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Escalinatas y Escaleras CFR 1926, Subsección X

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Presentación del tema: "Escalinatas y Escaleras CFR 1926, Subsección X"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Escalinatas y Escaleras CFR 1926, Subsección X
I. Introduction A. Stairways and ladders are a major source of injuries and fatalities in construction workers. OSHA estimates the following: 1. National - 24,882 injuries and as many as 36 fatalities per year 2. Time off - 11,570 lost workday and 13, 312 non-lost workday

2 Peligros Mal uso del peldaño superior de una escalera portátil.
Reference – OSHA Publication 3124, Stairways and Ladders Stairways and ladders cause many injuries and fatalities among construction workers About half the injuries caused by slips, trips and falls from ladders and stairways require time off the job

3 Objetivos Requisitos generales para las escalinatas y escaleras
Requisitos específicos para escalinatas Requisitos específicos para escaleras Requisitos de capacitación sobre las escalinatas y escaleras B. Objectives of this session are: 1. List the general requirements that apply to stairways and ladders during construction 2. List the requirements that apply to stairways during construction 3. List the requirements that apply to ladders during construction 4. List the training requirements that apply to stairways and ladders during construction

4 Requisitos Generales Se necesita cuando:
19 pulgadas Diferencia en elevación Se necesita cuando: Diferencia en elevación de 19 pulgadas o más no existe rampa, pasarela, declive o elevador No use escaleras espirales que no sean permanentes 25 o más empleados – escalera doble o dos escaleras II. General Requirements A. The first area we will look at are the general requirements as they apply to stairways and ladders. B. A stairway or ladder shall be provided at all personnel points of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more and no ramp, runway, sloped embankment, or personnel hoist is provided. C. Spiral stairs that will not be a permanent part of the structure may not be used by workers. D. If there are more than 25 employees on the site, then a double cleated ladder or two separate ladders must be used for access.

5 Requisitos Generales Libre de estorbos tales como clavos salientes
Elimine condiciones resbalosas E. All stairways must be free from hazardous projections such as nails and slippery conditions must be controlled or eliminated.

6 Barandales y Pasamanos
Handrail - A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support. Stairrail system - A vertical barrier erected along the unprotected sides and edges of a stairway to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.

7 Resistencia de Barandales y Pasamanos
Rieles tienen que resistir una fuerza de 200 libras Reference (c)(5) Handrails and the top rails of the stairrail systems must be capable of withstanding, without failure, at least 200 pounds of weight applied within 2 inches of the top edge in any downward or outward direction, at any point along the top edge.

8 Barandales Escaleras con cuatro o más escalones, o mayor de 30 pulgadas de alto, tienen que tener por lo menos un barandal. Reference (c) Handrails must provide an adequate handhold for employees to grasp to prevent falls. Temporary handrails must have a minimum clearance of 3” between the handrail and walls, stairrail system and other objects. OSHA has specific height requirements for handrails. Check the standard to ensure these are met during installation of handrails, stairrails and guardrails La escalera a esta plataforma tiene más de 4 escalones y no está protegida.

9 Barandales Escaleras con cuatro o más escalones, o mayor de 30 pulgadas de alto, tienen que tener barandal a cada lado. Reference (c) All stairways of 4 steps or more must have a handrail. If there is a fall hazard of 6 feet or more on an exposed side of the stairs, then a stairrail system must be provided to prevent workers from falling off the side.

10 Máximo 1/4 de pulgada de variación
Escalones Instale entre 30 y 50 grados. Tiene que tener altura uniforme de contrahuella con máximo ¼ de pulgada de variación. Uniforme - 30 y 50 grados Máximo 1/4 de pulgada de variación Reference (a)(3) and (a)(2)

11 Los Descansillos Descansillos – al menos 30 pulgadas de largo y 22 pulgadas de ancho cada 12 pies o menos de subida Los lados tienen que tener sistema usual de barandales a 42 pulgadas de alto Descansillo Reference (a)(1) and (b) Stairway landings 6 feet or more above the surrounding area need to be provided with a guardrail system along the exposed perimeters of the landing

12 Puertas en las Plataformas
Al abrir una puerta directamente a una plataforma, la plataforma extenderá al menos 20 pulgadas más allá del arco de la puerta. Reference (a)(4) Remember that a guardrail system may also be needed on a platform with a swinging door to protect from potential falls of 6 feet or more.

13 Condiciones Peligrosas
Elimine condiciones resbalosas antes de usar escaleras. Escaleras necesitan estar libres de salientes que podrían causar lesiones o enredar ropa. Reference (a)(7) and (a)(6) In addition to the components of a stair system, it is important to address other potentially dangerous conditions such as slippery stairs, rails or landings due to weather conditions or the composition of the stair material (e.g. smooth, metal surfaces).

14 Escaleras Portátiles

15 Requisitos Generales Mantenga los alrededores limpios
Peldaños nivelados y uniformes Peldaños separados con 10 – 14 pulgadas uniformes Libres de peligros de tropiezos Reference (a) and (b)

16 Requisitos Generales Use escaleras de acuerdo con su diseño -- NO --
Empalme escaleras para extender su alcance Use escaleras de un solo riel vertical Cargue escaleras más allá de su diseño Reference (a) and (b)

17 Asegurando Escaleras Esta escalera no está en una superficie estable
Asegure las escaleras para prevenir movimiento accidental En superficies estables y niveladas Nunca en superficies resbalosas a menos que tengan bases antideslizantes Reference (b)(8), (b)(6), (b)(7), and (b)(1) Ladders placed in areas such as passage-ways, doorways, or driveways, or where they can be displaced by workplace activities or traffic must be secured to prevent accidental movement, or a barricade must be used to keep traffic or activities away from the ladder.

18 Escaleras Portátiles Inspeccione para grietas, daños, y peldaños ausentes Diseñe o trate peldaños para minimizar el resbalarse Rieles verticales – separados al menos 11 1/2 pulgadas Tiene que resistir 4 veces la carga máxima Reference (b)(15), (b)(6)(ii) and (a)(4)(ii) See the OSHA web site at: Portable Ladder: a ladder that can be readily moved or carried. Ladder rungs, cleats, and steps must be parallel, level and uniformly spaced. The rungs and steps of portable metal ladders must be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material or treated to minimize slipping.

19 Escaleras Dobles Al ser la única manera de entrar o salir de un área de trabajo con 25 o más trabajadores Cuando hay viajes en dos sentidos Reference (a)(2) Double-cleat Ladder - A ladder with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way traffic for employees ascending or descending. When there is only one point of access between levels, it must be kept clear to permit free passage by workers. If free passage becomes restricted, a second point of access must be provided and used.

20 Escaleras de Madera No las pinte No use acabados opacos
Reference (a)(12) Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except identification or warning labels on one face only of a side rail.

21 Ángulo Escaleras de Extensión A un ángulo de 1 a 4
Reference (b)(5) Working length of ladder – Distance along the ladder between the foot and top support

22 Extensión Tiene que extenderse al menos 3 pies arriba de la plataforma
Reference (b)(1) When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface. When such an extension is not possible, the ladder must be secured, and a grasping device such as a grab rail must be provided to assist workers in mounting and dismounting the ladder. A ladder extension must not deflect under a load that would cause the ladder to slip off its support.

23 Escaleras Fijas de Torre
Si mide más de 24 pies: Mecanismo de seguridad Cuerdas de vida auto-retractables con descanso cada 150 pies o menos Estilo jaula en múltiples secciones, cada sección máximo 50 pies Reference (a)(18) and (a)(19) Fixed Ladder: a ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an integral part of a building or structure. In using a cage or well, ladder sections must be offset from adjacent sections, and landing platforms must be provided at maximum intervals of 50 feet Use a fixed ladder at a pitch no greater than 90 degrees horizontal measurement from the back of the ladder. A fixed ladder must be able to support at least 2 loads of 250 pounds each, concentrated between any two consecutive attachments. It must also support added anticipated loads caused by ice buildup, winds, rigging and impact loads resulting from using ladder safety devices.

24 Cerca de Electricidad No conductivas, tal como madera o fibra de vidrio. Reference (b)(12) Una condición peligrosa

25 Peldaño Superior No se usa para pisar Reference (b)(13)

26 Travesaños No pise travesaños a menos que estén diseñados con ese fin
Se puede pisar este lado de esta escalera No pise travesaños a menos que estén diseñados con ese fin Reference (b)(14) A metal spreader or locking device must be provided on each stepladder to hold the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used.

27 Escaleras Defectuosas
Inspeccionadas por una persona competente Si defectuosa, quite de servicio y etiquete :No Usar” Quite de servicio hasta repararse Peldaño ausente Reference (b)(16) Ladders must be inspected on a periodic basis and after any incident that could affect their safe use. Ladder components must be surfaced to prevent injury from punctures or lacerations and prevent snagging of clothing.

28 Al Subir y Bajar Oriéntese hacia la escalera
Use al menos una mano para agarrar No lleve objetos que podrían hacerle perder el equilibrio Reference (b)(20),(21),(22)

29 Capacitación Una persona competente necesita capacitar a cada trabajador en las áreas siguientes: Los tipos de peligros de caídas en el área de trabajo Los procedimientos correctos de usar, mantener, y desmontar los sistemas contra caídas El uso, cuidado, colocación, y construcción de escaleras Las capacidades máximas Reference (a) Retraining - Employers must retrain each employee as necessary to maintain the understanding and knowledge acquired through compliance with the standard.

30 Hechas En Sitio 1926.1053(a)(2) Escaleras
Peldaños estarán paralelos, nivelados, y uniformes.

31 Peligro #1 Ladder not made to be leaned against wall.

32 Peligro #2 Working in front of door. No warning.

33 Peligro #3 Job made – not compliant.

34 Peligro #4 Standing on top 2 steps.

35 Peligro #5 Two ladders together

36 Peligro #6 Top step and misuse of ladder.

37 Resumen Las caídas a niveles inferiores siguen siendo una de las causas principales de muerte en Texas. Aplique buenas prácticas de trabajo. VI. Summary A. Falls to a lower level remain one of the leading killers of construction workers in Texas. Be careful on ladders and stairways. Use safe work practices. Show video V337 (Resource Center) at this point.

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