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Manejo de Materiales CFR 1926, Subsección H

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Presentación del tema: "Manejo de Materiales CFR 1926, Subsección H"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Manejo de Materiales CFR 1926, Subsección H
Handling and storing materials involves many operations such as hoisting tons of steel with a crane, driving a truck loaded with concrete blocks, and manually carrying bags and materials. In order to do these tasks safely, the worker needs to know how to handle and store the materials.

2 Objetivos Describir los requisitos generales del manejo de materiales
Describir equipo para manejar materiales Describir los requisitos de seguridad de las eslingas Describir los requisitos para deshacerse de escombros The objectives we will meet will comply with 29 CFR 1926, Subpart H. 1. Describe the general requirements of material handling 2. Describe rigging equipment for material handling 3. Describe the requirements of sling safety 4. Describe the requirements for the disposal of waste materials

3 Lesiones El levantar objetos es una causa principal de lesiones a la espalda El mal manejo y almacenamiento de materiales puede resultar en lesiones por golpes y aplastamiento The weight and bulkiness of objects lifted is a major contributing factor to injuries. Workers also frequently cited body movement as contributing to their injuries. Bending, followed by twisting and turning, were the more commonly cited movements that caused back injuries.

4 Peligros Levantar o cargar de mala manera cosas que están demasiado grandes o pesadas El golpearse o atraparse entre materiales El aplastarse por materiales en desplome o mal almacenados Cortando de mala manera seguros o cordones Hazards Improper manual lifting or carrying loads that are too large or heavy Being struck by materials or being caught in pinch points Crushed by machines, falling materials or improperly stored materials Incorrectly cutting ties or securing devices

5 Manejo Manual Busque ayuda:
Al no poder levantar o agarrar un objeto Al no poder ver sobre el objeto Al no poder manipular el objeto con seguridad Ponga agarraderas en el objeto para eliminar dedos machucados. Seek help: When a load is too bulky to properly grasp or lift When you can’t see around or over the load When you can’t safely handle the load Attach handles to loads to reduce the chances of getting fingers smashed.

6 Levantamientos Seguros
Lo que Debemos Saber: Cómo levantar con seguridad Cómo evitar esfuerzos físicos innecesarios Lo que usted es capaz de maniobrar sin esforzarse indebidamente El uso correcto de ayudas mecánicas Cómo reconocer y evitar peligros Training should include general principles of ergonomics, recognition of hazards and injuries, procedures for reporting hazardous conditions, and methods and procedures for early reporting of injuries. Safe lifting training should also include: • Health risks related to improper lifting • The basic anatomy of the spine, the muscles, and the joints of the trunk, and the contributions of intra-abdominal pressure while lifting. • Awareness of individual body strengths and weaknesses—determining one’s own lifting capacity. • Recognition of physical factors that might contribute to an accident and how to avoid the unexpected. • Knowledge of body responses—warning signals—to be aware of when lifting.

7 Levantamientos Seguros
Divida la carga en secciones pequeñas Busque ayuda con cosas pesadas o grandes Levante con las piernas, mantenga recta la espalda, no se tuerza Use ayudas mecánicas – tales como banquitos, hombreras, agarraderas, ruedas Evite levantar sobre el nivel de los hombros Safe Lifting Break load into parts Get help with heavy or bulky items Lift with legs, keep back straight, do not twist Use handling aids - such as steps, trestles, shoulder pads, handles, and wheels Avoid lifting above shoulder level

8 El Aseo Mantenga áreas de almacenamiento libres de materiales acumulados que causan tropiezos, incendios, explosiones, o que albergan ratas e insectos Keep storage areas free from accumulated materials that cause tripping, fires, or explosions, or that may contribute to harboring rats and pests

9 Equipo de Protección Personal
Para los objetos con bordes filosos o ásperos, use guantes y protección para los brazos Alrededor de objetos pesados o grandes, use zapatos con punta de acero For loads with sharp or rough edges, wear gloves or other hand and forearm protection When loads are heavy or bulky, wear steel-toed safety shoes to prevent foot injuries if the load is dropped

10 Almacenaje de Materiales
Pared exterior - 10 pies Área de torno o hoyo en el piso - 6 pies Material Storage If storing material inside a building under construction, the material may not be stored: 1. Within six feet of any hoist way or inside floor openings 2. Within ten feet of an exterior wall which does not extend above the top of the stored material

11 Almacenaje de Materiales
No almacene juntos los materiales incompatibles Noncompatible materials must be separated from all other materials while in storage

12 Almacenaje de Materiales
Asegure materiales en montones al bloquearlos o amarrarlos para que no se caigan Anuncie límites de los pisos Mantenga pasillos libres de obstrucciones (a) Maximum safe load limits of floors within buildings and structures, in pounds per square foot, shall be conspicuously posted in all storage areas, except for floor or slab on grade. Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear to provide for the free and safe movement of material handling equipment or employees. When a difference in road or working levels exist, means such as ramps, blocking, or grading shall be used to ensure the safe movement of vehicles between the two levels. Bags and bundles must be stacked in interlocking rows to remain secure. Bagged material must be stacked by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the bags at least every ten layers. To remove bags from the stack, start from the top row first. Boxed materials must be banded or held in place using cross-ties or shrink plastic fiber. Drums, barrels, and kegs must be stacked symmetrically. If stored on their sides, the bottom tiers must be blocked to keep them from rolling. When stacked on end, put planks, sheets of plywood dunnage, or pallets between each tier to make a firm, flat, stacking surface. When stacking materials two or more tiers high, the bottom tier must be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction. When stacking, consider the need for availability of the material. Material that can’t be stacked due to size, shape, or fragility can be safely stored on shelves or in bins. Structural steel, bar stock, poles, and other cylindrical materials, unless in racks, must be stacked and blocked to prevent spreading or tilting. Pipes and bars should not be stored in racks that face main aisles; this could create a hazard to passers-by when removing supplies.

13 Almacenaje de Ladrillos
Amontone ladrillos de manera que no se caigan No los amontone más de 7 pies de alto Arriba de los 4 pies de alto, forme el montón en forma de pirámide When stacking bricks, the following applies: No stack may be more than seven feet in height When a loose brick stack reaches four feet, then it must be tapered back two inches in every foot above four feet

14 Almacenaje de Bultos En forma de pirámide
Cruzados cada 10 bolsas de alto When stacking bagged materials, the following guidelines apply: 1. Step back the layers 2. Cross-key (one bag across the other) at least every ten bags high

15 Materiales en Andamios
Solamente los materiales que se van a usar de inmediato The storage of materials on scaffolds is limited to the amount which are needed for immediate operations.

16 Almacenaje de Tabiques
Arriba de los 6 pies, en forma de pirámide reducida ½ tabique por cada capa If masonry blocks are stacked higher than six feet, the stack must be tapered back one-half block per tier above the six foot level.

17 Almacenaje de Madera Quite todos los clavos
Amontone en bases niveladas y estables Altura máxima 16’ – manejo manual Altura máxima 20‘ – manejo mecánico When storing lumber, the following guidelines apply: 1. Remove all nails from used lumber before stacking 2. Stack only on level and solidly supported sills 3. Stack the lumber so that it is stable and self-supporting 4. Stack no higher than 16 feet if handling manually 5. Stack no higher than 20 feet if using mechanical devices to handle

18 Material Cilíndrico Amontone y bloquée para prevenir empinarse o rodarse If not stored in racks, the following must be stacked and blocked to prevent spreading or tilting: 1. Structural steel 2. Poles 3. Pipe 4. Bar stock 5. Other cylindrical materials

19 Plataforma de Andén Trabada para no resbalarse Con agarraderas
Vagones y camiones con calzas en las ruedas Dock boards or "bridge plates" as they are also called must meet certain requirements when they are in use: 1. Must be strong enough to carry the load imposed on them 2. Portable dock boards must be secured by either being anchored or equipped with devices that will prevent slippage 3. Portable dock boards must be equipped with handholds, or other effective means to permit safe handling 4. Protective measures must be used to prevent railroad cars or trailers from being moved while dock boards are in place

20 Maquinaria Excavadora
Raspadores, cargadores, tractores, bulldozers, camiones, niveladoras Proporcione cinturones Equipo con visibilidad bloqueada hacia atrás no se puede usar en reversa si el equipo no tiene alarma de reversa Scrapers, loaders, crawler or wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, tractors Provide seat belts Equipment with an obstructed rear view can’t be used in reverse unless the equipment has a signal alarm

21 Eslingas Tipos: Cadena Cable de Acero Malla Metálica Sintética
Reference - Technical links page for sling safety This section applies to slings used in conjunction with other material handling equipment for the movement of material by hoisting, in employments covered by this part. The types of slings covered are those made from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene). Three types of slings are discussed in detail in this presentation: alloy steel chain, wire rope and synthetic web. Cadena Cable de Acero Malla Metálica Sintética

22 Inspección de Eslingas
Inspecciónelas: Todos los días antes de usar Cuando las condiciones dicten Quítelas de servicio si dañadas o defectuosas (a)(6) Each day before being used, the sling and all fastenings and attachments shall be inspected for damage or defects by a competent person designated by the employer. Additional inspections shall be performed during sling use, where service conditions warrant. Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service.

23 Quite de Servicio las Eslingas Dañadas o Defectuosas
Never use a sling such as the one pictured.

24 Cadenas de Aleación de Acero
Se adaptan a la forma de la carga Pueden dañarse con choques abruptos Mejor opción para material caliente Lleva marca de clasificación del fabricante Alloy Steel Chains Adapt to shape of the load Can be damaged by sudden shocks Best choice for hoisting very hot materials Welded alloy steel chain slings are marked with manufacturer’s grade

25 Cadena de Aleación de Acero
Marcas Cadena de Aleación de Acero Tiene que tener una etiqueta declarando tamaño, calidad, capacidad, y eslinga According to (b)(1) Must have an affixed tag stating size, grade, rated capacity, and sling

26 Acoplamientos para Cadenas de Acero
Capacidad Declarada Ganchos, anillos, eslabones alargados u otros acoplamientos, al usarse con cadenas, tienen que tener una calidad declarada al menos igual que la cadena (b)(2) Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear-shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links, or other attachments, when used with alloy steel chains, shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the chain.

27 Acoplamientos No Aptos para las Cadenas de Acero
Correcto Mal (b)(3) Job or shop hooks and links, or makeshift fasteners, formed from bolts, rods, etc., or other such attachments, can’t be used No se puede usar eslabones o ganchos hechos en casa, o formados de pernos o varillas

28 Desgaste Al notar desgaste excesivo, quítela de servicio
Eslabones no aleados no pueden usarse (b)(5) Whenever wear at any point of any chain link exceeds that shown in Table H-2, the assembly shall be removed from service.

29 Eslingas de Cable de Acero
Para alzar materiales Factores: fuerza Doblar sin romper Aguantar abrasiones Aguantar abuso Alambre Mecha Centro Filamento Strength — Function of size, grade, and construction. It must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum load that will be applied. The maximum load limit is determined by means of a multiplier. This multiplier is the number by which the ultimate strength of a wire rope is divided to determine the working load limit. Thus a wire rope sling with a strength of 10,000 pounds and a total working load of 2,000 pounds has a design factor (multiplier) of 5. New wire rope slings have a design factor of 5. As a sling suffers from the rigors of continued service, the design factor and the sling's ultimate strength are proportionately reduced. Ability to bend without cracking — A wire rope must have the ability to withstand repeated bending without the failure of the wires from fatigue. Failure is the result of the development of small cracks under repeated applications of bending loads. It occurs when ropes make small radius bends. The best way to prevent this is to use blocking or padding to increase the radius of the bend. Ability to withstand abrasive wear — The ability to withstand abrasion is determined by the size, number of wires, and construction of the rope. Smaller wires bend more readily and therefore offer greater flexibility but are less able to withstand abrasive wear. Conversely, larger wires of less flexible ropes are better able to withstand abrasion. Ability to withstand abuse — Abuse will cause a wire rope sling to become unsafe long before any other factor. Abusing a wire rope sling can cause serious structural damage to the wire rope, such as kinking or bird caging which reduces the strength of the wire rope. (In bird caging, the wire rope strands are forcibly untwisted and become spread outward.) Therefore, in order to prolong the life of the sling and protect the lives of employees, the manufacturer's suggestion for safe and proper use of wire rope slings must be strictly adhered to.

30 Empalmes de Ojal Empalmes de ojal en cualquier cable de acero tendrá por lo menos tres vueltas completas (c)(4), (5) and (6) These limitations apply to the use of wire rope: An eye splice made in any wire rope shall have not less than three full tucks. However, this requirement shall not operate to preclude the use of another form of splice or connection which can be shown to be as efficient and which is not otherwise prohibited. Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in pulling loads, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice. Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, or bull wires shall not be formed by wire rope clips or knots. Wire rope shall not be used if, in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds 10 percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect. When U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes, Table H-20 shall be used to determine the number and spacing of clips. Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices.

31 Salientes Cover or blunt protruding ends of strands
Reference (c)(2) Cover or blunt protruding ends of strands Cubra o aplane términos salientes de los filamentos

32 Ganchos Al usar pernos de U para formar ojales, asegure que la “U” haga contacto con el cable (c)(5)(i) and (c)(4)(iii) Only use for non lifting purposes. Así se hace

33 Lubricación Lubrique con frecuencia cables y cadenas
Although every wire rope sling is lubricated during manufacture, to lengthen its useful service life it must also be lubricated "in the field." There is no set rule on how much or how often this should be done. It depends on the conditions under which the sling is used. The heavier the loads, the greater the number of bends, or the more adverse the conditions under which the sling operates, the more frequently lubrication will be required. Lubrique con frecuencia cables y cadenas

34 Eslingas de Cable de Acero
Quite de Servicio Nido de Pájaro Volteado Wire Rope Sling Inspection. Visually inspect before each use. Check the twists or lay of the sling. If ten randomly distributed wires in one lay are broken, or five wires in one strand of a rope lay are damaged, do not use the sling. End fittings and other components should also be inspected for any damage that could make the sling unsafe. Bird cage -- Wire rope strands are untwisted and become spread outward. Caused by sudden release of tension and the rebound of the rope from the overloaded condition. These strands and wires will not return to their original positions. Aplastado

35 Eslingas de Malla Sintética Marcas
Nombre o marca registrada del fabricante Capacidad según el tipo de uso Tipo de material (e) Synthetic webbing (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene). Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width.

36 Eslingas de Malla Sintética Acoplamientos
Acoplamientos tienen que ser: Igual de fuerte que la eslinga Libres de bordes filosos que podrín dañar la malla (e)(4) Synthetic Web Sling Fittings At least as strong as that of the sling Free of sharp edges that could damage the webbing

37 Eslingas de Malla Sintética Costura
Reference (e)(5) The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the sling. When using synthetic web slings, take the following precautions: - Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present. - Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present. - Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present. Do not use synthetic web slings of polyester and nylon at temperatures in excess of 180 deg. F (82 deg. C). Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 200 deg. F (93.33 deg. C). El único método de poner eslabones o formar ojales en estas eslingas es con una costura

38 Eslingas de Malla Sintética - Quite de Servicio
Quemadura cáusticas (ácido) Derritiendo o calcinando de cualquier parte Heat Damage Enganchones, hoyos, o cortaduras Costuras rotas o desgastadas Eslabones deformados (d)(8) Remove from service if any of these are present: Acid or caustic burns Melting or charring of any part Snags, punctures, tears or cuts Broken or worn stitches Distortion of fittings

39 Procedimientos de levantar
Eslinga asegurada Peso y equilibrio correcto Suficiente altura del suelo Posición del gancho Carga libre del piso Tense lentamente el cable Inspeccione tensión de la eslinga Mantenga a trabajadores lejos Before making a lift with a sling, ensure the following is checked: 1. Sling properly secured around the load 2. Weight and balance of load is accurately determined 3. Ground clearance has been ensured 4. Position the hook directly over the load and seat the sling securely within the hook bowl 5. Make sure the load is not attached to the floor 6. Take up the slack slowly to prevent shock loading 7. Check the tension on the sling a. raise a few inches b. check for proper balance 8. Keep personnel clear while load is being raised, moved, or lowered These techniques will enable the operator to safely lift and move a load. However, there are several things that should never be done during the use of a sling.

40 “Nunca” Permita que nadie se suba en la carga
Permita que más de una persona controle la máquina Levante una carga más de lo necesario Deje la carga suspendida en el aire Trabaje debajo de una carga suspendida When using a sling, NEVER: 1. Allow anyone to ride on a load 2. Allow more than one person control a lift or give signals to a crane or hoist operator except to warn of a hazardous situation 3. Raise a load more than necessary 4. Leave the load suspended in the air 5. Work under or allow anyone else to work under a suspended load

41 Después de Trabajar… Limpie la eslinga
Inspeccione la eslinga para daños Almacene la eslinga en un lugar limpio, seco, y bien ventilado O. Once the lift has been completed, be sure to do the following to prevent sling damage: 1. Clean the sling 2. Check the sling for damage 3. Store the sling in a clean, dry, well ventilated storage area In addition to good use practices, the maintenance of slings is imperative to prolonging the service life of the equipment.

42 Protección contra Caídas
Los trabajadores que trabajan con materiales almacenados en silos, tolvas, o tanques tienen que estar equipados con cuerdas de vida y arneses (b)(2) The personal fall arrest equipment must meet the requirements of Subpart M.

43 Quitando Escombros de Lugares Elevados
Al dejar caer material más de 20 pies a un punto fuera de un edificio, hay que usar un ducto encerrado Disposal of Waste Materials When material is dropped more than 20 feet to any point outside a building, then an enclosed chute must be used. An enclosed chute is a slide, closed on all sides, through which material is moved from a high place to a lower one

44 Hoyos en el Piso 42" Barricadas al menos 42“ de alto
Al menos 6' del hoyo Señales de advertencia Se prohibe remover material abajo hasta que dejen de trabajar arriba If material is dropped through holes in the floor without the use of chutes, the following precautions must be taken: 1. The area onto which the material is dropped must be completely enclosed with barricades not less than 42 inches high 2. The barricades must not be less than six feet back from the edge of the opening above 3. Warning signs must be posted at each level 4. No material removed in the lower area until debris handling above ceases 42"

45 Disposicón de Chatarra y Materiales Flamables
Quite toda chatarra del área mientras va progresando el trabajo Guarde desechos de disolventes, trapos grasosos, y líquidos flamables en contenedores tapados resistentes a fuego hasta que pueden quitarse del área Disposal of Scrap and Flammable Materials All scrap lumber, waste material, and rubbish must be removed from the immediate work area as the work progresses. Any burning of materials must comply with local fire regulations. All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids must be kept in fire resistant covered containers until it is removed from the worksite.

46 Resumen ¡Utilice el Sentido Común! Summary
We have looked at many aspects of material handling today. The only way to ensure a safe work environment is to make sure that all equipment is used properly, proper procedures are used when moving materials, and the disposal of materials is done in accordance with applicable regulations. One mistake is all it takes to create a disastrous situation. Above all use good common sense

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