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AICMA Acción Integral contra Minas Antipersonal Informe a la Comisión de Seguridad Hemisférica 10 de diciembre de 2010 Nearly twenty years ago, an international.

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Presentación del tema: "AICMA Acción Integral contra Minas Antipersonal Informe a la Comisión de Seguridad Hemisférica 10 de diciembre de 2010 Nearly twenty years ago, an international."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 AICMA Acción Integral contra Minas Antipersonal Informe a la Comisión de Seguridad Hemisférica 10 de diciembre de 2010 Nearly twenty years ago, an international consensus began to take shape with the eminently humanitarian vision of eliminating the threat of antipersonnel landmines in the Americas. A coalition of mine-affected states, donor nations, international and non-governmental organizations conceived a multi-lateral effort, coordinated by the Organization of American States, to achieve what then seemed a nearly impossible mission. Continuing in this vein, the General Assembly approved resolution AG/RES (XXXX-O/10) “The Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone” at its fortieth ordinary session in Lima. Oficina de Acción Humanitaria contra Minas Departamento de Seguridad Pública Secretaría de Seguridad Multidimensional

2 Mandato “Convertir a las Américas en la primera zona libre de minas terrestres antipersonal del mundo.” - Asamblea General OEA, 2010 Resolución 2559 Misión del Programa: Proveer apoyo financiero, técnico, logístico y administrativo a los Estados Miembros que lo solicita para ayudar sus esfuerzos para mitigar y eliminar el impacto de las minas antipersonal en sus pueblos y sus economías. To fulfill the mandate assigned to the General Secretariat, the Office of Humanitarian Mine Action (OHMA) of the Secretariat of Multidimensional Security, has implemented actions and initiatives through the AICMA Program in support of the Member States that have requested assistance for their National Plans to address all aspects of the mine problem. The Program, which was originally conceived as a mine clearance program in response to requests for assistance from the Central American Member States, has grown to support a wide range of mine action activities: (a) humanitarian demining; (b) mine-risk education; (c) physical and psychological rehabilitation of landmine victims and their socioeconomic reintegration; (d) destruction of stockpiled mines; (f) promotion of a ban on the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of antipersonnel mines; and (g) destruction of obsolete or surplus munitions and explosive remnants of war. In each field of action, the goal is to reestablish safe, secure and productive living conditions for mine-affected communities.

3 Centroamérica: Libre de minas antipersonal
Honduras Nicaragua Guatemala El Salvador (Programa Nacional) Throughout the past nearly twenty years of mine action work dating back to the first mine clearance operations supported in Nicaragua in 1993, the Program has made steady progress in reducing the impact of landmines in the Americas. In 2010, thanks in large measure to the perseverance of these partners, the goal of Central America as a mine-free zone was realized as Nicaragua became the final nation in the region to achieve this status. This significant milestone represents more than a major achievement in advancing the goals of peace and security in the Americas. The success of the AICMA Program in Central America stands as a challenge to continue to extend the vision of a region free of the threat of mines to other OAS member states. It is also significant to note that of some 80 or more mine affected countries, only sixteen have been able to complete their mine clearance and destruction plans. In contrast, of the nine American states that have received assistance through AICMA, five -- Costa Rica, Honduras, Suriname, Guatemala and Nicaragua -- have been declared mine-free. Costa Rica Surinam 2005 De los 16 países del mundo que han finalizado sus planes nacionales de desminado, cinco han contado con el apoyo de la OEA.

4 Beneficios concretos Se han destruido o certificado la remoción de mas de minas y municiones sin estallar. Aproximadamente 1,250 sobrevivientes han sido ayudados en su rehabilitación y/o reinserción socioeconómica. Se destruyeron mas de un millón de minas almacenadas. Casi un millón de habitantes de mas de comunidades afectadas han sido sensibilizados sobre el riesgo de minas. The work supported by the Program has resulted in significant and concrete benefits for the peoples of the Americas. The threat of more than 200,000 landmines that previously contaminated farmland and vital infrastructure has been eliminated. Another one million landmines that were previously held in government storage facilities have also been destroyed. Some 1,250 landmine survivors and their family members have received life-changing help in recovering from their injuries and reintegrating into the productive fabric of their communities. In an extensive effort to prevent new landmine victims, nearly a million people living in more than 2,500 communities located near mined areas have receive information about the risks of antipersonnel mines and unexploded munitions.

5 Estructura del Programa
Estados Miembros Autoridades Nacionales Desarrollo de la capacidad nacional Donantes OEA AICMA Socios Técnicos Cooperación cívico-militar Financiamiento y monitoreo internacional Within the General Secretariat, the Office of Humanitarian Mine Action provides overall coordination of the AICMA Program, including solicitation and administration of financial contributions from the international community and the provision of technical and logistical support for mine action activities carried out by the assisted Member States. The Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) provides assistance to the Program through teams of monitors in the mine-affected countries that are provided by the Board’s contributing members. A primary objective of the Program’s assistance is to build national capacity through a collaborative, multi-lateral, civil-military effort with a fundamentally humanitarian goal. Participación multilateral Visión humanitaria

6 Apoyo para el desminado humanitario
ASISTENCIA A LA PLANIFICACION ADMINISTRACION FINANCIERA RECAUDACION DE FONDOS COMPRAS ENTRENAMIENTO AICMA APOYO A LOS DESMINADORES APOYO LOGISTICO One of the core functions of the AICMA Program is to support the national mine clearance capacity of Member States. This support takes many forms including fundraising, planning assistance, financial management of donor-provided funds, training for national demining personnel, logistical support to complement national capabilities, monitoring and quality control of clearance operations, insurance and danger stipends for national deminers, and the purchase of specialized technical equipment. MONITOREO

7 Programas Nacionales Logros y Proyecciones AICMA
Major challenges lie ahead in achieving the stated goal of converting the Americas into the world’s first antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone, as expressed in OAS General Assembly Resolution AG/RES 2559 (XL-O/10). Illegal armed groups in Colombia continue to use mines and improvised explosive devices that exact a heavy toll on civilians, as well as on military personnel. Ecuador and Peru still have thousands of mines scattered in remote areas of their common border that require clearance before full recovery from past conflicts and economic reintegration are possible. These efforts require sustainment for periods ranging from several years for Peru and Ecuador to as long as a decade or more for Colombia.

8 Nicaragua Logros: Apoyo de transición
AICMA Logros: 100% del Plan Nacional de Desminado finalizado Mas de minas eliminadas 1.122 victimas de minas apoyadas Mas de comunidades sensibilizadas sobre el riesgo Apoyo de transición Despeje de artefactos explosivos y municiones en base militar abandonada Transición de apoyo para victimas de minas a entidad permanente Micro-proyectos en tierras despejadas Although Nicaragua has fulfilled its obligations under that Ottawa Convention and is now officially considered to be mine-free, some limited external support is required in 2011 to complete the transition. The final clean-up of an abandoned military base in central Nicaragua, which is littered with discarded ammunition left from the 1980s, is scheduled to be completed in February. While AICMA maintains a presence in Nicaragua to assist in this remediation project and to provide micro-financing for community recovery projects on cleared lands, a transitional victim assistance effort will be sustained in 2011 as details are developed for transition to an as-yet undetermined organization to assume responsibility for continuing care over the long term. 8

9 Desafíos en Colombia Recolección de información confiable y útil sobre áreas minadas a través de enlace comunitario, campañas de educación en el riesgo y mandos militares. Aceleración del proceso de liberación de tierras a través de estudios no técnicos y estudios técnicos y el empleo eficaz de recursos de despeje. Minimizar el riesgo a comunidades mientras el despeje y la liberación de tierras proceden. Proteger a los desminadores y las comunidades. Asegurar la calidad de las actividades de desminado humanitario que realizan todas las organizaciones acreditadas (civiles y militares). Fomentar el desarrollo económico de áreas desminadas oportunamente Identificar victimas de minas en áreas remotas y facilitar su acceso a servicios de rehabilitación y reintegración socio-económica. Colombia presents the most challenging environment for mine action in the Americas. Lessons learned from Central America are now being applied broadly by AICMA in Colombia, where reports of mines placed by illegal armed groups are widespread, but offer little focus for clearance operations. Working with national authorities, non-technical survey, land release and overall mine assessment and planning have become a primary focus of the OAS Program in Colombia. Based on the valuable experience gained in Central America, it is feasible to develop a coherent set of national priorities and plans that can reduce the time and the resources needed to address the problem in Colombia.

10 Colombia: Una respuesta integral
Seguridad Educación en el riesgo Enlace comunitario Identificación y apoyo a victimas Recolección de información Despeje Apreciación del impacto socio- económico Entrega de tierras To address the complexity of the mine situation in Colombia, AICMA emphasizes a fully integrated approach. AICMA is not only responsible for coordinating technical, logistical and administrative support for Colombian military personnel in demining teams, it also carries out key enabling activities including mine data collection and survey, community liaison and mine risk education activities in the same areas where Colombian deminers work before, during, and after humanitarian demining operations. These activities seek to increase understanding of and support for humanitarian demining and greater exchange between the communities and humanitarian demining units. To facilitate the return of displaced persons to their communities as these are cleared, AICMA offers micro-financing for productive projects as an interim measure to reestablishment of government services and assistance from international aid and development entities. Proyectos de desarrollo

11 Colombia AICMA Logros: Finalización del despeje de los 35 campos minados bajo la jurisdicción del gobierno Despeje de 28 áreas minadas en 13 municipios de 5 departamentos distintos, beneficiando a mas de habitantes Zona de acción en atención a emergencias humanitarias en comunidades Campañas de prevención en 58 comunidades para reducir el riesgo de minas y el número de accidentes nuevos Expansión de capacidad nacional de 245 a 370 desminadores Despeje de 552 minas y artefactos explosivos y m2 Estudios no técnicos en 96 áreas sospechosas resultan en la liberación de m2 para uso productivo sin necesidad de despeje In July 2010, Colombian deminers completed clearance of all thirty-five minefields under government jurisdiction. As a result, the effort to respond to humanitarian emergencies caused by mines or improvised explosive artifacts that began in 2007 accelerated this year. To date in 2010 twenty-eight mined areas affecting Colombian communities have been cleared benefitting more than 4,000 people, enabling them to return to their homes under safe conditions. This clearance effort, combined with increased emphasis on release of land through better analysis and without the use of expensive and slower clearance work, put nearly 400,000 square meters of land, nearly twice the figure released in 2009, back into productive use. Currently the AICMA Program is assisting Colombia in the departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Meta, Bolivar and Santander, with the government planning to eventually conduct clearance work simultaneously in twelve of its thirty-two departments. 11

12 Colombia – Apoyo al desminado
AICMA Colombia – Apoyo al desminado Objetivos Apoyar el desminado en 12 municipios afectados en zonas consolidadas Reducir el riesgo de minas en comunidades afectadas y eliminar accidentes nuevos en las mismas Ampliar la capacidad nacional de desminado Colombia continued the expansion of its humanitarian demining capability from six to nine demining units this year with AICMA support and plans for an expanded demining organization of fourteen units by the end of Realization of this plan will depend largely on the availability of international contributions. Zonas prioritarias

13 Ecuador y Perú Condiciones Desafíos Respuestas Areas Minadas
Registros de campos minados Áreas minadas en zonas fronterizas Perú – Infraestructura minada Desafíos Geografía, terreno y clima Logística Intercambio de información Minas de contenido metálico mínimo Respuestas Estructura logística unificada Intercambio de bases de datos en desarrollo Medidas de confianza mutua Reuniones bilaterales de alto nivel Reuniones al nivel operativo Innovación tecnológica AICMA continues to support joint humanitarian demining operations in the Cordillera del Condor, along the Peru-Ecuador border region. During 2010, advances were made in the vicinity of in the Ecuadorian Province of Santiago Morona and the Peruvian Amazonas Department, respectively. The difficult access to this region cannot be overstated. Progress in clearing the contaminated sites along the Cordillera del Condor requires an extensive and intensive logistical effort including a reliable medical evacuation system.

14 Ecuador y Perú Programa 2011:
AICMA Programa 2011: Despeje de 8 campos minados en el Sector Santiago (Cordillera del Cóndor) Inicio del despeje de 9 campos minados en el Sector Río Catamayo/Río Chira con sistemas mecánicos Aceleración de operaciones para el cumplimiento de las obligaciones bajo la Convención de Ottawa (finalización en 2017) In October 2010, AICMA began working with the Ecuadoran government on a mechanical mine clearance project in the Rio Chira/Catamayo sector of the border. This project has received financial support from the governments of Norway and Spain and will be executed with equipment contributed by Germany and the United States. 14

15 Rehab Física o Sicológica ReinserciónSocio-Económico
Asistencia a victimas Cubrir vacíos en los sistemas nacionales Identificación y registro de sobrevivientes Trasporte, alojamiento y alimentación para facilitar acceso a centros de rehabilitación y reinserción socio-económico Apoyo para la rehabilitación de discapacidad ocular y auditorio Colaboración con socios nacionales e internacionales Organizaciones internacionales Organizaciones no gubernamentales Sector privado Personas Apoyadas País Identifi-cación Rehab Física o Sicológica ReinserciónSocio-Económico Colombia 36 157 15 Ecuador 4 1 Perú 41 18 Since its establishment in 1997, the OAS Program has assisted over twelve-hundred-fifty landmine survivors with medical, psychological, and rehabilitative interventions in various beneficiary countries of Central America (Honduras and Nicaragua) and Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. AICMA serves primarily in a supporting role, assisting in identification of previously unregistered victims, providing transportation, lodging and meals to give survivors access to service providers and covering costs for victims with difficulties that exceed national social security or health care system capacity. Partnerships and alliances with international organizations, NGOs and private sector entities interested in this field of action are fundamental to the overall success of the effort..

16 Municiones y Armas Extensión de la experiencia con la destrucción de mas de un millón de minas almacenadas Proyectos 2010 Guatemala – apoyo a la destrucción de 400 toneladas de municiones en mal estado Nicaragua – remediación de base militar abandonada Proyecciones 2011 Capacitación regional - Curso avanzado en destrucción de municiones Costa Rica – destrucción de armas pequeñas y municiones Guatemala – segunda fase de destrucción de municiones y armas pequeñas Belice – destrucción de municiones y explosivos In 2010, AICMA executed remediation or destruction projects in Guatemala and Nicaragua with funding obtained from Spain and the United States. The Guatemala project resulted in the destruction of approximately 400 tons of unsafe and obsolete ammunition located in two storage facilities within close proximity of densely populated areas of the capital. Beginning in April 2010, AICMA assisted the Nicaraguan government in remediating a former military base that is contaminated with scattered and buried munitions that have already caused serious accidents involving local civilians searching for metal to sell for recycling. Projects are also planned in 2011 in Belize and Costa Rica, as well as additional efforts in Guatemala and possible assessment in the other Central American Member States.

17 Movilización de recursos
Donantes – 2010 Bélgica Canadá España Estados Unidos Italia Noruega Millones US$ Fundraising in support of mine action and arms and munitions destruction grows increasingly more challenging as the international donor community looks toward other priorities and the world economic outlook has been more difficult over the past year. The financial needs of the AICMA Program have not diminished despite its imminent success in realizing the goal of making Central America mine-free. Although resources once needed to assist Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua can now be substantially reduced and still achieve remaining objectives in victim assistance and firearms and ammunition disposal, substantial international cooperation will be necessary to support Colombia’s major mine action goals and to help Peru and Ecuador meet their Ottawa Convention deadlines for mine clearance in In 2010, the Program received significant contributions from the governments of Belgium, Canada, Italy, Norway, Spain, and the United States. However, if increased funding is not available, particularly for Colombia, the planned expansion of its national demining capacity may be significantly delayed or modified. Future funding for mine action in Ecuador and Peru will also depend upon those countries’ ability to demonstrate significant progress in the coming year.

18 Décima Reunión de los Estados Partes
Convención sobre la Prohibición de las Minas Ginebra, 29 Nov a 3 Dic 2010 Actividades significativas Declaración por Nicaragua sobre la finalización de su Plan Nacional de Desminado y como país libre de minas Informes sobre avances por Chile, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela Solicitud de prorroga de Colombia – aprobación hasta Marzo de 2021 Presentación especial de Perú sobre avances en la asistencia a victimas Presentación especial de Colombia y AICMA-OEA sobre la implementación de los marcos jurídico y técnico para autorizar y regular el desminado por organizaciones civiles AICMA has consistently promoted the interest expressed in OAS General Assembly Resolutions to make the Americas a landmine-free zone by coordinating mine action issues and assisting Member States with the preparation of reporting requirements under the Ottawa Landmine Ban Convention. From 29 November to 3 December 2010, AICMA participated in the Tenth Meeting of the States Parties to the Convention in Geneva, at which Nicaragua formally announced completion of its demining program and Colombia sought and gained approval of its request for extension of its deadline for completion of mine clearance until March 2021.

19 Consideraciones finales
La finalización del Plan Nacional de Desminado en Nicaragua será uno de los logros mas significativos del esfuerzo internacional contra las minas antipersonal. Los retos que enfrentan a Colombia han exigido una respuesta integral e innovador, asi como recursos adicionales. Los avances que alcanzan Ecuador y Perú en 2011 son críticos para el cumplimiento de sus obligaciones en 2017. Se requiere el fortalecimiento de los compromisos adquiridos, tanto por los países donantes como por los países beneficiarios. The year 2010 marked a major milestone for the OAS and the AICMA Program with the finalization of mine clearance in Central America, one of the most important goals established for it by the General Assembly. This achievement marks the great progress that has been made in eliminating the threat of landmines in the Americas. Nonetheless, sustainment of this effort and extension of mine-safe conditions to all parts of the Hemisphere will depend upon the continued commitment of the affected Member States with reinvigorated support from the international community. With the full commitment of all participants in the Program, this goal can become a reality for all the people of the Americas.

Muchas gracias AICMA ACCION INTEGRAL CONTRA MINAS ANTIPERSONAL Oficina de Acción Humanitaria contra Minas Carl E. Case, Director Tel

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