation is basically regular –er conjugation, but there are NO accents!

26 decir, hacer, tener These three irregular verbs are similar in their irregularity of conjugation in the preterite tense in that there are NO accents. –-e, -iste, -o, imos, -isteis, -ieron However, there are still some exceptions.

27 decir to say dijedijimos dijistedijisteis dijodijeron Note: 3 rd person plural ending ––eron NOT –ieron. Decir is a –J stem verb because the last letter in the stem is a –J. –In J-stem verbs, the ending is only –eron.

28 hacer to make/do hicehicimos hicistehicisteis hizohicieron Note: 3 rd person singular –c in stem changes to –z.

29 tener to have tuvetuvimos tuvistetuvisteis tuvotuvieron

30 El Fin

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