Presentación del tema: "Planeación estratégica y el proceso de marketing"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Planeación estratégica y el proceso de marketing Octava ediciónPhilip Kotler y Gary ArmstrongCapítulo 2Planeación estratégica y el proceso de marketing
2 Proceso de planeación estratégica La planeación estratégica implica desarrollar una estrategia general para el crecimiento y la supervivencia a largo plazo de la empresa.Este proceso implica:Definir una misión: Expresión del propósito de la organización; debe estar orientada hacia el mercado.Fijar los objetivos de la empresa: Metas y objetivos que apoyan y guían a toda la empresa.Diseñar una cartera de negocios: Conjunto de negocios y productos que constituyen la empresa.Planear estrategias funcionales: Planificación detallada para cada departamento, diseñada para lograr los objetivos estratégicos.
4 Diseño de la cartera de negocios La mejor cartera es la que mejor hace encajar los puntos fuertes y débiles de la empresa con las oportunidades del entorno.La empresa debe:analizar su cartera actual de negocios o sus Unidades estratégicas de negocios (SBU)decidir cuáles SBU deben recibir más, menos o ninguna inversióndesarrollar estrategias de crecimiento para añadir productos o negocios nuevos a su cartera
5 Análisis de las SBU actuales: Enfoque del Boston Consulting Group Analyzing Current SBU’s: Boston Consulting Group ApproachThis CTR corresponds to Figure on p. 39 and relates to the discussion on ppAnálisis de las SBU actuales: Enfoque del Boston Consulting GroupParticipación relativa de mercadoAlta BajaDesigning the Business PortfolioThe business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. In portfolio analysis, management evaluates the businesses for their strategic fit in meeting company objectives. Strategic Business Units (SBUs) consist of separate units of the company that can be planned independently from other company businesses.The BCG MatrixStars. High growth, high share businesses. Stars often require heavy investment to build/maintain share in rapidly expanding markets. You may wish to discuss the importance of market share to product profitability at this point.Cash Cows. Low growth, high share businesses. Cows generate profits for investment in other businesses.Question Marks. High growth, low share businesses. Strategy must decide between further investment to move question marks to star status or phasing the product out.Dogs. Low growth, low share. Dogs are often targets for divestment, but may still be profitable and/or contribute to other organizational goals.EstrellasAlto crec. y particip.Potencial de utilidadesPodría requerir muchainversión para crecerInterrogacionesAlto crec., baja particip.Hacer estrella/descontinuarRequiere efectivo para con-servar su participaciónTasa de crecimiento del mercadoBaja AltaVacas de dineroBajo crec., alta particip.SBU establecidas y con éxitoProduce efectivoPerrosBajo crecimiento y participaciónBajo potencial de utilidades
6 Análisis de SBUs actuales: Matriz de planeación estratégica de negocios de GE The GE Planning GridThis CTR corresponds to Figure 2-3 on p. 40 and relates to the material on ppFuerza del negocioAltoMedianoBajoFuerteRegularDébilABCDThe General Electric ApproachThis matrix uses two dimensions of three zones each:Industry attractiveness is an index made up of such factors as market size, market growth, industry profit margin, amount of competition, seasonality & cyclicality of demand, and industry cost structure.Business strength is an index of factors like relative market share, price, competitiveness, product quality, customer & market knowledge, sales effectiveness, and geographic advantages. Which elements within these categories are utilized may vary from product to product and market to market.Strategies appropriate for each group of zones:Invest/Grow. This zone consists of the three green cells in the upper left corner and indicate strong SBUs.Selectivity/Earnings. This zone consists of the three yellow diagonal cells from the lower left to the upper right and represent SBUs of medium overall attractiveness.Sell or Reposition. This zone consists of the three red cells in the lower right corner and indicated SBUs with low overall attractiveness.Atractivo de la industria
7 Creación de estrategias de crecimiento Product/Market Expansion GridThis CTR corresponds to Figure 2-4 on p. 41 and relates to the material on ppCreación de estrategias de crecimientoMatriz de expansión de productos/mercados1. Penetración en el mercado3. Desarrollo deProductosProductos existentesProductos nuevosDeveloping Growth StrategiesMarket Penetration. A penetration strategy involves increasing sales to present target customers. The product itself remains unchanged although there may be a substantial change in how the product is promoted. You may wish to link market penetration with other company-wide strategies such as market leader if appropriate to course progress at this time.Market Development. A market development strategy involves identifying new segments for the current products offered by the company. Market development can be successful for old products like Arm & Hammer Baking Soda (used as a refrigerator deodorant). You may wish to link market development to emerging technologies such as geodemographics for identifying new market segments.Product Development. A product development seeks growth by modifying existing products or introducing new products to serve an existing market. Line extensions in snack foods are often useful for illustrating this strategy to students. You may ask your class how many flavors of Doritos they can name as an example.Diversification. This strategy involves taking profits from existing products or businesses to acquire or enter new markets, usually in different industries from previous company efforts. RJR buying Nabisco is an example.2. Desarrollo demercados4. DiversificaciónMercados existentesMercados nuevos
8 Matriz de expansión de productos/mercados Penetración del mercado: aumentar las ventas de productos actuales a clientes actuales. ¿Cómo? Recortar precios, aumentar la publicidad, vender productos en más tiendas.Desarrollo del mercado: crear nuevos mercados con productos actuales. ¿Cómo? Identificar nuevos mercados demográficos o geográficos.Desarrollo de productos: ofrecer productos modificados o nuevos a los clientes actuales ¿Cómo? Nuevos estilos, sabores, colores o productos modificados.Diversificación: productos nuevos para mercados nuevos. ¿Cómo? Crear o comprar negocios nuevos.
9 Papel del marketing en la planeación estratégica Proceso de seleccionar clientes metaSegmentación del mercado: determinar grupos de comparadores (segmentos) bien definidos con diferentes necesidades.Determinación de mercados meta: evaluar y seleccionar los segmentos en los que se ingresará.Posicionamiento en el mercado: hacer que productos distintivos y deseables ocupen un lugar en la mente de los segmentos meta, en relación con productos competidores.Estrategias de marketing para obtener ventaja competitivaLíder de mercadoRetador de mercadoSeguidor de mercadoOcupador de nicho de mercado
10 El proceso de marketing The Marketing ProcessThis CTR corresponds to Figure 2-5 on p. 45 and to material on ppTeaching Tip: This material previews the focus on later chapters. You may wish to show this CTR as an introduction to the following discussion on target consumers. The lecture information below is provided if you wish to cover the strategic background information prior to coverage of details.El proceso de marketingConsumido- res metaProductoPlazaPrecioPromociónImplementación de marketingPlaneación de marketingControl de marketingAnalistas de marketingCompetidoresIntermediarios de marketingPúblicosProveedoresEntorno demográfico- económicoEntorno tecnológico- naturalEntorno político- legalEntornosocio-culturalThe Marketing ProcessThis begins an extended discussion of planning, organization, and specific-actions that includes slide transparencies on the 4 Ps, factors affecting marketing strategy decisions, and a general outline of the contents of a marketing plan. These topics are covered in more detail on subsequent CTRs.Marketing Analysis (and Planning). Marketing must conduct a complete analysis of its situation and all relevant environmental influences. Further, marketing must provide each functional area of the company with the information from this analysis that affects their area-specific tasks.Selecting Target Markets. In evaluating analysis, it should become clear that the company cannot service each market opportunity equally well. Target market selection occurs by matching strengths and weaknesses identified in analysis to particular target markets.Marketing Implementation. Plans must be coordinated and launched with realistic logistical support if they are to succeed. Marketers must be able to translate plans into concrete action.Marketing Control. The need to measure, assess and evaluate performance all relate to control issues. These are discussed in more detail later.
11 Mezcla de marketing – Las cuatro P The Four Ps of MarketingThis CTR corresponds to Figure 2-6 on p. 49 and the material on ppProductoCombinación de “bie- nes y servicios” que una empresa ofrece a un mercado metaPrecioDinero que los consumidores deben pagar para obtener el productoThe Marketing MixProduct. In the contemporary mix, product is the term for the "goods and service" offering sold by the company. As technology makes everything from stereos to computers more accessible to the average buyer, service increasingly makes the competitive difference, especially in creating brand loyalty and generating repeat customers.Place. Place refers as much to how the product arrives to the final outlet as where the customer actually buys it. Later in the course, when students distinguish between convenience, shopping, and specialty goods the logistics of getting the product to the "place" of purchase can be emphasized again.Discussion Note: You may wish to discuss the role of infrastructure on placing decisions -- highway, rail, and waterway conditions and/or airfreight costs.Price. Price too is an excellent source of discussion content. Students will undoubtedly know about list and discount prices as many will have had shopping experiences in discount malls. The manipulation of price in the channel of distribution through allowances, credit, and payment arrangements may be new to them.Promotion. Promotion covers most of what students will stereotypically identify as "real marketing." While the role of promotion is important you may remind them the dangers of too much emphasis on a single component of the mix.ClientesmetaPosicionamientobuscadoActividades de laempresa que hacen asequible el productoPlazaActividades que convencen a los clientes meta de comprar el productoPromoción
12 Administración de la labor de marketing Análisis de marketing de la situación de la empresaManaging the Marketing EffortThis CTR corresponds to Figure 2-7 on p. 50 and relates to the material on ppAdministración de la labor de marketingManaging the Marketing EffortAnalysis. Tools of analysis include marketing research, marketing information systems, demand forecast models, and systematic if more subjective sources of information such as sales force composites and expert judgments. Even while taking advantage of constantly improving technologies, marketers must know when their own judgment must be relied on as well. If there is much science to marketing, there remains a great deal of art to it as well.Planning. Planning involves deciding on the marketing strategies that will help the company attain its overall objectives. The marketing plan is discussed on the following CTR.Implementation. Through implementation, the company turns the strategic and marketing plans into actions that will achieve the company’s strategic objectives. You may wish to remind students that planning can become a self-absorbing activity that needs constant re-connection to real world marketing constraints.Control. Control consists of measuring and evaluating the results of marketing plans and activities and taking corrective actions to make sure objectives are being reached.Discussion Note: Ask students to discuss how these steps in managing the marketing effort are interdependent and mutually influencing. How example, how does the experience a manager gains from taking corrective actions influence the planning process? Does it in turn affect how analysis is conducted? Resources used for analysis?ControlImplementación de marketingConvertir planes de marketing en planes de acción para lograr los objetivos de marketingPlaneación de marketingCrear estrategiaspara lograr losobjetivos de marketingCrear planes ypresupuestos de marketingMedirResultadosEvaluarResultadosTomar medidas correctivas
13 Elementos de un plan de marketing Resumen ejecutivoSituación actual de marketingAmenazas y oportunidadesObjetivos y puntos claveMarketing PlanningThis CTR relates to the material on pp and corresponds to the information in Table 2-2 on p. 51.Teaching Tip: If you are using a term marketing project in the course, you may wish to handout the assignment at this time.Elementos de un plan de marketingEstrategia de marketingProgramas de acciónPresupuestosMarketing Plan ComponentsExecutive Summary. This opening section provides a short summary of the main goals and recommendations for action. It should prepare the reader in anticipation of full explanations later.Teaching Tip: Hint for students: Write this section after completing the plan.Current Marketing Situation. This section describes the market and the company's position in it. A product review should compare all market entries. A distribution section reports sales trends and channel developments.Threats and Opportunities. This section distills environmental scanning efforts into an appraisal of how those forces and trends affect the company. Marketing plans should both identify and rank threats and opportunities.Objectives and Issues. This section begins the process whereby the manager translates analysis into terms for action. Based upon the preceding two steps the manager can set goals that will successfully implement company strategy.Marketing Strategies. Just as the company has strategies for growth, the manager must define the marketing logic or "game plan" to be used in running the specific business or product. The marketing plan here must provide specific strategies for target markets, the marketing mix, expenditures, and how strategies complement and support overall marketing goals.Action Programs. This section tells the who, what , when, and how much of the plan.Budgets. This section is essentially a projected profit-and-loss statement. You may wish to use it as part of a diagnostic if student plans are used with a simulation.Controls. All marketing plans must specify the means for evaluating their effectiveness. Financial goals by market by quarter are common.Controles
14 Implementacíón de marketing Estrategia de marketingMarketing ImplementationThis CTR relates to the material on p. 52.Teaching Tip: Students may have initial difficulty in developing a solid approach to implementing marketing plans. After working through the planning process itself it is often hard for students to focus again on the more concrete activities required to implement their ideas.Implementacíón de marketingEstructura deorganizaciónDecisión yrecompensaRecursos humanosMarketing ImplementationMarketing Implementation is the process that turns marketing strategies and plans into actions in order to accomplish strategic marketing objectives.Action Program. This element of the implementation process coordinates the activities -- what people do -- of the plan. Decisions and deadlines for actions are specified. Lines of authority and reporting are specified. Procedures for resolving conflicts should also be provided.Organization Structure. It should be emphasized to students that there is no one "right" organization structure. Structure is appropriate to the kind of market and competitive conditions that exist. Fast changing markets in high technology are best served by decentralized structures. Management styles from formal to informal serve company interests better if they are linked to the kind of decisions that need to be made rather that personal preferences of management. While decentralized, informal approaches are popular in fast changing markets, formal and centralized structures are often more competitive for organizations in stable markets.Decision and Reward Systems. These must include issues of compensation but management will also benefit from attention to information networking opportunities and the role of praise and honor as effective additional roles that build a sense of company identity.Human Resources. Recruitment and training of motivated people with the necessary skills and abilities to perform specific tasks is crucial to successful implementation of marketing plans. Combined with reward systems, you may wish to introduce extra-textual discussion of theories of management such as Herzberg’s motivators and hygiene factors here.Climate and Culture. Company culture is a system of values and beliefs shared by people in the organization that provide collective meaning and identity. This system serves as the context for determining meaning and guides decision making.Programas de acciónDesempeño de marketingAmbiente yculturaImplementación
15 Fijar metas de marketing Marketing ControlThis CTR corresponds to Figure 2-8 on p. 53 and relates to the material on ppControl de marketingMedirdesempeñoEvaluardesempeñoMarketing ControlMarketing control is the process of measuring and evaluating the results of marketing strategies and plans and taking corrective action to ensure that marketing objectives are attained. Four Steps of Control Include:Set Goals. It is important that students understand that the control process is proactive in nature. Management starts by deciding which goals it wants to reach. Goals are integrated into all marketing plans and should be reasonable and specific.Measure Performance. In determining the success of the marketing efforts, performance in the marketplace and the company must be objectively measured. The measurements then become the basis for considering how things are working out for the company.Evaluate Performance. Many students will bring with them a negative connotation of the evaluation process. You may want to encourage them to think that the evaluation step is a diagnostic one. Few companies use this step or the following one for strictly punishing marketing personnel. Evaluation may identify a need for improvement for the marketers, but it also may indicated changed environmental conditions, new competitive threats, unrealistic goals, or faulty strategic assumptions. Encourage your students to articulate and discuss evaluation as a beneficial professional experience as well as an inevitable necessary part of strategic planning.Take Corrective Action. Again, many students will see “corrective” as a necessary evil. Invite them to consider that all organizations seek feedback on performance in order to make changes in their competitive behavior. Coaches use half-time and time outs to take corrective action. Marketing managers use the control process to “tinker” with the plans in order to help all members of the marketing team perform well.Tomar medidascorrectivas
16 Auditorías de marketing Marketing AuditsThis CTR relates to the material on pp and summarizes the information in Table 2-3 on p. 56.Auditorías de marketingOrganizaciónProductividadEntornoSistemasFunciónEstrategiaTipos deauditorías de marketingTopical Areas for Marketing AuditsMarketing Environment. This includes the macroenvironment and the task environment. Macroenvironmental questions address demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and cultural questions that affect the companies marketing efforts. Task environment questions address markets, customers, competitors, channels, suppliers, and publics in relation to how the company interacts and responds to themMarketing Strategy. This audit questions the business mission, marketing objectives, marketing strategy, and budgetary issues. Audits here seek to ensure a clear sense of mission and strategic fit for the company.Marketing Organization. This audit examines the formal structure, functional efficiency, and interface efficiency of the company.Marketing Systems. This audit deals with the adequacy of the marketing information system, marketing planning system, marketing control system, and new-product development. In particular, audits in this area seek to identify whether or not each of these functions work well and meshes synergistically with the others.Marketing Productivity. This audit examines profitability and cost-effectiveness.Marketing Function. This audit evaluates the products, price, distribution, advertising, sales promotion, publicity, and salesforce efforts of the company. Efforts here correspond to a strategic review of the elements of the marketing mix with traditional promotional elements broken down into two related categories.