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El pretérito.

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Presentación del tema: "El pretérito."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 El pretérito

2 2 forms of (indicative) past tense
Preterite Imperfect

3 Uses of preterite tense
Describe an action or several actions completed at a fixed time in the past. ayer, anteayer, el año pasado, Discuss actions/events completed in the past. even if action occurred over a period of time, the focus is  action is completed.

4 Ejemplos Ayer tuve un examen de química. Se encontró con Lola anoche.
Yesterday I had a chemistry exam. Se encontró con Lola anoche. Last night he ran into Lola. Escribí una carta a mi madre. I wrote a letter to my mom. All occurred at a specific time in the past and are definitely completed.

5 Foreshadowing. . . Generally any time you talk about an emotional state or mental activity in the past you would use the imperfect He believed, I knew, We doubted. . . Unless conveying that state or activity is definitely over. Until we learn imperfect, focus on writing and talking about concrete/specific past activities, NOT emotional/mental states.

6 How to form?

7 Regular –ar verbs Take off infinitive ending and to the stem add the following endings. é amos aste asteis ó aron

8 Ejemplos Yo hablé Tú hablaste Ella habló Nosotros hablamos
Vosotros hablasteis Ellos hablaron

9 Exceptions  When a regular verb ends in:
car (buscar, explicar, tocar, sacar) gar (jugar, llegar, apagar, colgar) zar (empezar) a spelling change occurs in the “yo” form. car  c changes to qu  Buscar  yo busqué gar  g changes to gu  Llegar  yo llegué zar  z changes to c  Empezar  yo empecé

10 Regular –er & -ir verbs í imos iste isteis ió ieron

11 Ejemplos Comer “to eat” Escribir “to write” comí comimos
comiste comisteis comió comieron Escribir “to write” escribí escribimos escribiste escribisteis escribió escribieron

12 Stem-changing verbs

13 -ar and –er verbs -ar and –er stem-changing verbs in the present tense do NOT have a stem change in the preterite.

14 -ir verbs -ir verbs with a stem-change in the present tense, continue to have a stem-change in the preterite tense but it is a different stem-change

15 In the present tense the stem-change occurs in all singular forms and 3rd person plural
aka the boot verbs

16 In the preterite tense, the stem-change occurs ONLY in 3rd person—both singular and plural.
Aka the BRICK verbs

17 Also, the stem-change is not the same as it is in the present-tense.
Basically your two options are –u or –i. -ue in present tense  -u in preterite tense -ie in present tense  -i in preterite tense -i in present tense  -i in preterite tense

18 They are the same stem-changes that occur in the present participle.
While this may seem like a lot of new stuff to learn, you already know these stem-changes. They are the same stem-changes that occur in the present participle. durmiendo, viniendo, sirviendo

19 In your book, stem-changes are shown in () after the verb
In your book, stem-changes are shown in () after the verb. If you see something like (ue, u), this means that the stem changes to ue in the present tense and u in the preterite tense (and also present participle)

20 Irregular Verbs

21 Ser “to be” & Ir “to go” fui fuimos fuiste fuisteis fue fueron
Ayer fue el 18 de septiembre. Yo fui a mi clase de yoga el lunes.

22 Dar “to give” di dimos Yo di el libro a Juan
diste disteis Ella dio una carta a él dio dieron Note: endings for dar are –er/-ir endings sans accents.

23 Estar “to be” estuve estuvimos estuviste estuvisteis estuvo estuvieron
Estuve con mi hijo en el mercado ¿Estuviste a casa ayer?

24 leer “to read” oír “to hear”
leí leímos oí oímos leiste leísteis oíste oísteis leyó leyeron oyó oyeron The -i changes to a –y in 3rd person. (–i between 2 vowels changes to a –y) Note use of accents!

25 Ver “to see” vi vimos viste visteis vio vieron
Conjugation is basically regular –er conjugation, but there are NO accents!

26 decir, hacer, tener These three irregular verbs are similar in their irregularity of conjugation in the preterite tense in that there are NO accents. -e, -iste, -o, imos, -isteis, -ieron However, there are still some exceptions. 

27 decir “to say” dije dijimos dijiste dijisteis dijo dijeron
Note: 3rd person plural ending –eron NOT –ieron. Decir is a –J stem verb because the last letter in the stem is a –J. In J-stem verbs, the ending is only –eron.

28 hacer “to make/do” hice hicimos hiciste hicisteis hizo hicieron
Note: 3rd person singular –c in stem changes to –z.

29 tener “to have” tuve tuvimos tuviste tuvisteis tuvo tuvieron

30 El Fin

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