2Set up - NameOn the inside of the front cover in the upper left hand corner write your name, class, and hour like this:Mendy “Guadalupe” ColbertAdvanced SpanishB1
3Section 1 – Verb list* the verbs are not in alphabetical order. We will add to this list as needed.Write the Spanish verbs in a column on the left side of the page.Number the verbs in the left hand margin.Look up the meaning of the verbs and write them in a column on the right.Turn the page to start section 2.
4Verb List Hablar To speak, to talk 2. Comer To eat 3. Vivir To live Continue with the rest of the verbs
5Section 2 – Index of Tenses In this section we will describe how to form each tense and what it is used for. We will add to this section as we go.Title the page Index of TensesWrite “Present Tense” On the first line and number it 1 with a circle around it.Turn a several pages to make room for the tenses, and then start Section 3.
7Section 3 – Conjugated verbs In the upper right hand corner of the page write “1”- these numbers should correspond with the numbers on the verb list.On the top line on the left write the Spanish infinitive. On the right side, write the English meaning.On the first line in the left hand margin write the number 1 with a circle around it. – This number will correspond with the index of tenses.Turn to the next page and repeat the steps for verb 2 and so on.
9Verbs Hablar Comer Vivir Ser Estar Ir Dar Ver leer Pagar traer Venir tocarAprenderTenerQuerercomenzardormirpoderponerSalirhacertraerVenirSaberconocerlavarseacostarsedivertirseandardecirpedirseguiroír
10Explanation and conjugations Present tense verbsExplanation and conjugations
11Present tense Notes Present tense A verb is a word that expresses an action, an occurrence, or a state of being. All Spanish verbs belong to one of three categories, according to the infinitive, -ar, -er, or –ir verbs.How to form regular verbs:1: drop the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir)2: add the appropriate present tense endings to match the subject.-ar verb endings -er endings -ir endingsoamosoemosoimosasáiseséisesísaaneeneen
12Continuation of notes When to use it The present tense forms of Spanish verbs express both the English present tense (I walk) and the English present progressive (I am walking).Spanish Present tense forms also include the auxiliary verb do/does that English uses in questions and negative sentences. Do/does are not expressed in Spanish before another verb
13Continuation of notes Indicates: A) an action or state of being at the present time.Examples:1. Hablo españolI speak Spanish, I am speaking Spanish, I do speak Spanish2. Creo en DiosI believe in God
14Continuation of notesB) Habitual action Example: Voy a la biblioteca todos los días I go to the library every day I do go to the library every day. C). A general truth, something which is permanently true Examples : 1) Seis menos dos son cuatro. Six minus two are four 2) El ejercicio hace maestro al novicio. Practice makes perfect.
15Continuation of notesD) Vividness when talking about past events. Example: El asesino se pone pálido. Tiene miedo. Sale de la casa y corre a lo largo del río. The murderer turns pale. He is afraid. He goes out of the house and runs along the river. e) A near future. Examples: 1. Mi hermano llega mañana. My brother arrives tomorrow. 2. ¿Escuchamos un disco ahora? Shall we listen to a record now?
16Continuation of notes Types of irregular verbs -oy verbs (aka bizzaro verbs)- These verbs are irregular in the yo form (and possibly other forms). The yo form ends in “oy”Examples: ser, ir, dar, estar (best to just memorize these verbs and their forms)Stem changers (aka shoe verbs) –These verbs have a change in the stem (what’s left after removing the –ar, -er, or –ir)There are 4 types:e-ie (tener, querer, comenzar, etc.)e-I (decir, pedir,seguir etc.)o-ue (dormir, poder, etc.)u-ue (jugar)Steps to form them:1: Chopsuey2: Switch-a-roonie3: schmoosh
17Continuation of notes Another type of verbs “-go” verbs (aka sneaky G verbs) – These verbs are irregular in the yo form (and possibly other forms). The yo form ends in “go”Examples: poner, salir, hacer, traer, venir, decir, oír, seguirAnother type of verbsReflexivesA verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same. In other words, when the subject does something to himself.When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in "se."
18Continuation of notesTo learn to conjugate reflexive verbs, you need a different set of pronouns called "reflexive pronouns." These pronouns are positioned before the verb, while the ending "se" is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally.The reflexive pronouns are not subject pronouns; rather they are object pronouns.The purpose of the reflexive object pronouns is to show that the action of the verb remains with the subject.
19Continuation of notesnos (ourselves) os (yourselves) se (themselves, yourselves)me (myself) te (yourself) se (himself, herself, yourself)To conjugate a reflexive verb:Remove the “se”Rearrange – move the “se” to the front of the verbMake a change – change the “se” to match the subjectChopsuey – remove the –ar,-er, or –irSwitch-a-roonie – make a stem change if necessarySchmoosh – add the correct ending to match the subject(yo)meLavoarse(tú)teacueostarasse
20Continuation of notesWhen two verbs are used together, the first verb is conjugated and the second verb is left in the infinitive form. (big brother-little brother verbs)Example:I want to eat. Quiero comer.When the 2nd verb is reflexive, change the “se” to match the subject, but leave it at the end of the verb.I need to go to bed Necesito acostarme