Presentación del tema: "Real Communication with Real Meaning: ideas and strategies to improve speaking at KS3 & KS4 Rachel Hawkes Assistant Principal / AST / SSAT Advanced Lead."— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Real Communication with Real Meaning: ideas and strategies to improve speaking at KS3 & KS4 Rachel HawkesAssistant Principal / AST / SSAT Advanced Lead Practitioner Comberton Village College, Cambridgeshire
2 Why focus on speaking? Ofsted report “Achievement and Challenge…” Renewed KS3 frameworkNew secondary curriculumUptake at KS4 nationallyProfessional convictionEvidence from student voiceNew GCSERachel Hawkes
3 Using the target language Secondary schools should:put much greater emphasis on regular use of the target language in all lessonsmake more use of authentic materials to help develop students’ language skills and their intercultural understandingbroaden approaches to teaching and learning to enthuse students and increase their confidence, competence and ambition in modern languagesp.8 Achievement and Challenge, Ofsted, Jan 2011Rachel Hawkes
4 The changing landscape of languages “Across all phases speaking is the least well developed of all the skills. Students’ inability to be able to say what they want to say in a new language has a negative impact on their confidence and enthusiasm.”“...it was much rarer for reading or listening to be used to stimulate discussion and communicative activities.”‘When required to speak at greater length or in new situations, [students’] accuracy and fluency deteriorate, partly because their grasp of structure is usually less secure than their retention of vocabulary.’“A further hindrance to speaking fluently was that sound-spelling links not been taught well.”“Overall, there was insufficient emphasis on helping students to use the language spontaneously for real situations. Consequently, too few students could speak creatively, or beyond the topic they were studying, by making up their own sentences in an unrehearsed situation. Several students said that being able to say what they wanted to say would improve their enjoyment.”Rachel Hawkes
5 Year 7 Framework - speaking 1.3 Being sensitive to the spoken wordY7 Interpret speakers’ intentions from intonation and tone of voiceY7 Use intonation and tone of voice to create mood and meaning1.4 Talking togetherY7 Construct and generate language, using a stock of words, phrases and sentences for social communication and to talk about their workY7 Make effective use of simple verbal or visual prompts in order to take part in conversations and discussions1.5 Presenting and narrating Y7 Plan and present a short talk or narrative, speaking clearly, audibly and with accurate pronunciation Y7 Engage listeners’ attention through expression and non-verbal techniques4.4 Sentence structureY7 Use knowledge of word order, high-frequency words and punctuation to understand and build simple and compound sentences Questions and negativesY7 Understand and use confidently some common question types in different contextsY7 Understand and use confidently some common negative forms in different contextsY8 Explore how speakers use languagefor specific communicative functionsY8 Identify and use specific language for a range of communicative functionsY8 Initiate and participate in unrehearsed pupil-teacher and pupil-pupil exchangesY8 Plan and carry out unscripted conversations and discussions, taking into account the views, preferences and ideas of each group member1.5 Presenting and narrating Y8 Use some complex language in a prepared but unscripted talk or narrative Y8 Add authenticity through use of simple idiomsY8 Develop and improve sentences by adding, rearranging or replacing elements 4.6 Questions and negativesY8 Understand and use a range of question typesY8 Understand and use a range of negative formsY9 Listen for language variation in formal and informal contextsY9 Adapt the degree of formality of language to suit different situations 1.4 Talking togetherY9 Make extended and/or frequent contributions to classroom talkY9 Deal effectively with unexpected responses in order to sustain conversations and discussions 1.5 Presenting and narrating Y9 Respond quickly and appropriately to audience comments or questions following a talk or narrativeY9 Add interest through extended sentences, rhetorical devices and imaginative use of vocabulary4.4 Sentence structure Y9 Use knowledge of word order, phrases and clauses to understand and build a wider range of extended sentences4.6 Questions and negatives Y9 Make confident use of question types with simple and compound tensesY9 Make confident use of negative forms with simple and compound tensesRachel Hawkes
6 NEW secondary curriculum (speaking related PoS) 1.1 Linguistic competence a. Developing the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing in a range of situations and contexts. b. Applying linguistic knowledge and skills to understand and communicateeffectively. 1.2 Knowledge about language a Understanding how a language works and how to manipulate it. 1.3 Creativity a Using familiar language for new purposes and in new contexts. b Using imagination to express thoughts, ideas, experiences and feelings. 2.2 Developing language skills c respond appropriately to spoken and written language d use correct pronunciation and intonation e ask and answer questions f initiate and sustain conversations k deal with unfamiliar language, unexpected responses and unpredictable situations. 3. Range and content a the spoken and written forms of the target language 4. Curriculum Opportunities a. hear, speak, read and write in the target language regularly and frequently within the classroom and beyond b. communicate in the target language individually, in pairs, in groups and with speakers of the target language, including native speakers where possible, for a variety of purposes c. use an increasing range of more complex language g. use the target language in connection with topics and issues that are engaging and may be related to other areas of the curriculumRachel Hawkes
7 There has been a steady decline in the numbers taking GCSE Modern Languages over the last ten years, with sharp declines for the exams taken in June 2005 onwards, so that now the numbers have fallen by around half.
8 2009 performance comparison showing first specialism language colleges excluding selective schools and combined specialist colleges
9 NEW GCSE Assessment criteria (speaking component - Edexcel) Communicates comprehensive and detailed information related to chosen stimulusInteracts very well Speaks very confidently and with spontaneity Frequently takes initiative and develops elaborate responses No difficulty in expressing and explaining a range of ideas and points of viewVery little or no hesitation Able to deal with unpredictable elements without difficulty16-18Uses wide range of appropriate vocabulary and structures, including complex lexical items Consistently competent use of different tenses.6Very accurate, with only isolated and usually insignificant errors.Consistently good pronunciation and intonation.Communicates detailed and relevant information related to chosen visual/topic/stimulus. Interacts well. Speaks confidently. Takes initiative and develops more elaborate responses. Has little difficulty expressing and explaining ideas and points of view. Little hesitation and little or no prompting necessary. Abe to deal with unpredictable elements with some success.12-15Good variety of appropriate vocabulary and structures. Unambiguous use of different verb tenses. Generally at ease with subordination.2Some errors, especially in more complex structures, but generally accurate. Pronunciation and intonation generall y good.Communicates relevant information related to the chosen stimulus but with some obvious omissions. Some interaction Able to participate in familiar, straightforward discussion and conversation, but experiences problems with more complex question forms. Conveys opinions, but rarely expands. Some hesitation Able to deal with some unpredictable elements.8-11Adequate but predictable range of vocabulary and structures.May include different tenses or time frames, perhaps with some ambiguitySome examples of subordination3-4A fair number of errors made, including some basic, but communication overall unaffected. Pronunciation and intonation generally accurate.Limited communication related to chosen visual/topic/stimulus. Some coherence in unambiguous presentation of simple information and opinions, but responses very limited. Very hesitant and reliant on teacher-examiner prompting. Able to deal with isolated unpredictable elements.4-7Limited and/or repetitive range of vocabulary or structures. Predominantly uses short sentencesMany basic errors, but main points communicated.Simple ‘pre-learnt’ stereotypes correct. Pronunciation generally understandable.Minimal description of chosen stimulus. Conveys little relevant information in minimal responses (mainly one word) Largely disjointed and unconnected ideas. Very limited comprehension of basic questions.Wholly-reliant on teacher-examiner prompting..1-3Very limited range of basic structures Frequently resorts to non-target language Rarely offers complete sentences.1Consistently inaccurate language and pronunciation frequently impede communication Only isolated examples of accurate language.Rachel Hawkes
10 Linked Up Project Analysis May 2010 Rachel Hawkes
11 What do you think we mean by unplanned or spontaneous speaking? 289 students from Years 7 – 10 from 5 different secondary schools were asked.a) Lack of prior preparationb) Absence of written supportc) The immediacy of the experienced) Like a conversatione) Not knowing the questions/answers in advanceRachel Hawkes
12 "Because in real life you don't know what the other person is going to say." 2/3 students asked equate spontaneous speaking with ‘real life’ activity.Why do you think unplanned or spontaneous speaking is an important focus in language learning?Students feel that what they can do without notes/preparation is what they 'truly' know."To make sure you definitely know it and are able to have conversations without reading off a sheet."The vast majority of answers to this question centered on the fact that using the language for a real purpose will involve being able to talk spontaneously. The obvious conclusion to be drawn is that if they are therefore a) not doing any spontaneous speaking in their lessons or b) not feeling that they are getting better at speaking 'without a script' then they are not in their lesson time learning what they need to know to use language in the real world. The implications for motivation are apparent!Other interesting responses - the link between speaking spontaneously and getting more confident plus the the other element of 'real' - students feel that what they can do without notes/preparation is what they 'truly' know. The suggestion is that what they can only do either from notes or after having a week to memorise is NOT real knowledge.They also mention the link between spontaneous speaking and increased confidence.Rachel Hawkes
13 "They would cope really well because they would speak confidently and spontaneously really easily' 2/3 answers are unrealistic and do not mention strategies or attributes of a language learner in unrehearsed speaking situations.Define a confident language learner - how would he/she cope in an unplanned speaking situation?1) Most other answers stress fluency as key2) Fewer mention accuracy3) Top set students most likely to mention accuracy AND fluency together4) A few mention quality of language, including range of vocabulary, tense use, opinions, extended answers - particularly Year 10 learners and 9 top sets5) Rare answers mention attributes of a confident learner mentioned were: risk-taking, not afraid of mistakes, responds readily, good pronunciation6) Very few mentioned these strategies: listen carefully to pick out key words and understand the question, take time to think, use words and structures they know, ignore mistakes and keep going, use gestures and facial expression to help support meaning1) Around 2/3 students answered this question by stating something like:"They would cope really well because they would speak confidently and spontaneously really easily' (no idea/unrealistic)2) Of those that did answer more usefully, there was still not a clear sense of 'how' i.e. strategy use3) Most answers stress fluency as key4) Fewer mention accuracy5) Top set students most likely to mention accuracy AND fluency together6) A few mention quality of language, including range of vocabulary, tense use, opinions, extended answers - particularly Year 10 learners and 9 top sets7) Attributes of a confident learner mentioned were: risk-taking, not afraid of mistakes, responds readily, good pronunciation8) Strategies mentioned (very few answers but very good!) were: listen carefully to pick out key words and understand the question, take time to think, use words and structures they know, ignore mistakes and keep going, use gestures and facial expression to help support meaningRachel Hawkes
14 Speaking targetsGive detailed informationExpress personal opinionsJustify points of viewUse longer sequences of speechUse a variety of vocabulary and structuresUse time referencesRefer to the pastRefer to the futureDo these speaking targets work for spontaneous talk? Can learners have these sorts of targets in their heads in an unplanned speaking situation?If not, what targets or strategies would we give to learners who are trying to hold a 'conversation' in the target language?Rachel Hawkes
15 Conclusions: Emerging from the analysis of our learner questionnaire data and analysis of learner responses to completing the different spontaneous talk tasks we prepared and trialled during this project is the notion that planned speaking implicates a different skills set from unplanned speaking; that both have an important place but that teachers should seek to exploit opportunities for spontaneous or unplanned target language talk as this has in our experience been a neglected aspect of pedagogy. To encourage learners to approach spontaneous speaking in the classroom more effectively, it may be useful to stress certain skills that underpin unplanned spoken performance as distinct from others that are foregrounded in planned speaking activities. A provisional list of strategies that may promote spontaneous interaction in the target language is on the next and final slide.Rachel Hawkes
16 Listen to the question VERY carefully – work to make sense of it “A confident language learner wouldn't panic, would listen carefully for key words to respond to and take time to think about answer.”Listen to the question VERY carefully – work to make sense of itBuy yourself time with a ‘hesitation’ wordThink of something you know you can say quickly – e.g. Repeat back a couple of words of the question with raised intonation - ¿Todos los días?Use what you know how to say when you put your answer together (not necessarily exactly what you want to say)Keep talking for as long as you can – it’s always easy to add in a ‘por ejemplo’ or an opinionWhen you are beginning to run out of flow, ask a question! (¿Y tú?)Use other ‘help’ to get your message across well – i.e. expression, emotion – sound like you mean it + facial expressions + body language + gestures“A confident learner would use the words they do know to turn the conversation to what they are comfortable to speak about - use heavy facial expression and body language.”“A confident learner would be able to use what they know already to come up with appropriate responses - and maybe even ask new questions.”Rachel Hawkes
19 L’année dernière, je suis allé(e) en Espagne.aux Étas-unisen France.dans un hoteldans un campingdans une gîteconfortable.bien equipé(e).très moderne.Je suis resté(e)et c’étaitdes monumentsdes muséesdes galeriesj’ai fait du cyclisme.j’ai nagé dans la mer.j’ai fait des excursions.J’ai visitéetla chaleur.les toilettes.les embouteillages.les plagesles boîtes de nuitles restaurantsJ’aimais bienmais pasAnna’s TES resources reminded me of this one! She calls it Trapdoor and it’s brilliant for a) memory and b) speaking (repetition with a reason!) It’s a competitive game in pairs. Each chooses and option for each sentence in their head. One starts reading out loud, trying to anticipate the other’s choices. Each time they make a choice, the partner either nods or shakes his/her head. If the choice is wrong, play passes to the partner who starts the same process. If it is the right choice, the student gets to continue. The aim is to get to the end first. Answers don’t change, so this is also a great memory developer.ÉcosseAutricheAustraliefaire de l’alpinisme.faire du canoë-kayac.visiter les attractions.L’année prochaine, j’irai enpour
21 Year 8 Spanish – Level 5 speaking (30-second speeches) Role the dice each time and move left to right through the boxes. Say your phrase out loud. Your partner will use the whiteboard to translate what you are saying. Take it in turns to produce these level 5 speeches.ABC1 El año pasado 2 El verano pasado3 Hace dos años4 Durante las vacaciones 5 En El invierno pasado1 fui a España 2 fui a Francia3 fui a Escocia4 fui a Norfolk5 fui a Grecia6 fui a Italia1 con mis amigos.2 con mi familia.3 con mis padres.4 para dos semanas.5 para una semana.6 para un mes.Me gustó mucho porque……..1 nadé en el mar2 visité monumentos3 descansé4 jugué al voleibol5 fui a la playa6 comí platos típicos1 y mandé mensajes.2 y saqué fotos.3 y tomé el sol.4 y bailé en la discoteca.5 y monté en bici.6 y escuché música.1 ¡Fue genial!2 ¡Fue guay!3 ¡Fue fantástico!4 ¡Fue estupendo!5 ¡Fue maravilloso!6 ¡Fue fenomenal!El año que viene, cuando vaya a España…..1 voy a …….2 me gustaría..3 quiero..4 tengo ganas de..5 tengo pensado..6 espero..1 ir de compras2 ir a la piscina3 hablar español4 jugar al tenis5 montar a caballo6 acampar1 en la playa.2 con mis amigos.3 todo el tiempo.4 todos los días.5 por la noche.6 y tomar el sol.DEFGHISpeaking & memory lesson – instructions for teacher 1 Explain and ‘sell’ the concept of the lesson – students are going to aim to memorise one level 5 speech as a minimum by the end of the lesson. They are going to improve their Spanish speaking AND their memory skills in this lesson. (5 mins)2 Show the sheet – for most groups the first step will be to take them through the meanings. Allow students to writing in the English meanings by the side of the Spanish if desired. (8 mins)3 Next model a speech using the dice – display the sheet on the whiteboard as you do so and underline each part as you roll, emphasising the Spanish and repeating the whole speech from the beginning each time you roll so that by the end of 9 boxes you have said the first box part 9 times! This is excellent repetition practice and they will do this without noticing if you model it clearly as you show them what to do. (5 mins)4 Elicit the English meaning from the students of the speech you have given (either taking oral contributions or on whiteboards) – this is what the partner will do when they do this is pairs so is important to model this part too. (3 mins)5 Make clear that this is just the first activity and that they have 6 minutes to make as many sentences as they can, taking it in turns each time. (6 mins)Speaking & memory lesson – instructions for teacher cont’dNow explain that you want them to use the scaffolding sheet to write their own 30-second marathon sentence. All will write using a phrase from each of the 9 boxes. (5 mins)Now the challenge is to use some memory strategies to learn it off by heart. Explain that the first 6 boxes are compulsory (will make about 20 seconds) and adding in the final 3 boxes will be exceptionally good and will be about 30 seconds.Suggest that one strategy (chunking) is already provided by the sheet itself and that building up the speech ‘chunk by chunk’ repeating each bit that they learnt before should help them to memorise.Suggest also that they might split their page into 9 boxes.Write each bit out with just the first letter to prompt in each boxDraw a picture instead of the words in each boxUse look, cover, say, checkWork in pairs to test each other (5 mins)Give them 14 minutes to work on their speeches – circulate to supportPlenary – hopefully there will just be time to hear 2 or 3 students ‘perform’ their speeches – plenty of praise at this point.For homework, set them to work their speech into their longer term memory by repeating some of the activities that have worked for them in the lesson. Say you will begin next lesson by hearing and recording their speeches.
23 www.voki.com Rachel Hawkes Vokis are talking avatars. Using this free website you can either record and upload the mp3 audio file OR you can copy/paste corrected TL script and choose a voice to say your words.Rachel Hawkes
25 Last year to I went on holiday to France with my family. It is hard to get students to use what they have learnt already sometimes. To focus them back on what is in their books, ask them to choose 9 sentences on the theme they have been covering and write them in English, making sure they know how they would be said in the TL (they will have this doubtless in their books). They then get up and go around the class, testing each other. When they find someone who can do a phrase correctly they write their name in one of the boxes next to that phrase. In this version each phrase needs 2 x different names. The plenary activity that follows is for the teacher to do a brief ‘spot check’ asking named individuals to do the phrase they have been signed up for. This gets students to think back to what they have covered and to fix it more deeply in their long term memories.Rachel Hawkes
26 Practising output (fluency , pronunciation, automatization, memory) Jugar a las cartasSome the most structured (and seemingly unimaginative!) tasks can work the best. I was told by my Y11 that this is an excellent activity and why couldn’t they do it more often in all the topics they’ve covered. Essentially, a list of core phrases (either whole of partial) with Spanish and English is produced on card and cut up. Students can do this themselves as the first step to familiarise themselves with the phrases, if that saves teacher time! They then work in pairs, either collaboratively or competitively, to memorise the phrases, turning them over when they think they know and taking themselves through them one by one until they can do them all in Spanish without referring to the Spanish version of the cards.Idea 55Rachel Hawkes
29 Johnny Depp est né le 9 juin 1963 à Owensboro dans le Kentucky, aux États-Unis. Il est acteur américain, qui est déjà très célèbre. Il est en couple avec la chanteuse et actrice française Vanessa Paradis et ils vivent en France. Ils ont deux enfants ensemble. En 2010, il a refusé le titre de l'homme le plus sexy de l'année pour servir d'exemple à ses deux enfants.
30 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) Odd one outIdea 77Rachel Hawkes
31 Pilla al intruso Nadal Paella David Villa Andy Murray This is not so much a starter as the main part of the lesson. It is their first introduction to odd one out tasks and they need to understand how they work and why they’re so valuable. This is perhaps also a useful lesson to have a longer, more detailed look with learners at the progress tracking docs in their booklets. There are boxes for them to shade for NC level progress (3 per skill per level to allow for cumulative build-up) and also for the wider skills (memory etc..) – they should be encouraged to think about where they are in terms of these and to shade in too. This discussion should provide a really useful starting point for this activity, where they will be creative (generating ideas and risk-taking), reasoning, (analysing, decision-making, justifying, categorising and making links), empthatic (speaking & listening & responding), active (noticing). Make reference to the L2L chart to show how much they will be doing here.
32 ¡Sí, es verdad! ¡No, es mentira! ¡Yo también! ¡Yo tampoco! ¿Qué piensas?Pienso que...¡Sí, es verdad! ¡No, es mentira!¡Yo también! ¡Yo tampoco!XXXYear 7 Talking frame¡Estás loco/a!¿Qué piensas?32
33 Pilla al intruso A B C D España Perú Brasil Cuba Madrid Paris Londres BarcelonaCyoellanosotrosUstedThis is not so much a starter as the main part of the lesson. It is their first introduction to odd one out tasks and they need to understand how they work and why they’re so valuable. This is perhaps also a useful lesson to have a longer, more detailed look with learners at the progress tracking docs in their booklets. There are boxes for them to shade for NC level progress (3 per skill per level to allow for cumulative build-up) and also for the wider skills (memory etc..) – they should be encouraged to think about where they are in terms of these and to shade in too. This discussion should provide a really useful starting point for this activity, where they will be creative (generating ideas and risk-taking), reasoning, (analysing, decision-making, justifying, categorising and making links), empthatic (speaking & listening & responding), active (noticing). Make reference to the L2L chart to show how much they will be doing here. Also, give them the help sheet and go through it AND also encourage them that there are NO single right answers – there may be lots of different correct answers!Dunodosdiezdoce
34 Es (from verb ‘SER’ to be) It is (permanent characteristics) Pienso que…I think that…Creo que..I believeLa excepción es..the exception isporquebecause/forEs (from verb ‘SER’ to be)It is (permanent characteristics)un animal – una persona - un país – un continente -an animal – a person - a country – a continentde Inglaterra, Escocia, España…plural/singularun verbo – un adjetivo – un sustantivoa verb - an adjective - a nounmasculino - femeninomasculine - femininediferentedifferentlos otros son…the others are…This is a simplified support sheet for Odd one out – it includes only the verb SER as this has been the focus so far. In the next Odd One Out lesson we will use TENER, ESTAR and Hay too. There is space left for them to write this in in a future OOO lesson.
35 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) Reading imagesIdea 88Rachel Hawkes
36 Reading images – a way to stimulate creative sentence-building, recycling of known languages in a new context and spontaneous responses. This can be a short or long a task as required, and the teacher can vary questions accordingly. A routine for this picture could be: ¿Cómo se llama esta chica? ¿Cuántos años tiene? ¿Es mayor o menor que vosotros (o la misma edad? ¿Qué tal está? ¿Tiene problemas? ¿Por qué? ¿Qué quiere hacer? ¿Qué tiene que hacer? ¿Qué le gustaría más hacer? ¿Qué planes tiene para el fin de semana?
37 ¿Qué o quién hay en la foto? Qu’est-ce qu’il veut faire? Qu’est-ce qu’il peut faire?¿Qué va a pasar ahora?¿Dónde estamos?¿Qué acaba de pasar?¿Qué o quién hay en la foto?¿Qué no se puede ver?¿Cuándo se hizo la foto?¿Qué se puede ver?
38 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) In the ZoneIdea 99Rachel Hawkes
39 Was mir am besten gefällt, .. Letztes JahrbestehenwennWann?Pairs work with this stimulus (within given time limit) to come up with as many statements/utterances using one or more of the picture or verbal prompts. This one has the theme of school.Was mir am besten gefällt, ..
40 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) Target talkIdea 1010Rachel Hawkes
41 NB: Tu respuesta debe tener 7 palabras. ¿Tienes una asignatura favorita?¿Cómo es tu instituto?¿Qué opinas del uniforme escolar?¿Cuál es el mayor problema de tu instituto ?¿Qué planes tienes para el próximo año?¿Cómo será el colegio del futuro?Give students the questions and 1 minute for question 1 to think through (not write down) an answer with exactly 7 words. Take a few answers in whole class feedback. Then give them 3 minutes to do the same for the next 2 questions. Then give them 3 minutes to choose 1 of the 3 remaining questions and try to come up with a sentence of 10 words – they will need either a connective for this, either ‘y’ or ‘pero’ or a ‘porque’. They can be encouraged to use other forms of the verb other than 1st person too here. This highlights some of the different ways to extend answers.NB: Tu respuesta debe tener 7 palabras.Y ahora, 10+ palabras
42 ¿Qué hiciste durante las vacaciones? A Durante las vacaciones fui....….B En casaC Con mis amigosD Con mi familiaE Lo mejor fueF Lo que no me gustó fue…G Normalmente durante las vacacionesH El año que vieneHay que contestar con 7/8 palabrasHay que contestar con más de 10 palabras
43 11 Pimp my spanish (german, french…) Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation)Pimp my spanish (german, french…)This is just a variation on the theme of improving your sentence by adding details, clauses, adjectives, anything really. Can be played as a class game with one team starting by providing a basic sentence and the other team having the opportunity to ‘pimp’ it, which, if successful done, allows them to steal the point, but if the effort is unsuccessful the first team gets the point. Or it could simply be a talk routine that starts a lesson. Teacher provides a sentence and students have to add to it. They could do this in table groups of 4 too, building up/altering each time. Then the teacher can ask for the pimped sentences after 2-3 minutes. The concept of ‘pimping’ meaning to supersize or superenhance something (as in the popular tv show ‘Pimp my ride’ which was about making over old cars into amazing luxury vehicles.Idea 1111Rachel Hawkes
44 J’habite au nord de l’Angleterre. Je joue au tennis.J’habite au nord de l’Angleterre.Mon chien s’appelle Bob.
45 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) Say Something ELSEIdea 1212Rachel Hawkes
46 Sag etwas anders! 1. Das Mädchen ist zwanzig Jahre alt. 2. Es trägt ein schwarzes Kleid.3. Es ist in der Küche.4. Das Mädchen ist faul.5. Es hat schwarze Haare.6. Das Zimmer ist schwarz und weiβ.7. Die Puppe ist glücklich und sehr groβ.8. Ich finde das Bild fantastisch.Here learners need to change a detail or more in each sentence to say something different about the picture. The sentences give support to learners as they try to build sentences without writing preparation time.Sag etwas anders!
47 Mi colegio es un colegio mixto. Es un colegio especializado en ciencias.En mi opinión las normas no son demasiado estrictas.Lo bueno del colegio es que hay llevar uniforme.Mi asignatura favorita es el inglés porque me encanta escribir historias.Students have to change something in the sentence – it could be one detail, it could be the whole thing, it could be adding an additional detail to ‘grow’ the sentence.Para mejorar mi instituto acabaría con los castigos.El año que viene quiero estudiar el francés.
48 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) Then & nowIdea 1313Rachel Hawkes
49 Hace 50 años, había más rocas en la playa. SitgesCataluña, Spain 2009Hace 50 años, había más rocas en la playa.Hoy no hay rocas en la playa.
50 Il y a cent ans, il y avait des magasins dans cette rue. Cambridge, Petty Cury 2009Il y a cent ans, il y avait des magasins dans cette rue.Aujourd’hui, il y a encore plus de magasins ici.
51 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) I S/he WEVery simple routine to do after a short paired Q&A task. One student feeds back to the class, saying his/her information, then adding that of his/her partner and finally finding something that they have in common to share with ‘we’.Idea 1414Rachel Hawkes
52 Pair work – Students ask each other ‘te gusta Pair work – Students ask each other ‘te gusta....?’ leading to me gusta, le gusta and nos gusta…
53 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) HarvestingThis is an idea to get students to make links between language they learn and use in one topic in further topics. For example, when finishing the theme of holidays, students should be encouraged to do a mind map of key language, focusing on the verbs and sentences starters that they have practised and learnt during that topic. Then they should be given a new piece of paper and told the new theme. Their first task is to take all of the language they know from the context of holidays and adapt it to the new context. So, for example, I used to go on holiday to France can become I used to go to Milton Primary School. We went on holiday to Mallorca can become we went on an excursion to Alton Towers theme park with the school. It’s a very visual and practical way to get students to take stock of what they know already before starting a unit, so they never feel that they are beginning from scratch. If preferred, they could actually cross out the holidays related vocabulary and write the new possibilities (e.g. school/world of work) over the top.This type of activity could also be done in different ways i.e the teacher could present them with a list of language from the holidays theme and they could highlight any language that they could use in the new theme.Idea 1515Rachel Hawkes
54 (no)ne gusta(n) fui(mos) viajmos hicimos iba había tenía Opiniones y preferenciasEl año pasado…/hace 2 añosMis vacaciones ideales son..(no)ne gusta(n)fui(mos)Lo que más me gustaviajmosLo mejor/lo peorhicimosSuelo preferir….Siempre me ha interesado…ibaVoy a…eraTodavía no sé qué quiero hacer..habíateníaA lo mejor, iré a …Cuando sea mayor, me gustaríaEn el futuro………..Cuando era más joven…
55 (no)ne gusta(n) fui(mos) viajmos hicimos iba había tenía Opiniones y preferenciasEl año pasado…/hace 2 añosMis vacaciones ideales son..(no)ne gusta(n)fui(mos)Lo que más me gustaviajmosLo mejor/lo peorhicimosSuelo preferir….Siempre me ha interesado…ibaVoy a…eraTodavía no sé qué quiero hacer..habíateníaA lo mejor, iré a …Cuando sea mayor, me gustaríaEn el futuro………..Cuando era más joven…
56 Mes vacances dernières Quand j’étais plus jeune.. Mes préférencesMes vacances dernièresJe suis allé(e) à ….pour…semainesAprès être arrivéAvant de partirJ’ai joué au golf Je joue au golf depuis 3 ans Après avoir (fini)Je me suis bien amuséeJe m’intéresse à … Ce que m’intéresse le plus c’est.. Mes vacances idéales sont… Ma destination préférée, c’est… A mon avisJe pense queJe trouve queJe viens de lire ta lettre…..J’allais à….avec ma famille Quand il faisait beau je sortais… Quand il faisait mauvais je restais… j’aimais beaucoup….A l’avenir J’ai envie de… J’ai l’intention de.. Je voudrais.. J’amerais… Ji’irai….. Si j’avais le choix, j’irai…mais = butparce que = becauseaussi = also/as wellpar exemple = for examplependant = during/whilstpeut-etre = perhapsqui = whosi = ifquand = whenet = and probablement = probablyseulement = onlyRe-do this mind map with the theme of school and world of work in mind. How could you re-use the language in the new context? This can be simplified or extended, depending on the level of your students and the grades they are targeting.Quand j’étais plus jeune..L’année prochaine………..
57 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) Mind mappingVery simple routine to do after a short paired Q&A task. One student feeds back to the class, saying his/her information, then adding that of his/her partner and finally finding something that they have in common to share with ‘we’.Idea 1616Rachel Hawkes
58 i jugar al comer hacer siempre beber a veces nunca porque porque normalmentea vecesnuncaisanomalsanodeliciosobuenomalopicantedulcesaladoamargodivertidocómicoguayinteresanteemocionanteaburridocon = with sin = without en = inMind mapping activity. Aim to practise generating longer sentences about sports and food/drink and likes/dislikes. Here we are looking for something like: Me gusta jugar al baloncesto a veces con mis amigos porque es divertido = I like playing basketball at times with my friends because it’s fun.Tell them that mind-mapping helps memory because it’s about elaboration – working the knowledge you’re trying to remember so that it sticks (like the activity about the elephant knowledge in Everlasting 1). It’s good to use pictures, words & lots of colour and have a logical order with arrows etc… In this one you start with an opinion in the middle and you then go either left or right, to talk about food or sports. Then you add in a time expression and extra detail and a reason. The pyramid on the next slide is just a different way to portray this visually. After they have made their mind map they should practise saying some sentences referring to it.porque
59 Manipulating language (Sentence-building, creativity, improvisation) Talking PyramidsPyramid – instructions for teachers A challenge!Using your pyramid sheet write as long a sentence as you can! Remember that you can link 2 ‘pyramid’ sentences with an ‘et’ or ‘mais’ to extend the length & interest The next challenge! Memorise one of your 2 pyramid sentences and say it to your partner or a teacherIdea 1717Rachel Hawkes
60 La pyramide je Je déteste Je déteste faire avec = withet = andmais = butparce que = becauseLa pyramidejesujet (je, tu..)Je déteste+ opinion+ verbe (infinitif)Je déteste faireJe déteste faire de la danse+ sportPyramid – instructions for teachers A challenge!Using your pyramid sheet write as long a sentence as you can! Remember that you can link 2 ‘pyramid’ sentences with an ‘et’ or ‘mais’ to extend the length & interest The next challenge! Memorise one of your 2 pyramid sentences and say it to your partner or a teacherJe déteste faire de la danse au collège+ extraJe déteste faire de la danse au collège parce que c’est moche!+ extra
62 Findet eine Person, die…………. 1. nicht gern Sport treibtschon in Frankreich wargern ins Kino geht4. mehr als ein Haustier hatI think it’s a sign that classes are getting confident with asking questions when they can do one of these without asking if they can write down the questions and check them with you first. When you introduce the class to this type of activity first in Y7/8 then this might be a necessary step, but by KS4 (if they have had lots of practice with it) they should be able to do this activity spontaneously, either in a speaking line set up/a speed-dating arrangement or just walking around in the classroom.
63 Encuentra a la persona en la clase que….. tiene su cumpleaños en juniotiene más de una hermanatiene un color favoritono tiene animales en casaI think it’s a sign that classes are getting confident with asking questions when they can do one of these without asking if they can write down the questions and check them with you first. When you introduce the class to this type of activity first in Y7/8 then this might be a necessary step, but by KS4 (if they have had lots of practice with it) they should be able to do this activity spontaneously, either in a speaking line set up/a speed-dating arrangement or just walking around in the classroom.
64 Encuentra a la persona en la clase que….. fue al cine el sábadotiene una canción de Lady Gaga en su colecciónquiere estudiar matemáticas para el bachillerato
65 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) QuestioningWhat are the questions?Idea 1919Rachel Hawkes
66 Quelles sont les questions? 2. La capitale de la Tunisie, c’est Tunis.1. Il fait beau.4. Je vais en Espagne pour aller à la plage.3. S’il fait du soleil, je fais du cyclisme.5. Oui, bien sûr. Et toi?6. Hier je suis resté à la maison.8. Je vais visiter le château7. On peut faire du ski9. Peut-être
67 Was sind die Fragen? 9.Vielleicht 2. Die Hauptstadt von Österreich ist Wien.1. Es donnert und blitzt.4. Ich fahre nach Schottland, um Nessie zu sehen.3. Wenn es heiß ist, esse ich Eis.5. Ja, sicher. Und du?6. Gestern bin ich zu Hause geblieben.8. Ich werde die Burg besichtigenPupils have just learnt um..zu… and wenn clauses in the context of learning about Austria. This exercise also revises all tenses and modals as well as question-forming.7. Man kann Skifahren9.Vielleicht
68 ¿Cuáles son las preguntas? 1. Mi instituto es un colegio mixto con mil quinientos alumnos.9. Si, por supesto. ¿Y tú?2. La asignatura que más me gusta es la música.8. Tengo pensado hacer mi bachillerato. Quisiera estudiar ciencias.3. Es muy amable y abierto y explica todo muy bien7. Hice dos semanas de prácticas laborales en un taller mecánico.4. Soy socio del club de baloncesto.6. Mi escuela primaria era muy pequeña y no teníamos que llevar uniforme.5.Quizás
69 Speaking lines/speed dating Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation)QuestioningSpeaking lines/speed datingIdea 2020Rachel Hawkes
70 Ligne de bavardage Rachel Hawkes These would be cut up into individual cards for a short speaking line activity. Learners ask and answer the questions and then move on to the next person. Finally they can answer also for themselves.Rachel Hawkes
71 Y7 Speaking: Peer Assessment Sheet You are going to assess the speaking of others in your class today. You are going to assess at least 3 different students in your class in a speaking line. Ask your partner all of the 7 questions listed below and then s/he will ask you 3 questions. For each answer or question give him/her either 2,1 or 0. At least 3 students will also assess your speaking.Questions1¿Cómo te llamas?2¿Cómo estás ¿Qué tal?3¿Cómo se escribe?4¿De dónde eres?5¿Cuál es tu nacionalidad?6¿Qué idiomas hablas?7¿Dónde vives?
72 Marksheme. Give 2, 1 or 0 for each answer 1 NameMarksheme. Give 2, 1 or 0 for each answer12 = full sentence answer (or question), ready response, not much hesitation, significant effort to sound Spanish 1 = answer that does communicate BUT might not be complete sentence, some attempt to sound Spanish0 = cannot answer OR does not recognise the question so gives a different answer234567?Total/20
73 1. ¿Qué asignaturas estudias? ¿Cuál es tu favorita? Education1. ¿Qué asignaturas estudias? ¿Cuál es tu favorita?2. Describe a tu profesor ideal.3. ¿Cuánto tiempo pasas estudiando al día?4. Describe un día escolar.5. ¿Tienes responsabilidades en el instituto?6. ¿Te parece bueno tu instituto?7. Cuando termines el instituto, ¿qué estudiarás? ¿Dónde? ¿Por qué?8. ¿Qué quieres ser de mayor?9. ¿Qué has hecho como experiencia laboral?10. En tu opinión, ¿cuáles son las diferencias entre tu instituto y tu escuela primaria?One idea I saw working well this week in a colleague’s Y11 lesson was for half the students to have their books, at the first page of their most recent topic. They were allowed to go through all of their previous work, picking out questions they found to ask their speaking line partner. After 3 or 4 changeovers of partner, they were remembering the questions without having to look in their books, and this happened naturally, as a result of the repetition. It was good for those answering too as the order of questions was fairly randomised.I’ve put a whole range of discussion questions on this slide that would fit broadly into the theme of school and education – it might not be appropriate to have them all at once but it should be possible to build up to these, taking perhaps 3 per lesson to practise in a speaking line/speed-dating activity.
75 Hotseating is for me one of the best ways to exploit some of the reading texts in any KS4 textbook. Here is one example of such a text from the School & Education theme. The idea is that the text, rather than being useful as reading comprehension – it is too straightforward for that really! – does provide some very useful language to be ‘harvested’ by students to help structure their own spoken responses. In this way it provides both the stimulus material for the class to generate questions and for one member of the class (or the group, if you can set this up as a group activity) to be ‘hotseated’ to answer the questions as if s/he were Julio. This particular text lends itself to 5 different ‘hotseats’ so that the role of answerer can be rotated around the group. The rest of the group have to generate questions on the content of the text. The idea is that the answers should ‘use up’ all of the information provided by the text.
77 tiene la foto en el centro? ¿Dónde?¿Qué?¿Cómo?¿Está..?¿Tiene..?¿Es..?¿Hay..?grande?turístico?tiene la foto en el centro?un sitio tranquilo?están las personas?en España?es la foto?una playa?hay abajo?un parque?hay arriba en la foto?bonito?edificios (modernos)?está?industrial?animales en la foto?histórico?mucho tráfico?árboles?mucha gente?This lesson aims to enable learners to practise asking questions about photos. They start off with this slide and try to make as many questions as possible to ask you about the photo on slide 4. (They haven’t seen the photo yet).
78 Show them the photo and they ask you questions Show them the photo and they ask you questions. Point to things as you describe the photo in response to their questions. They are bound to ask where the photo is. It is in Costa Rica. There is a map on the following slide for you to explain in the TL where Costa Rica is – remember they know the compass points and you can use the word ‘entre’ to show them. Keep this lively and interesting and in the TL – research has proven that students learn best when exposed to ‘rich TL input’ i.e. lots of TL that they can access because it is at the right level and there is support to aid comprehension.
79 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) Spend the wordsIdea 2323Rachel Hawkes
80 el próximo fin de semana ayertambiénen mi opinióncreo quees más …queel sábadoel próximo fin de semanaasí quefuituve queseríame parecelo mejorcomprépudeel domingopor ejemplolo peortengoqueríaprefierovoy a irno me gustaen el futurome gustaríaThese words/phrases are on cards and they are divided up equally between the pair or small group. Then a topic is given and the students have to try to ‘spend’ their cards naturally in conversation on the given topic.
81 hier aussi à mon avis je pense que …est plus…que le samedi le weekend prochainainsije suis allé(e)J’ai duseraitIl me semble quele mieuxj’ai achetéJ’ai pule dimanchePpr exemplele pireJ’aije voulaisJe préfèreje vais allerje n’aime pasdans le futurje voudraisThese words/phrases are on cards and they are divided up equally between the pair or small group. Then a topic is given and the students have to try to ‘spend’ their cards naturally in conversation on the given topic.
82 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) Tell the storyIdea 2424Rachel Hawkes
83 especial Escocia tenis lotería Nueva York queso perro paciente ¡Conectar al azar!especialEscociatenisloteríaNueva YorkquesoperropacienteChoose a selection of words that students have to put into a 50 word max story.
84 Students have to narrate the story shown in the pictures.
85 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) Just a minute! (groups)Idea 2525Rachel Hawkes
86 12345678910111213141516171920A Keep Talking for 1 minute game. Can do this in groups but direct from the front. Click on ? To roll the dice. A player from each group then has to talk for 1 minute on that theme. 1 member of each group has a stop watch to time and others listen to make sure they keep talking. In this way, all engaged simultaneously.
87 1 2 3 4 5 6 Las vacaciones Mi tiempo libre Mi música preferida Los deportesEl institutoMi familia y mis amigosAlthough this could work as a whole class activity, this version where talking for one minute is the aim I think it works best in groups (up to 6 in one group). Each person chooses a category, tries to talk for one minute (one of group has stop watch) and they can colour in the coloured segment if they manage it. If the teacher chooses to display this on data project, each segment is triggered so if you click on it it turns the colour as indicated on the key in top left of the slide.456
88 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) The oscarsIdea 2626Rachel Hawkes
94 English French Spanish What’s up?Qu’est-ce qu’il se passe?¿Qué pasa?Something’s missing!Quelque chose me manque!¡Algo falta!I have an idea!J’ai une idée!¡Yo tengo una idea!There you go!Et voilà!¡Aquí tienes!Thank youMerci!¡Gracias!You’re welcomeDe rien!¡De nada!Oh no! You idiot!Ah non! Imbécile!!Ay no! ¡Qué tonto eres!Look – it’s in there!Regarde – c’est là-dedans!¡Mira – está dentro!Uh oh!Ah non!¡Ay no!
97 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) Group talkIdea 2828Rachel Hawkes
98 X X X Ich denke... Es ist toll! ¡Es ist schrecklich! Ich mag das (nicht)!Wie findest du das?Ja, das stimmt! ¡Nein, das stimmt nicht!Ich auch! Ich nicht!XXXYear 7 Talking frameDu bist verrückt!Ich denke...Greg Horton98
99 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) Fill the silenceIdea 2929Rachel Hawkes
100 A ver... Pues... Bueno.. Para mí.. En mi opinión... Entonces.. Por ejemplo...O sea...Es decir...
101 Role play: Once more with feeling! Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation)Role play: Once more with feeling!Idea 3030Rachel Hawkes
102 Charakter 1 doof lacht viel jünger als die anderen Personen Charakter 2 selbstbewusst spricht sehr lautCharakter 3 schüchtern spricht sehr leiseCharakter 4 sehr energisch bewegt sich vielCharakter 6 sehr schlechter Laune hört sich launisch an stampft mit dem FußCharakter 7 enthusiastisch lächelt und klatscht in die HändeCharakter 8 nachdenklich kratzt sich am Kopf starrt vor sich hinCharakter 5 kommandiert gern unterbricht ständig
103 Increasing interactivity (spontaneity, sustaining the flow, filling pauses, intonation) Random questions!Idea 3131Rachel Hawkes
105 NVQ Level 2Could also be adapted to:GCSE CA task
106 Rewarding spontaneity RewardsGiving rewards to students who use as much target language as possible during the lesson (and outside it too) is an excellent way to value the skill of unplanned/spontaneous speaking. Having one student be the ‘secretario’ and record against a class register (with a tick) who has contributed in this way raises the profile of the activity and takes the burden of remembering who has contributed away from the teacher!Idea 3333
108 Year 8 End of Unit project Prepare the text for your PowerPoint presentation on your family. You will need 5 slides only (but you can add additional slides if you wish) and you may add in photos or drawings at home. In this lesson, you will be planning and writing the text. Include the following information:Year 8 End of Unit projecta description of yourselfhow many people in your family and who they are and a bit about them.a detailed description of one family member (sibling) and a comparison of yourself with that persona description of the hobbies and interests you and your family havea description of your plans for next weekend
109 see p.5 vocabulary book e.g. nicer than, funnier than, bigger than.. Use verb forms other than ‘I’ and choose some ‘radical’ verbs and other irregulars – e.g. ser/tener/jugar/hacer/pensarPresent (reg & irreg)5Future2PreteriteImperfectVerb & infinitivelinks3opinionsreasonsadjectivesquestionsnegativescomp./sup.spelling errorsSay a little about your plans for next weekend and what the rest of your family will be doing too.You use this when you like you like doing something – i.e. me gusta bailar.Links are ways to join sentences or halves of sentences together – e.g. y, también, pero, sin embargo, después, luegoporque = because!As well as ‘me gusta’ etc.. Why not also include pienso que, creo que, a mi parecer, me parece que, en mi opiniónp.2 – 4 vocabulary booksee p.5 vocabulary book e.g. nicer than, funnier than, bigger than..
110 How to use the tick grid With text book listening tasks presentpresent (other persons)past (preterit)past (imperfect)past (perfect)futureconditionalsubjunctiveverb & infinitivelinksopinionsreasonsnegativescomp./sup.idiomssubordinationvocabulary +pronunciationHow to use the tick gridWith text book listening tasksWith written textWhen peer assessingWhen completing speaking preparation for GCSE tasksWhen listening to exam board sample materialWhen assessing model answer provided by the teacher
112 Opinion Present Future Reason Past Reference to others Time expression ComparisonComplexityPastReference to othersGiven a specific topic to talk about (or a set of questions if appropriate), students have to try to include each thing from the Bingo grid. When they do, they cross off the box and in their pairs, it’s the first person to cross everything off who wins (full house).Rachel Hawkes
113 Developing quality (Assessing, improving, enhancing, modelling) Idea 3636Rachel Hawkes
114 Prácticas laborales escuela horas de trabajo primer día no ganaba ayudar a jugaba más me gustó buena experiencia trabajo a tiempo parcial futuro bachillerato gente al extranjero no tengo ganas..1. Students can generate possible questions to ask (if this is the prompt sheet) 2. They can answer the questions as if this was them 3. They can prepare a prompt sheet for a different topicRachel Hawkes
115 Thank you !ext.222More useful links: TES collections: Linked up project resources:; My YouTube channel: My delicious weblinks:Rachel Hawkes