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Building Proficiency Through Reading Strategies Ken Stewart 2006 ACTFL National Language Teacher of the Year Chapel Hill, North Carolina AATSP-GA September.

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Presentación del tema: "Building Proficiency Through Reading Strategies Ken Stewart 2006 ACTFL National Language Teacher of the Year Chapel Hill, North Carolina AATSP-GA September."— Transcripción de la presentación:

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2 Building Proficiency Through Reading Strategies Ken Stewart 2006 ACTFL National Language Teacher of the Year Chapel Hill, North Carolina AATSP-GA September 18, 2011

3 2 2 Workshop Guiding Question What instructional strategies can teachers use to ensure that through the integration of reading, students are successfully building proficiency in the Interpretive Communication mode?

4 AGENDA Introductions Why read? The Role of National Standards –Interpretive Mode of communication –Perspectives, products and practices Pre-reading strategies While-Reading Strategies –Decoding –Organizers –Comprehension checks –Synthesis –Cooperative learning techniques

5 Lunch Post-Reading activities Scaffolding the Interpretive Mode Strategies for building proficiency in the Interpretative Mode Vocabulary acquisition and retention Assessment Authentic Sources

6 GOALS FOR THE DAY Learn strategies for building reading comprehension. –Pre-, post- and during-reading strategies Take away engaging, communicative activities. Learn ways to build vocabulary acquisition and retention to enhance reading. Learn teaching strategies to meet a variety of student needs.

7 QUESTIONS 1. Put your burning issues on a post-it 2. See me at break 3. me:

8 Three Modes of Communication 7

9 SOME THOUGHTS ON READING Focus on students general understanding Read with the class (make it a listening & speaking activity). Set realistic expectations (speed, detail). Pre-Reading is key. Be sensitive about calling on students to read aloud. Urge students to underline, annotate. (Reading is always a writing activity)

10 Integrate language skills. Address cultural perspectives through reading. Learn assessment strategies using rubrics. Adapt texts for a variety of levels. Build proficiency skills for all levels.

11 The Reading / Learning Process BEFORE READING / LEARNING –Preview –Background knowledge –Set your purpose DURING READING/ LEARNING –Monitor comprehension –Actively engage –Predict AFTER READING / LEARNING –Practice –Organize –Communicate (written & oral)

12 It is very important that you learn about traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristerlate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it to qualsel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of out most lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge. READING POP QUIZ 1.What is traxoline? 2.Where is traxoline montilled? 3.How is traxoline quaselled? 4.Why is it important to know about traxoline? 5.important to know about traxoline?

13 Skill Building in Context: Reading It is really quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one group may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity of it. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then the groups can be placed in their appropriate places. Eventually, they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. (Bransford and McCarrell, 1974 ) 12

14 Skill Building in Context: Visual 13

15 I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdgnieg. The paomnnehal pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?

16 Sgeun un etsduio de una uivenrsdiad ignlsea, no ipmotra el odren en el que las ltears etsan ersciats, la uicna csoa ipormtnate es que la pmrirea y la utlima ltera esten ecsritas en la psiocion cocrrtea. El rsteo peuden estar ttaolmntee mal y aun pordas lerelo sin pobrleams. Etso es pquore no lemeos cada ltera por si msima preo la paalbra es un tdoo.

17 Ladle Rat Rotten Hut Wants pawn term, dare worsted ladle gull hoe lift wetter murder inner ladle cordage, honor itch offer lodge dock florist. Disk ladle gull orphan worry ladle cluck wetter putty ladle rat hut, an fur disk raisin pimple colder Ladle Rat Rotten Hut. Wan moaning, Rat Rotten Hut's murder colder inset, "Ladle Rat Rotten Hut, heresy ladle basking winsome burden barter an shirker cockles. Tick disk ladle basking tutor cordage offer groin-murder hoe lifts honor udder site offer florist. Shaker lake! Dun stopper laundry wrote! An yonder nor sorghum-stenches, dun stopper torque wet strainers!"

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19 Superior: support opinions, discuss topics concretely and abstractly, and handle linguistically unfamiliar situation Advanced: Can narrate & describe in all major time frames, and handle a situation with a complication. Intermediate: Can create with language, ask and answer simple questions on familiar topics, and handle a simple situation or transaction. Novice: Can communicate minimally with formulaic and rote utterances, lists and phrases.

20 Partner Quiz Activity Take notes from a phone message that include the overall meaning and some details. Intermediate List articles of clothing to be cleaned in a note left to a hotel staff. Novice Identify memorized words and phrases in a supermarket ad in preparation for shopping Novice The student is able to:

21 Understand the main ideas and most details in a television interview with a famous actor. Advanced Ask and answer questions dealing with simple personal information when introduced to a new person. Intermediate Return an item to a store, explaining how it is defective. Advanced

22 Make an invitation, listing the place of the party, the date, the time and the occasion. Novice Write a short letter to a sponsoring agency describing his/her stay in the host country, explaining the benefits of the visit. Advanced Report the theft of personal valuables to a law- enforcement officer. Advanced Determine the basic meaning and some details of a friends that describes what he told his parents about coming in after curfew last night. Intermediate

23 Selecting Resources for Reading Materials & Instruction What factors do you currently consider? What steps are needed in the pre- planning process to prepare students? How do you engage students in Interpretive communication? 3 MINUTES AT YOUR TABLE 22

24 Guidelines for Selecting Texts Interest Appropriate linguistic level Authenticity Age level appropriate Connect to AP theme Able to differentiate? Integration of other modes Integration of culture Variety Technology Involving students in process 23

25 BREAK See you back in 15 minutes!

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29 LEVEL QUESTIONS LEVEL ONE- Data-based questions that are found in the reading: –Where? Who? When? What? LEVEL TWO – Inference questions that provoke discussion and creativity: –Why? How? LEVEL THREE- Broad application of a universal theme or hypothetical situation –Compare urban life vs. rural life –Write a letter to your mayor making recommendations for improving the quality of life in your city or town.

30 Leveling for Reading Tasks Table I: Develop questions and activities for novice students. Table II: Develop questions and activities for intermediate students. Table III: Develop questions and activities for AP students. 29

31 Example Novice Question: What score did Portland receive for air quality? Activity: Select five cities and create a color chart that shows the scores they received for air quality. 30

32 Example AP/Advanced Question: In what ways does global warming impact the scores cities received? Activity: Write a letter to your mayor making recommendations for improving the quality of life in your city or town. 31

33 Whats the cleanest big city in the U.S.? How about the dirtiest? In our July issue, we decided to find out, by analyzing data to score each of the 50 largest cities on air quality, water quality, industrial pollution (toxics), Superfund sites, and sanitation. Rather than just the cities themselves, we looked at metropolitan areas, which include surrounding counties and suburbs. (This can have a real effect on a places score; Chicago, for example, has excellent water but its score is brought down by problems in the outlying areas). Because we only looked at the 50 largest places, there may be smaller cities that are much cleaner or dirtier than theseand because the scores represent relative rankings, that a city comes in first or last in a given category does not necessarily mean its perfectly pristine or dangerously filthy.

34 From Readers Digest NAMEAirWaterToxics Hazardous Waste SanitationTotal Portland (OR) San Jose Buffalo Columbus NA37.33 San Francisco Denver NA36.17 Rochester (NY) Austin NA34.00 Orlando San Diego

35 GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/

36 ¡Buen provecho! Bon Appétit! Guten Appetit Buon appetito بالهناء والشفاء douzo meshiagare בתיאבון Lets Eat! בתיאבון See you at 1pm!

37 Reading and Listening Skills Listening and reading are active cognitive processes that require an interplay between various types of knowledge. Shrum and Glisan 36

38 Strategy 1: A Picture Is Worth … Also called Logographic Clues Teach key vocabulary Prepare students for a text Predictions Leveled questions Reinforce culture 37

39 A PICTURE IS WORTH 1,000 WORDS

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41 Scaffolding the Activity Novice: Draft a list of words that describe image and use thesaurus to look up synonyms. Intermediate: Turn to partner and suggest main idea about plot based on image. AP/Advanced: Write and record short advertisement for book to entice people to read it. 40

42 Strategy 2: Reading Guide Encourages students to be aware of their thinking while reading Students engage more deeply with the text Invites questioning and discussion Builds metacognition 41

43 READING GUIDES (while reading) El clima- protagonista Vestido de… Apariencia física Símil- Lo que vio… La prefiguración… Interrupción-

44 The Flowers- Reading Guide Use the two-column template, record notes as you read the story. [i.e., unfamiliar vocabulary words, ideas that stand out, questions, predictions, etc.] In the right-hand column, copy the text. In the left-hand column, write your notes. 43

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46 The Flowers

47 Strategy #3 SHOW WHAT YOU KNOW 1.Give the students two highlighters of different colors 2.Ask them to highlight all the words they can deduce the meaning from with decoding skills (saying the word aloud, breaking it down into roots, suffixes) 3.With a partner, read aloud pausing to discuss meanings of words 4.Ask them to then jot dot the main ideas 5.Have a group reading and discuss the process the students used.

48 A escritora britânica J.K. Rowling definiu o título do sexto livro sobre a aventura do aprendiz de bruxo Harry Potter, Harry Potter e o Enigma do Príncipe. O livro será lançado no País no fim de novembro, pela editora Rocco. Um dos maiores mistérios da obra é a morte de um importante personagem. A série Harry Potter fez de J.K. Rowling a mulher mais rica da Grã- Bretanha, com uma fortuna avaliada, em 2004, em US$ 1 bilhão. Hoje, com cinco volumes da saga traduzidos para 60 idiomas, e 250 milhões de exemplares vendidos, ela divide com Shakespeare e Agatha Christie a lista dos autores mais lidos do planeta.

49 Strategy #4 READING SCAVENGER HUNT 1.Underline 5 prepositions 2.Highlight 3 feminine nouns 3.Circle 2 past tense verbs 4.Put a box around a future tense verb.

50 READING SCAVENGER HUNT A escritora britânica J.K. Rowling definiu o título do sexto livro sobre a aventura do aprendiz de bruxo Harry Potter, Harry Potter e o Enigma do Príncipe. O livro será lançado no País no fim de novembro, pela editora Rocco. Um dos maiores mistérios da obra é a morte de um importante personagem. A série Harry Potter fez de J.K. Rowling a mulher mais rica da Grã-Bretanha, com uma fortuna avaliada, em 2004, em US$ 1 bilhão. Hoje, com cinco volumes da saga traduzidos para 60 idiomas, e 250 milhões de exemplares vendidos, ela divide com Shakespeare e Agatha Christie a lista dos autores mais lidos do planeta.

51 BREAK See you back in 15 minutes!

52 EN PAZ Amado Nervo Muy cerca de mi ocaso, yo te bendigo, Vida, porque nunca me diste ni esperanza fallida, ni trabajos injustos, ni pena inmerecida; porque veo al final de mi rudo camino que yo fui el arquitecto de mi propio destino; que si extraje la miel o la hiel de las cosas, fue porque en ellas puse hiel o mieles sabrosas: cuando planté rosales coseché siempre rosas. Cierto, a mis lozanías va a seguir el invierno: ¡mas tú no me dijiste que mayo fuese eterno! Hallé sin duda largas las noches de mis penas; mas no me prometiste tú tan sólo noches buenas; y en cambio tuve algunas santamente serenas... Amé, fui amado, el sol acarició mi faz. ¡Vida, nada me debes! ¡Vida, estamos en paz!

53 Strategy #5 CARROUSEL OF POETRY Vida, estamos en paz! El sol acareció mi faz. Cosas, rosas, sabrosas La miel y la hiel Muy cerca de mi ocaso

54 Follow-up Questions Whats the poets tone or outlook on life? To whom is the poem directed? At what point in his life do you think he wrote this poem? What does he mean by: Mas no me dijiste que mayo fuese eterno! What question would you ask this poet if you can meet him?

55 Pregunta de Enfoque ¿Cómo se puede incorporar la poesía a través del andamiaje de los distintos niveles? ¿Por qué leer poesía en un curso de lengua? –Ampliar su vocabulario –Mejorar la pronunciación –Abrir nuevas perpectivas culturales –Mejor preparados para tomar un curso de literatura

56 Scaffolding Poetry

57 Level I Level II Level III Level IV AP Canción del jinete (Lorca- España) Como tú – (Roque Dalton – El Salvador) Balada de los dos abuelos (Guillén-Cuba) Canción del pirata (Espronceda- España) Ajedrez (Borges- Argentina) La guitarra (Lorca- España) Manitas (Mistral- Chile) Iba yo por un camino (Guillén- Cuba) Arbolé (Lorca- España) A Roosevelt (Darío-Nicaragua) Versos sencillos (Martí-Cuba) Africa, Africa, Africa (Ortiz- Ecuador) El viaje definitivo (Jiménez- España) En paz (Nervo- México Walking Around (Neruda-Chile) Dulce chopo (Machado- España) Hombre pequeñito (Storni- Argentina) La primavera besaba…(Macha do- España) Rima LIII (Bécquer- España) Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejía – La cogida y la muerte (Lorca- España) Poesía …eres tú (Bécquer- España) Oda al tomate (Neruda-Chile) Sensemayá (Guillén-Cuba) Rima Tú eras el huracán (Bécquer- España) Hombres necios que acusáis…(Sor Juana- México)

58 Level I Canción del jinete por Federico García Lorca ¿Cuáles son las imágenes típicas de España en este poema? ¿Dónde está Andalucía? ¿Dónde está Córdoba? ¿Qué le espera al hombre a caballo al llegar a Córdoba? ¿Qué simboliza la jaca? ¿Qué simboliza la luna? ¿Por qué crees que la luna es roja? ¿Cómo se siente el jinete? CANCIÓN DEL JINETE Córdoba. Lejana y sola. Jaca negra, luna grande, y aceitunas en mi alforja. Aunque sepa los caminos yo nunca llegaré a Córdoba. Por el llano, por el viento, jaca negra, luna roja. La muerte me está mirando desde las torres de Córdoba. ¡Ay qué camino tan largo! ¡Ay mi jaca valerosa! ¡Ay que la muerte me espera, antes de llegar a Córdoba! Córdoba. Lejana y sola.

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60 Level II Podcast: Roque Dalton (entrevista con su hermano) /

61 Como Tú Por Roque Dalton Yo como tú amo el amor, la vida, el dulce encanto de las cosas el paisaje celeste de los días de enero. También mi sangre bulle y río por los ojos que han conocido el brote de las lágrimas. Creo que el mundo es bello, que la poesía es como el pan, de todos. Y que mis venas no terminan en mí, sino en la sangre unánime de los que luchan por la vida, el amor, las cosas, el paisaje y el pan, la poesía de todos. How is poetry like bread? Explain. ¿Cuáles son dos símiles en este poema? Escribe 3 adjetivos que describen el tono del poema? ¿Qué puede simbolizar enero en el poema? Explica la cita: Y que mis venas no terminan en mí, sino en la sangre unánime de los que luchan por la vida…

62 Level III Balada de los dos abuelos Drawing by Alfredo Alcántara Patricia Kule

63 Balada de los dos abuelos ¿Qué sugiere el título? ________________________

64 Introducción a los términos literarios Balada: Grupo de versos que se agrupan en una unidad estructural en un acompañamiento musical. Metáfora: Comparación directa entre dos cosas no relacionadas. Suele cambiar el significado de la palabra o del contexto. Poema: Género literario escrito generalmente en verso Ritmo: Cadencia musical o repetición de un movimiento o sonido. Para el ritmo hay que considerar el tono y la rima. Verso: Unidad métrica de un poema; cada una de las líneas de que se compone un poema.

65 Mapa mental Mis raíces

66 Pos-Lectura: Organizador gráfico ABUELO NEGROABUELO BLANCO ¿Qué lleva? ¿Cómo se llama? ¿Qué hace cada uno? ¿Qué hacen los dos? ¿Dónde está? ¿De dónde viene?

67 Organizador gráfico: T Chart Lo que leí Lo que mi compañero/a leyó (escuché)(escuchó) __________________________________________

68 Level IVCanción del pirata Access schemata 1.What do they know about other Romantic writers? 2.Can they name any they might have studied in other courses? 3.Can they name any Romantic painters? 4.How does this painting reflect Romantic elements in literature?

69 3 de mayo, Goya

70 Saturno devorando a su hijo - Goya

71 Conexiones con el conocimiento previo El Romanticismo es una reacción contra el espíritu racional y crítico de la Ilustracióny el Clasicismo. La conciencia del Yo como entidad autónoma y fantástica La supremacía del sentimiento frente a la razón neoclásica Exhaltación y libre expresión de emociones Fuerte sentimiento nacionalista

72 Preguntas de comprensión –¿Dónde está el pirata? –¿Cómo va el velero bergantín? –¿Por qué llaman al barco El Temido? –¿Dónde es conocido? –¿Qué puede sujetar el valor del capitán? –Para él, ¿qué es su barco? –¿Cuál es su ley? ¿ su patria? ¿su Dios? –¿Cómo es el tono del poema? –¿Quiénes son sus enemigos? ¿Qué le da consuelo al pirata? –¿Cuáles son los elementos biográficos de Espronceda en el poema?

73 Para profundizar –Este poema indica un espíritu intranquilo y rebelde. Dé ejemplos de la rebeldía. –El gran ideal de los románticos es la libertad. ¿Cuáles son los símbolos con que Espronceda representa este ideal? –¿Cómo se manifiesta el espíritu de rebeldía en nuestra sociedad contemporánea?

74 Declamación de Poesía 1.Memorizado / leído(92=B+) 2.Pronunciación/ intonación 3.Interpretación 4.Ritmo / fluidez 5.Accesorios

75 Día de declamación de poesía

76 Level V / AP Ajedrez – Jorge Luis Borges

77 Accessing Schemata Pre-lectura: Therapy of labyrinths ¿Qué es un laberinto? ¿Para que sirven/servían? ¿Cómo se han cambiado sus usos? Cuál es la diferencia entre un laberinto y maze?

78 En grupos¡Quitar el título! Leer y traducir 4-6 versos usando un diccionario Leer en voz alta a la clase Explicar su interpretación y como se encaja con los otros versos

79 Preguntas de comprensión Why do you think Borges uses these specific adjectives (ligero, armada, oblicuo, agresores, encarnizada, tenue, ladino) to describe each chess piece? Go over the bolded words, using synonyms, in the poem for vocabulary building. What historical references are made in this poem? Mythological references? How does Borges refer to time in the poem? How is fate / destiny described? What levels or dimensions are represented in the poem?

80 What metaphors is Borges creating in this poem? What is el juego infinito? What poetic device is exemplified by de negras noches y blancos días? What is its effect? What poetic device is exemplified by …de polvo y tiempo y sueño y agonías? What is its effect?

81 Para sintetizar Comparar con Los dos reyes y los dos laberintos Comparar con las obras de Julio Cortázar y su concepto del tiempo. Escribir un poema original que ejemplifica la metáfora extendida. Ilustrar su propio concepto de un laberinto y/o metáfora explicar a la clase. Analizar otras obras de Borges: El otro, Las ruinas circulares

82 Reflect and Assess List 2-3 activities you currently use to develop reading and listening skills in the Interpretive mode. How might you adjust or rethink activities to incorporate culture and authentic resources? 81

83 Formative Assessment I changed my attitude about… I am more aware of… I am surprised about… I feel… Im still unsure about … I have a question about… 82

84 USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS What are the advantages? –For students? –Skill building –Culturally relevant –Proficiency-oriented –Read for comprehension

85 TYPES OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS An ad in a neighborhood newspaper for a website (for television, a movie) in a newspaper online personal ad in a target-language newspaper An excerpt from an article on nutrition in a (hotel, cultural, entertainment) magazine from a (local, national, international) newspaper in a (health) digest

86 a letter to a friend an essay a (monthly, popular, science, airline) magazine from the target culture a (a short section in a) book an editorial the (food, movie, music) section of a newspaper a short story a poem A notice on a bulletin board in a (target-language) newspaper (in the US) for travelers (such as an announcement on a plane)

87 A passage from a familiar fairy tale current events A sign posted in a (bakery, restaurant) A text from the Internet an article in a target-language magazine a weather report a science magazine a biography

88 WHY USE RUBRICS? Subjective assessment Students & parents know expectations Strengthens vertical teaming Consistency across the department Streamlines scoring process Time management ???

89 Interpretive Rubric points22-18 points17 or fewer Meets ExpectationsApproaches Expectations Does not meet expectations Understands main idea 10pts Explains main idea in own words Understands key sentences referring to main ideas Is unable to find main idea Comprehends key vocabulary 5pts Infers meaning from more than 5 non- cognates Explains, from context, the general meaning of selected terms & cognates Is able to define or translate fewer than 5 key vocabulary words Infers authors attitude/ POV 5pts Underlines words/phrases indicating authors attitude/ POV Words/phrases selected do not always indicate attitude/POV Unable to find words/phrases indicating authors attitude/POV Infers cultural perspective 5pts Identifies words/phrases related to cultural perspective Words/phrases do not always indicate cultural perspective Unable to identify words/phrases related to cultural perspective

90 89 Workshop Guiding Question What instructional strategies can teachers use to ensure that through the integration of reading, students are successfully building proficiency in the Interpretive Communication mode?

91 Reflect and Assess How can these strategies improve the instruction you are already implementing in the classroom? Talk specifically about one or two texts or resources you currently use to which these strategies can effectively be applied. How would you differentiate the strategies for various proficiency levels? 90

92 Web sites: Teachers can visit these websites:

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