Presentación del tema: "Desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa Fernando RubioUniversidad de Huelva
2 Etapa previa al desarrollo de los estudios sobre competencia comunicativa Análisis lingüísticos de lenguas.Método audio-oral.Investigación en la naturaleza de la interlengua, con énfasis en el error.
3 Conceptualización de competencia comunicativa Término acuñado por Dell Hymes (1967).Competencia lingüística y comunicativa:“…knowledge about language forms and knowledge that enables a person to communicate functionally and interactively”.
4 Conceptualización de competencia comunicativa James Cummins (1979) propuso:Capacidad académica/cognitiva de la lengua.Destrezas comunicativas interpersonales.
5 Conceptualización de competencia comunicativa Michael Canale y Merrill Swain (1980): Cuatro componentes.-Competencia gramatical.Competencia discursiva.Competencia sociolingüística.Competencia estratégica.
6 Conceptualización de competencia comunicativa Lyle Bachman distingue competencias organizativa y pragmática (aspectos funcionales y sociolingüísticos).
8 Components of Communicative Language Ability in Communicative Language Use (Bachman, 1990, p. 85)
9 Communicative Competence (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, & Thurrell, 1995) Broader interpretations:discourse competence (how language elements such as words and phrases are arranged into utterances in order to express a coherent idea on a particular topic);sociocultural (knowledge about context, stylistic appropriateness, nonverbal factors, and cultural background knowledge)linguistic (ability to make meaning when using form such as morphology, syntax, vocabulary and spelling)actional (ability to match linguistic form with the speaker’s intent)strategic competence (skills that enable people to communicate and compensate for deficiencies in the other competencies)
10 Old Paradigm and New Paradigm ObjectivesStated in terms of grammatical knowledge as provided in textbookStated in terms of what learners should know and be able to do with the languageContent/CultureContent limited to bits and pieces of cultural information included in textbook; connections to other disciplines absentInterdisciplinary and cultural connections; integration of cultural and academic content; culture explored by means of products, practices, and perspectivesJS: We’ve traveled and lived off the land for a long time and we’ve made some significant strides from the time when we learned that “nobody speaks French II over there” to the communicative classrooms of today. Here are a couple of the changes we’ve noticed. Discuss slide.
11 Old Paradigm and New Paradigm SkillsPractice of individual skills: listening, speaking, reading, writingIntegrated practice of three modes of communication, which build on one anotherThe LearnerMostly passive and learns the material presented by the teacherActively engaged in learning and has opportunities to explore her/his own interestsFM: Once we became willing to acknowledge that the ability to communicate did not emerge from “planned parrothood,” and from the “drill to kill” practice of individual and isolated skills, we began to take a more objective and inclusive view of just what real communication entails. Now, we are thinking (and acting) with a greater awareness and emphasis on the integration of three modes of communication: interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational.We have also moved from the perception of the teacher as the “sage on the stage” to one of the “guide on the side.” For some of us, that has been more difficult than for others! This seemingly small shift has the effect of encouraging learners to become more engaged and invested in their own language learning processes because they are now learning to communicate by actually communicating about things in which they are personally interested.
12 Old Paradigm and New Paradigm The TeacherThe center of instruction and the audience for learners; students work to impress the teacherFacilitates instruction and guides student learning; designs opportunities for cooperative learning; audience includes peers and communityMaterialsTextbook as primary materialTextbook as one of many tools; others include authentic materials (tape recordings, videos, magazines, short stories, folklore), World Wide Web, visuals, realiaJS: As Frank pointed out, we’ve changed our focus from ourselves as teachers to our learners using the language in the three communicative modes. We have become the helpers, the facilitators; this doesn’t diminish our role - in fact it places more responsibility on our planning and design of instruction; it makes us finds ways in which learners use the language with real audiences, in the school beyond our classrooms, in the community, and in the world.We’ve learned that our textbooks are one of many ancillary tools; we use power point and authentic materials, the internet brought the world into our classrooms, and enabled us to put our classrooms in the world as our students communicate with native speakers all around the globe using , blogs, discussion boards, etc.
13 Old Paradigm and New Paradigm Assess-mentPurpose to evaluate student achievement; focus on discrete-point grammar items, often out of context; primarily paper-and-pencil testing; learners provide one right answerPurpose to assess progress in meeting standards and to improve instruction; assessment strategies include integration of modes for meaningful purposes, exploration of content, completion of real-world tasks, self-assessment by learnersFM: As our instructional approaches have evolved, so, too, have the ways in which we assess performance. Highly prescriptive objectives and outcome statements have given way to more holistic approaches to performance that are designed to illustrate both what students know and what they are able to do. We still retain measures of achievement—which inform us as teachers in terms of the linguistic development of the learners—but we have added more global assessment strategies that enable us to determine where our students are with respect to local, state, and national standards. Again, our goal is to have a clear measure of what our learners know and are able to do.[Frank: No discussion - let me suggest that we say something like “You can probably think of somo other changes in the paradigm - we invite you to share those with us at the end of this session, at the workshop, or later during the conference.]Shrum & Glisan, 2005, p. 68