Presentación del tema: "El entorno de marketing global"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 El entorno de marketing global Octava ediciónPhilip Kotler y Gary ArmstrongCapítulo 3El entorno de marketing global
2 Entorno de marketingTodos los actores y fuerzas que influyen en la capacidad de la empresa para efectuar transacciones de negocios de manera eficaz con su mercado meta.Incluye:Microentorno – fuerzas cercanas a la empresa que afectan su capacidad para servir a sus clientes.Macroentorno – fuerzas mayores de la sociedad que afectan a todo el microentorno.
3 El entorno de marketing DemográficoEmpresaCulturalEconómicoEmpresaPúblicosProveedoresCompetidoresClientesNaturalPolíticoIntermediariosTecnológico
4 El microentorno Empresa Públicos Competidores Intermediarios Clientes ProveedoresFuerzas que afectan la capacidad de una empresa para servir a sus clientesMicroenvironmental ForcesSuppliers. Suppliers are the firms and persons that provide the resourcesneeded by the company and competitors to produce goods and services.Company. Marketing plans must accommodate the needs of otherfunctional areas of the firm to coordinate product/service delivery effectively(See following CTR and notes.Competitors. Competitors are usually considered those companies alsoserving a target market with similar products and services, although broaderdefinitions may apply.Publics. Publics consist of any group that perceives itself having an interestin the actions of the firm. Publics can have positive as well as negativeinfluences on the company's objectives.Intermediaries. Intermediaries include various middlemen and distributionfirms as well as marketing service agencies and financial institutions.Customers. Customers consist of consumer, industrial, reseller, government,and international markets.CompetidoresIntermediariosClientes
5 El microentorno de la empresa Entorno interno de la empresa – áreas funcionales como alta gerencia, finanzas, fabricación, etc.Proveedores – proporcionan los recursos necesarios para producir bienes y servicios.Intermediarios de marketing - ayudan a la empresa a promover, vender y distribuir sus bienes a los compradores finales.
6 El microentorno de la empresa Clientes – cinco tipos de mercados que compran los bienes y servicios de una empresa.Competidores – quienes sirven a un mercado meta con productos y servicios similares.Públicos – cualquier grupo que se considera interesado en la capacidad de una empresa para lograr sus objetivos.
7 Mercados de clientes Empresa Mercados internacionales Customer MarketsThis CTR corresponds to Figure 3-2 on p. 73 and relates to the material on p. 72.Mercados internacionalesMercados de consumidoresTypes of Customer MarketsThe company is concerned with five types of customer markets, including:Consumer Markets. These consist of individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumption.Business Markets. These buy goods and services for further processing or for use in their production process.Reseller Markets. Resellers buy goods and services for repackaging and reselling at a profit.Discussion Note: Students may have heard that these “middlemen” raise costs to end-users. You might point out that in most cases, resellers actually lower costs by performing marketing functions less expensively than could manufacturers.Government Markets. Governments buy goods and services to produce public services or to transfer them to needy constituents.International Markets. A growing concern for almost all marketers, these consist of those various types of buyers located in other countries.EmpresaMercados del gobiernoMercados industrialesMercados de revendedores
8 El macroentorno Demográfico Cultural Económico Político Natural The MacroenvironmentThis CTR corresponds to Figure 3-4 on p. 75 and relates to the material on ppTeaching Tip: This CTR overviews the major forces in the company’s macroenvironment. You might use it as an introduction before exploring each area in detail. Each of the six major forces is covered in greater detail on subsequent CTRs.DemográficoCulturalEconómicoFuerzas que crean oportunidades y representan amenazas para una empresaMacroenvironmental ForcesDemographic. The demographic environment monitors population characteristics on such items as size, density, age, location.Economic. The economic environment includes income and spending pattern concerns.Natural. The natural environment addresses pollution concerns, energy costs, raw materials availability, and growing government roles in resource management.Technological. The technological environment includes such issues as the fast pace of change, emerging product forms, and high R&D.Political. The political environment addresses the role of government and policy in the regulation of business.Cultural. The cultural environment recognizes the influence of values and beliefs of a society on purchase decisions and consumption patterns.PolíticoNaturalTecnológico
9 El macroentorno de la empresa Demográfico – estudia la población en términos de edad, sexo, raza, ocupación, ubicación y otras estadísticas.Económico – factores que afectan el poder de compra y los patrones de gasto de los consumidores.Natural – recursos naturales que la empresa requiere como insumos o que son afectados por las actividades de marketing.
10 Tendencias demográficas clave en EE. UU. Key U.S. Demographic TrendsThis CTR relates to the material on ppEstructura de edades cambianteLa población está envejeciendoEstructura familiar cambianteCasarse a mayor edad, menos niños, mujeresque trabajan y hogares no familiaresDemographic EnvironmentDemography is the study of human populations in terms of size,density, location, age, sex, race, occupation, and other aggregate statistics.Key Aspects of the US demographic environment include:Age Structures (esp.. Baby Boomers). The post W.W.II Baby Boom is the mostsignificant demographic feature by its sheer size: 75 million or over 1/3of the US population. This bulge in age distribution leads growth strategiesin industries serving age-specific markets. Where boomers go, marketersmust follow.Discussion Note: More proactively, marketers need to identify emerging boomerneeds to plan strategically for an aging population that also lives longer thanprevious ones.Family Structure. The typical American family rarely exists anymore.Increasing age of those marrying, delayed child-bearing, increased two-income families, and non-family households are key demographic trends.Geographic Population Shifts. Americans are mobile. Trends includemovement to Sunbelt states, rural to urban shifts, and present urbanitesmoving to suburbs.Trends in Education. Americans are becoming more educated and white-collar.Increasing Ethnic Diversity. The United States population is 73% white,12% black, with the remaining percentage mostly Hispanic (22 million) andAsian (7 million).Desplazamientos geográficosMudarse al Sunbelt y los suburbios (MSA)Mayor educaciónAumento en la matrícula universitariay en quienes trabajan en oficinasCreciente diversidad étnica y racial73% Caucásicos, 12% Afroamericanos,10% Hispanos & 3.4% Asiáticos
11 Entorno económico Inquietudes económicas clave de los mercadólogos Economic EnvironmentThis CTR relates to the material on ppDesarrollo económicoCambios en ingresosInquietudes económicas clave de los mercadólogosThe Economic EnvironmentThe Economic Environment consists of factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns. Key considerations include:Economic Development. Nations vary greatly in their levels of and distribution of income, often as a result of their stage of economic development. Typical distinctions include:Subsistence Economies. These consume most of their own agricultural and industrial output. These countries are poor targets for most products.Industrial Economies. These offer rich markets for many different kinds of goods.Changes in Income. Rising incomes for most consumers have only kept pace with inflation. As a result, consumers are more sensitive to Value Marketing - the careful promotion of a high degree of quality and performance for the price. Income distribution is also of key importance: Upper-class consumers are not affected by current economic events. Middle-class consumers can afford the “good life” most of the time, but are careful about spending. Working-class consumers must budget carefully. Underclass consumers are often unable to participate fully in the marketing system.Changing Consumer Spending Patterns. Knowledge of Engel’s Laws remains important: As income rises, the percentage spent on food declines, the percentage spent on housing remains constant, and the percentage spent on savings and other categories increases.Cambios en los patrones de gasto de los consumidores
12 Mayor costo de la energía Entorno naturalMás intervencióndel gobiernoFactoresque afectanel entorno naturalMayor contaminaciónEscasez de materialesNatural EnvironmentThere are several areas affecting marketing that stem from the natural environment.Shortages of Raw Materials. Shortages both increase demand and sprout counter-movements aimed at conservation.Discussion Note: Both sides of the "green" movement utilize sophisticated database marketing and lobbying techniques.Energy Costs. The cost of energy makes long-term growth of high energy industries and goods difficult to predict.Increased Pollution. Industrial growth almost always damages the natural environment. The so-called “green movement” seeks to operate businesses in such a way so as not to damage the natural environment. The varying political power of “greens” in different countries is a consideration in global marketing efforts.Government Intervention in Natural Resource Management. Changing philosophies on the role of government in managing natural resources also blends into the legal environment. Marketers must take care in identifying natural environmental trends.Discussion Note: You might further expand this discussion by pointing out that even agencies like the EPA vary greatly in the amount of environmental regulation they perform depending upon funding and the agenda of whoever occupies the White House.Mayor costo de la energía
13 El macroentorno de la empresa Tecnológico – fuerzas que crean productos y oportunidades de mercado nuevas.Político – leyes, dependencias y grupos que influyen en las acciones de marketing o las limitan.Cultural – fuerzas que afectan los valores, percepciones, preferencias y comporta-mientos básicos de una sociedad.
14 Entorno tecnológico Cambios vertiginosos Altos presupuestos para R & D Technological EnvironmentThis CTR relates to the material on ppProblemas del entorno tecnológicoTechnological EnvironmentKey forces operating in the technological environment include:Fast Pace of Technological Change. Anyone trying to learn all the features of their current software programs before they are updated and outdated understands this force.Teaching Tip: You might point out to students raised on Star Trek and Star Wars how much of yesterday's sci-fi is already coming true. Cellular phones as Star Trek-type communicators might get class discussion going.High R&D Budgets. The United States spends more on research and development than any other country. Placing marketing personnel on research teams can help focus research efforts on consumer needs and practical applications.Focus on Minor Improvements. Risk factors associated with high costs of development often lead to minor improvements over substantive product changes.Discussion Note: While minor improvements help keep products "fresh" to the market, marketers must anticipate that changing consumer needs will limit the competitiveness of too little innovation.Increased Government Regulation. Faster introduction of increasingly complex products often leads to greater regulation as consumers seek assurances that products are tested and safe.Preferencia a mejoras menoresMayor regulación
15 Entorno político Tendencias clave en el entorno político Political EnvironmentThis CTR relates to the material on ppMás leyesDistinto modo de hacerlas cumplirTendencias clave en el entorno políticoPolitical EnvironmentThe political macroenvironmental forces consist of laws, government agencies, and interest groups that seek regulation of business activities to forward their own interests. Business in general, more than other groups, uses lobbying efforts to try and obtain legislation favorable to their competitive interests. Key considerations include:Legislation. Laws generally attempt to protect companies from each other to create more competition that in turn creates more value for the consumer. Laws also aim at protecting consumers from unfair and sometimes dangerous business practices. Laws sometimes seek to protect society as a whole from practices that endanger whole communities or other publicly owned resources such as rivers, forests, and parks.Enforcement. The effect of laws depends upon the emphasis given to enforcing them within the regulatory agency responsible for administering the law. Regulation varies in intensity with political agendas of sitting presidents and budget allocations. Public interest groups too affect the degree of legislative activity and administrative enforcement.Increased Emphasis on Ethics. At both the grassroots and corporate level, more US companies are showing a greater concern for more ethical conduct and more socially responsible action.Discussion Note: Ethical companies often enjoy better consumer relations and public image. Bottom line contributions can be defensive. For example, when Johnson & Johnson behaved responsibly after the Tylenol poisonings, they did not suffer expensive lawsuits and were able to recapture all of their original market share when the product was re-introduced.Mayor hincapié en la ética
16 Perspectivas que expresan valores Entorno culturalTechnological EnvironmentThis CTR relates to the material on ppDe las organizacionesDe la NaturalezaDe uno mismoDe la sociedadDel UniversoDe otrosPerspectivas que expresan valoresCultural EnvironmentThe key elements of the cultural macroenvironment include:Persistence of Cultural Values. Core beliefs and values are relatively enduring and must be considered by marketers positioning products. For example, product innovations that conflict with core values are unlikely to be adopted.Shifts in Secondary Values. These change over time and change more often than core values and may provide positioning opportunities.Cultural values are expressed in people’s views on the following:View of Themselves. People vary in their emphasis on how important serving themselves is compared to serving others. Personal ambition and materialism have increased significantly over time in the US.View of Others. Recently, there has been a trend toward more altruistic behavior, at least among some segments of the population.Discussion Note: You might link ambition and altruism to baby boomers and baby busters, respectively. It wont’ hold up forever, but might generate class participation.View of Organizations. Most people are willing to work for large companies but also believe that the companies are out for themselves.View of Society. Trends like “Buy American” are reflects of this view.View of Nature. This trend has changed over the last few decades from dominate and control to coexist and preserve.View of Universe. Linked in the US to religious observance, this trend has seen an overall decline among most and a simultaneous passionate activism among a small, but powerful group, usually called the “religious right.”
17 Cómo responder al entorno de marketing Perspectiva de administración ambientalAdoptar un enfoque proactivo hacia el manejo del microentorno y el macroentorno para propiciar cambios favorables para la empresa. ¿Cómo? Contratando cabilderos, publicando anuncios que moldean la opinión, presentando demandas y quejas, y firmando convenios.