3La escritura: un tema actual Internationally, there is concern about poor writing performance- but it is not new. Picture is Newsweek Literacy crises are largely an outcome of the fact that the requirements for literacy are continually changing- writing has to evolve to meet new demands. The outcry, it appears, is most marked in periods of rapid demographic and economic shifts. Writing receives particular attention currently. The US estimate that they spend billions of dollars every year up-skilling the writing skills of those in the workplace. U.S. data show that students produce ‘run of the mill’ prose. The most recent NAEP testing shows two thirds of students are at a basic level of proficiency or below. NZ data show students to perform more poorly in writing than in reading or maths; at the end of schooling they are two years behind in writing compared to their level in maths and reading. FewerNZ primary students meet national standards in writing than in maths or reading.¿Por qué Johnny no puede escribir?
4Los docentes pueden hacer una diferencia Enseñanza de calidad: ¿qué necesita saber y hacer el docente para mejorar las habilidades de escritura del estudianteResearch shows that teachers are the single most important influence on student learning. And teaching is something we have power to change. We cannot overcome poverty; we cannot influence much what children do outside school but we can make sure that the time children have with us is used effectively. I debated whether to call my talk powerful practice rather than effective practiceGiven concern about writing performance, it is not surprising that everywhere there is a call to reform writing instruction, to work out what sort of teaching would lift writing performance.
5Dimensiones interelacionadas para una práctica efectiva Conocimiento sobre el estudiante(+)Conocimientos del contenido y la pedagogía(+)Conocimientos sobre cómo se aprende(+)Teaching decisions are based on a marrying of knowledge about the learner (how to find out about learners but also how to use this knowledge- hence the +);about writing- the developmental course of expertise in writing; the ‘content’ of writing, together with knowledge of how best pedagogically to support development and the ability to implement this pedagogyContained in this is the idea of knowledge of the subject from the point of view of teaching to others (called pedagogical content knowledge or PCK), not just being able to write but knowing about writing in order to teach others. The final type of knowledge a teacher needs is knowledge of how to learn- how to work out what you need to know and do, how to be a reflective practitioner who is able to adjust practice to meet needs of learners.An effective teacher is a reflective practitioner, able to adapt. This type of practitioner is often described as an “adaptive expert” (after Bransford et al, 2005)
6Conocimientos sobre el escritor Incluyen:la historia del estudiante, especialmente su capital lingüísticoel perfil del estudiante con sus fortalezas y debilidadesLinguistic “capital” is the resources students already have- what they already know about language, from being communicators in their first language. We know that in introducing new learning, that understanding is helped if you link to what students already know. Knowing about literacy practices in a student’s culture is important in my country where we have not only indigenous people but people from the islands of Pacific and immigrants from many countries. Some of our city school have students that come from more than 60 different nationalities; my university has students from 60 different countries studying there. In learning a new language, making links to L1 is important.Strengths are what student has already mastered (and again you can use this knowledge as a building block) while gaps are those areas where the student is weaker or has little or no knowledge
7Las evidencias sobre los conocimientos de los estudiantes permiten: Mirar hacia atrás: ¿cuán efectiva ha sido mi enseñanza? ¿Qué necesito cambiar?Mirar hacia adelante: planificar por dónde seguir; analizar qué necesitan aprender los estudiantes; y definir qué necesito saber y hacer yo como docente para ayudarlos?Consider how successful teaching was in terms of “did they learn what I intended them to learn?” David Berliner’s definition of effective teachers: “those that know and do what is needed so that most of the students learn most of what they are supposed to learn, most of the time”! Evidence of learning let’s a teacher look back to see what worked well and what worked less well and needs to be changed.Finding out what students have learnt/ what they know allows the teacher to build on this, to start from the known to move into the new.
8La clave para conocer al estudiante Juntar evidencia:usando una variedad de “fuentes”en diferentes contextoscomo un elemento cotidiano de la enseñanzaInformation about student learning in writing should be obtained by a range of methods- listening to what students say, questions they ask, how they respond to their own and other’s writing, observing them as they write and looking at what they produce as plans, drafts and final products. Gathering evidence of learning should be ongoing and an integral part of teaching, not some separate exercise. Different means of gathering evidence and gathering evidence in different contexts allows students lots of opportunities to demonstrate what they know.
9Evaluación de la escritura Evaluar (FA, AtoL, AfL) para dar cuenta de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de manera:interactivaPlanificadaEvaluar para hacer un juicio (si se ha cumplido un objetivo o si se ha llegado a cierto nivel)Una “prueba” o una apreciación general del docente (AGD)Assessment that is designed to inform teaching and learning has been referred to in varying ways. First it was called formative assessment (to contrast with summative or end point judgement) and then moved to assessment to learn but now it is mostly referred to as assessment for learning (information is not just for teachers but also for learners. There is an interesting distinction between assessment information which is gleaned in interaction with learners, on the move, in the course of teaching and a more planned piece of assessment. Interactive FA comes from observing/ noting what students demonstrate they know during interactions in conferencing, questioning the author or giving feedback to peers for example. Planned formative assessment as its name suggests is a more formal assessment such as a written response to a prompt, an assignment or a written self evaluation by student but it is planned specifically to learn more in order to inform teaching and learning.At times we assess to make a judgment, a decision about whether a student has met a certain standard or reached a certain level. We may use a standardised writing “test” or (as we do in NZ), obtain an overall teacher judgment which is made on the basis of a whole range of evidence from classroom work etc.
10Conozca la evidencia: herramientas para recopilar datos Comprender las fortalezas y limitaciones de herramientas como “pruebas”Por ejemplo, pruebas de escritura”, el problema de la validez, variabilidad en el desempeño de un mismo autor y acuerdo entre los diferentes evaluadoresOften the tools we have to use to assess writing have problems. A one-off test of writing is hardly ecologically valid; a student may write better on some topics than others; reliably scoring writing so we get agreement across markers has been a longstanding issue.If you give students a general test of reading or writing that does not test the curriculum you have been teaching, then it does not help you much to work out how well you have been teaching. If you use a tool to test that does not have normative data that goes with it, you will not know if the progress your students have made is good or not so good compared to the average progress. You need to know what the average Chilean student of that age achieves and what the average rate of progress in that school year is so that you can see how you as a teacher and your students are going. This is particularly important when you have children who have been lower achievers- you want to see if you have helped to push them along.
11Conozca la evidencia: herramientas para recopilar datos Algunas herramientas hacen referencia al curriculum y evalúan la efectividad de la enseñanza.Algunas herramientas no permiten comparar el progreso de los estudiantes con lo que se espera de ellos.Often the tools we have to use to assess writing have problems. A one-off test of writing is hardly ecologically valid; a student may write better on some topics than others; reliably scoring writing so we get agreement across markers has been a longstanding issue.If you give students a general test of reading or writing that does not test the curriculum you have been teaching, then it does not help you much to work out how well you have been teaching. If you use a tool to test that does not have normative data that goes with it, you will not know if the progress your students have made is good or not so good compared to the average progress. You need to know what the average Chilean student of that age achieves and what the average rate of progress in that school year is so that you can see how you as a teacher and your students are going. This is particularly important when you have children who have been lower achievers- you want to see if you have helped to push them along.
12Conocer los conceptos de progreso y ritmo Comprender lo que implica una trayectora de progresos (si el ritmo es muy lento, los estudiantes se quedarán muy retrasados)Conozca qué elementos ayudan a distinguir cuándo hay avances y progreso por parte de los estudiantesMonitoring the pace of progress is vital. You may have heard of something called the Matthew effect (after the biblical text in St Matthew that talks of the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer). Stanovich (1986) used the term in reading to emphasise the idea that students who are a little bit behind their classmates early in schooling will, if they continue to progress at the same rate, fall further and further behind- the gap will widen. So, it is important to know what rate to expect and to pick up the pace for those that are lagging behind.
13Usar los datos obtenidos en la evaluación para enseñar de manera desafiante y que vaya de acuerdo al desarrollo del estudiante.para unir los objetivos, la tarea y los materiales al nivel del estudiante y sus necesidadesEs necesario conocer cuáles son las prácticas pedagógicas que se ha demostrado que son efectivasUse assessment findings to work in the zone (ZPD), to ensure goals you set, the tasks you devise and the materials you use are “just right”, challenging but able to be accomplished with support.To work out the teaching moves, the pedagogy that will best achieve your learning goals, you need to be informed. A sound way is to utilise practices that research has shown to be effective. They may need to be altered to work with your students but they are a good start.
14Qué es el conocimiento pedagógico sobre la escritura Saber de escritura como pedagogo, es decir, saber cómo enseñar a otros a escribir (por ejemplo, probables dificultades de los estudiantes, progresión del desarrollo en el aprendizaje de la escritura, etc.)PCK involves being able to articulate what you have to know and do in order to write well and then teach and guide students to acquire this – the knowledge and skills needed.Need to bring to consciousness and describe processes that might be at a sub-conscious level and difficult to specify- what do you do when you re-read to revise a piece of writing? You need to be able to articulate, using a shared language, what makes quality writing (not just be able to “judge” a piece intuitively as good writing or “poor” writing. Often we find it easier to say why something is lacking than to diagnose what makes it of good quality. PCK involves knowing about general patterns of development in writing and common difficulties that students encounter at various points.
15¿Qué conocimientos necesitan saber los profesores? Escribir es complejo porque requiere:conocimiento del lenguaje (forma, función y “discursos”); cómo funciona la escritura para llevar a cabo propósitos comunicativos en diferentes contextos.adquirir y coordinar estrategias que regulan el procesoThere is no body of scholarship that defines what content you need to know to teach writing. I would argue it involves different sorts of content knowledge. The first is linguistic knowledge- knowledge of language: lexical, semantic and syntactic knowledge; knowledge of how language features (at text and local level) are commonly employed in relation to a particular purpose (at text and local level). For example, writing in order to persuade, writing an argument, is different from writing in order to entertain (narrate) or different to writing in order to report where one organises and classifies information.Then there is knowledge of how language works to achieve a communicative purpose in a particular context- like academic writing (discourse knowledge).There is a suggestion that one reason for poor writing performance is that teachers have an “impoverished theory of the task”, what is involved in writing. They particulalry lack basic knowledge of language structure.Knowledge of processes and strategies means knowing about the basic cognitive processes involved in writing and their co-ordination; about the specific strategies, including meta-cognitive strategies writers employ at different points in the processes (in order to help students to learn and be aware of these processes and strategies.Another sort of knowledge that teachers require is knowledge of Curriculum: -of what students are expected to be learning about in writing at different levels of schooling. BUT also need to understand what the students need to know about writing to meet writing demands in science or history.
16Construir contenidos disciplinares & conocimiento pedagógico Uso de herramientas “inteligentes” para evaluarprogresiones de aprendizajerúbricas detalladasejemplos comentados de escrituraRevisión y control por parte de colegasRecursos para la prácticaSmart tools are those with a sound theory underpinning them so that they inform learning and practice.Progressions: (developmental indicators of what to look for in behaviours and in actual written work). NZ teachers have LLP and ELLP which describe writing progress from after 6 months at school to Year 8.Scoring rubrics: The ones we developed in NZ show how the dimensions of text contribute to the way texts work to achieve their purposes. There were criteria for each of seven dimensions of text and for the different levels of the curriculum for the different communicative purposes of writing.Exemplars can establish what writing might look like at a number of different curriculum levels (year levels) and within a level at a basic, proficient and advanced level (low, medium, high)Moderation: Literature suggests that a major way teachers learn about concepts of quality writing is through discussion with colleagues, specifically the talk that is involved in moderation of writing samplesResources: In NZ we have ELP Handbook (two handbooks), a resource written for practitioners and distributed free to all schools
17¿Cómo averiguar sobre prácticas efectivas para la enseñanza de la escritura? Observe clases/converse con docentes que tengan estudiantes que progresan.Lea investigaciones sólidas.Reflexione sobre lo que leyó y cómo se puede aplicar al contexto en el cual usted enseña.Always need to consider how what you are seeing and reading will apply in your context, given the students you have and their learning needs.
18Conocimientos pedagógicos Los docentes que ayudan a sus estudiantes a progresar:Combinan una enseñanza basada en la escritura como proceso con actos de enseñanza intencionados.Enseñan de manera diferenciadaProcess approach or writer’s workshop has been shown to lead to higher quality writing. There is no commonly agreed on definition of process writing but some principles are common: Students engage in the act of writing; they go through recursive cycles of planning, (setting goals (what do I want to achieve with this writing, both in terms of my own learning about writing and my purpose for writing for this audience) generating ideas (capturing ideas can involve discussion as a class , sometimes called shared writing where the teacher scribes ideas from students, or think-pair-share, role play, drama, drawing, reading a text) and organising those ideas (using webs, concept maps, diagrams etc), translating (putting plan into action/ text) and reviewing (evaluating, revising, editing). They practice the craft, do what a writer does.But engaging in the process alone will not necessarily help all students develop as writers, they need some specific instruction - DAT refers to specific acts which make visible what writers need to know and do to achieve specific outcomes. These acts include modelling writing (constructing a text while thinking aloud, sometimes asking for student input or help), prompting and questioning, telling, explaining, giving feedback- which I will return to –etc. These are acts of instruction that are focussed- personalised and individualised. To provide differentiated instruction, a teacher may conducted in mini-lessons targeted for particular students with a common need (called guided writing) or it may involve teaching at point of need (seizing on teachable moments) or they may sometimes be whole-class teaching. These can occur before, during and after actual writing.And, as a result of knowing their learners, effective teachers are able to teach the individual student.Date
19Conocimientos pedagógicos Los docentes que ayudan a sus estudiantes a progresar:Encuentran oportunidades auténticas (interesantes y apasionantes) de comunicación.Organizan la clase para que la conversación sea productiva y se de un trabajo colaborativo.Conectan la escritura con el habla, la escritura con la lectura, relacionan diferentes textos y los aplican a la experiencia cotidiana.Writing instruction is more successful when students have reasons to write and write for real purposes and audiences- we call this authentic communication (sometimes over extended periods). Stimuli for writing based on experiences and interestsProductive talk is very important for all writers- writing floats on a sea of talk (Britten) but it is especially important for second language learners to play with ideas and try them out on othersSo, although we know that writing is not just talk written down, making links between speaking and writing is important- showing how they share a communicative intent etc. We have researched the ways in which effective teachers make links – in NZ classrooms, they make most links to real word experience (in junior years we call this language experience where the teacher plans for all children to experience something- to cook- make pancakes perhaps, to go to the park to study the autumn leaves in order that they can talk (including gain vocabulary) and write about it. Teachers make links to what is being covered in other curriculum areas and use this. For example, where kites were made in technology, the children later wrote an explanation about how to make a kite and some recounted the first time they flew the kite they had made. But our teachers also make links to written texts the students have read (or the teacher has read to them). Text excerpts are often used as models for writing. They are discussed and deconstructed to make clear how the author achieved his/her purpose in writing.
20Conocimientos pedagógicos Los docentes que ayudan a sus estudiantes a progresar:Ayudan a los escritores con procesos, habilidades y estrategias.Integran la enseñanza de estrategias y habilidades a la escritura de textos auténticos.Interestingly, the process approach has been shown to be less effective with lower achievers. Research shows struggling writers need specific help with processes, skills and strategies in writing. (e.g. procedural facilitation, meta-cognitive strategies). An example of supporting a student with the process of planning could be to provide a “web” with the centre as the main idea of the topic and the spokes each have information on one aspect of the topic. Or, to help with structuring, a teacher might give some prompts. For example if students are writing to complain about a plan to build a road near their school, the teacher might give them some startersDear Sir I am concerned about your plans because…….Many people think……Most children at the school think……..We want you to……..Or the teacher can provide cues that stimulate self-questioning (meta cognition). For example, if students are writing an argument they could have on a card a whole series of questions around new ideas (an important point I have not considered is….), elaborating points (an example of this is…), improving (I am not being very clear about what I have just said so…..) and goals (If I want to start out with my strongest idea or point, I’ll…..)
21Conocimientos pedagógicos Los docentes que ayudan a sus estudiantes a progresar:Comparten lo que los estudiantes están aprendiendo y explican cuál es el sentido de este aprendizaje.Ejemplifican para que los estudiantes tengan una idea de cómo se ve un buen desempeño.Ayuda a cada uno para que tenga claro qué aspectos necesita mejorar.For students to become partners in learning, self regulating writers, they have to be helped to understand what the learning goals are and why they are important. Effective teachers in our research had goals that were specific and concerned with deep features of writing (e.g. “Use words that describe what we think and feel about a text character”) and they share these with the students orally and record them. The learning activity was aligned with the learning goal and so supported it.These teachers were also were clear about what they are aiming for, what quality performance looks like <success criteria>. Sometimes they asked students to help construct the criteria and they recorded them; kept them in front of the students and referred back to them. Some teachers Students need to know where they are positioned currently in relation to the desired goal and what have to do to improve and get there. Research work I have done showed that writing teachers who could make clear to students these things do these aspects had students who made superior progress.
22Conocimientos pedagógicos Los docentes que ayudan a sus estudiantes a progresar:Dan retroalimentación de alta calidadde manera oral y escritaTrabajan para formar escritores autoreguladosFeedback is perhaps the most significant deliberate act of teaching. It is the most significant contributor to student learning (Hattie’s various meta-analyses). Students, however, get a very small amount of individual teacher time each day (my colleague, John Hattie estimated less a minute each student). So, the quality of your feedback is vital. In writing, we give feedback orally in conferences or informal over-the-shoulder interactions or when students share writing with the class. But, we also “mark” drafts and pieces of writing- English teachers in general and teachers of writing always have a lot of marking! So, it is important to make that work we do count. Research I have done suggests that the quality of written comments, the quality of a teacher’s written feedback to students in terms of making clear how well they had met learning goals and what they had to do to improve, was highly correlated with the extent of student progress over a year.In a study where the teachers selected to observe and interview were all teachers whose students over more than one year had made accelerated progress, the efforts to involve students in their own learning were more marked. These teachers were encouraging and guiding students to peer and self assess
23El profesor como estudiante Se preguntan sobre sus propias prácticasUsan evidencia para trabajar de manera colaborativa y perfeccionar la enseñanza de la escrituraTeaching as inquiry- NZ Curriculum describes teaching as inquiry. We aim to produce teachers who are “adaptive experts”- professionals who can alter their practice to meet the needs of the students in front of them.
24Ciclo básico de indagación Cuáles son las necesidades de los estudiantes en relación al desempeño esperado¿Qué conocimientos y habilidades necesita el docente para enfrentar las necesidades de los alumnos?Participación de los docentes en experiencias de aprendizaje profesionalesParticipación de los estudiantes en actividades de aprendizaje¿Cómo han impactado en el aprendizaje nuestras acciones?These reflective teachers ask what the students need to know in relation to the valued learning outcomes; then what knowledge and skills they need as teachers in order to teach them this; the teacher may engage in PD and as a result design new learning experiences, engage in new forms of pedagogies. They check the result of their new actions in terms of student learning and, if favourable, move onto the next step in learning.
25Las prácticas efectivas en la enseñanza de la escritura son multidimensionales Dimensiones de una práctica efectiva están entrelazadas y son interdependientes:conocimiento del estudiantecontenidos disciplinar y pedagógico,indagación sobre la propia práctica
27Selected ReferencesPARR, J.M. ‘Classroom assessment in writing’ In J. McMillan (Ed). Sage Handbook of Research on Classroom Assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: SagePARR, J.M. ‘Repertoires to scaffold teacher learning and practice in assessment of writing’. Assessing Writing, 16, 32-48, 2011.PARR, J.M., & TIMPERLEY, H. ‘Feedback to writing, assessment for teaching and learning and student progress’. Assessing Writing, 15, 68-85, 2010.PARR, J.M., & LIMBRICK, E. ‘Contextualising practice: Hallmarks of effective teachers of writing’. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, , 2010.TIMPERLEY, H.S., & PARR, J.M. ‘What is this lesson about? Instructional processes and student understandings in the writing classroom’. Curriculum Journal, 20, 43-60, 2009.GLASSWELL, K., & PARR, J.M. ‘Teachable moments: Linking assessment and teaching in talk around writing’. Language Arts, 86, , 2009.