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© Boardworks Ltd 2003 Grammar 3 The preterite tense The imperfect tense Using the imperfect and preterite together The imperfect continuous.

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Presentación del tema: "© Boardworks Ltd 2003 Grammar 3 The preterite tense The imperfect tense Using the imperfect and preterite together The imperfect continuous."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Grammar 3 The preterite tense The imperfect tense Using the imperfect and preterite together The imperfect continuous

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The preterite tense 1 The PRETERITE tense is used to talk about completed actions in the past. It is used: 1. in telling stories and for non descriptive events. 2. to recount a list or series of completed actions in the past. 3. to describe actions in the past which happened only once. 4. to describe actions that went on but finished in the past. It is the most useful and used of the past tenses but also has the most irregularities! It is recognised by the English I did something. Examples: Llamé por teléfono a las nueve. I rang at nine. Me levanté temprano. I got up early. Viví cinco años en Madrid.I lived in Madrid for five years.

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 There are two sets of regular endings to learn: 1. -AR 2. -ER/ -IR As with other tenses you have to: 1. take the infinitive 2. take off the infinitive ending 3. add the endings for the tense. -AR endings -é -aste -ó -amos -asteis -aron -ER / -IR endings -í -iste -ió -imos -isteis -ieron Notice the we ending in –AR and –IR verbs is the same as in the present Tense. The preterite tense 2

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 hablar = to speak / talk habl Regular -AR verbs. é aste ó amos asteis aron The preterite tense 3 I spoke, I did speak. You spoke, you did speak. He /she/ it spoke, did speak. We spoke, we did speak. You spoke, you did speak. They spoke, they did speak.

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Choose 3 of the verbs below and write them out in full: aceptar = to accept cantar = to sing llorar = to cry amar = to love charlar = to chat mirar = to look at arreglar = to fix dibujar = to draw pagar = to pay ayudar = to help entrar = to go in pescar = to fish bajar = to go down ganar = to win saltar = to jump bailar = to dance lavar = to wash tocar = to touch llenar = to fill viajar = to travel Put the verb in brackets into the correct part of the preterite. 1. Yo (ayudar) ________ en casa. 2. Las chicas (bailar) ________ en la discoteca. 3. Nosotros (cantar) ________ en la clase de música. 4. Vosotras (entrar) ________ en el cine para ver la película. 5. Tú (ganar) ________ un premio en la lotería, ¿verdad? 6. Mi padre siempre (pescar) ________ en el río. 7 Ana (viajar) ________ a los Estados Unidos el año pasado. 8. Yo (llenar) ________ una cesta con manzanas. 9. Mi hijo (dibujar) ________ muy bien en su examen de arte. 1.Yo (ayudar) ayudé en casa. 2.Las chicas (bailar) bailaron en la discoteca. 3.Nosotros (cantar) cantamos en la clase de música. 4.Vosotras (entrar) entrasteis en el cine para ver la película. 5.Tú (ganar) ganaste un premio en la lotería, ¿verdad? 6.Mi padre siempre (pescar) pescó en el río. 7.Ana (viajar) viajó a los Estados Unidos el año pasado. 8.Yo (llenar) llené una cesta con manzanas. 9.Mi hijo (dibujar) dibujó muy bien en su examen de arte. The preterite tense 4 Regular -AR verbs.

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 comer = to eat com í iste ió imos isteis ieron Regular -ER verbs. The preterite tense 5 I ate, I did eat. You ate, you did eat. He / she / it ate, did eat. We ate, we did eat. You ate, you did eat. They ate, they did eat.

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Practise saying or writing out these other verbs. beber = to drink leer= to read correr = to run meter = to put coser = to sew vender= to sell deber = to owe ver= to see Put the verb in brackets into the correct part of the preterite. 1. Mis amigos (beber) ________ café con leche toda la noche. 2. Mi tía (coser) ________ muchos vestidos. 3. Yo (correr) ________ para coger el autobús. 4. Los chicos (meter) ________ la ropa en el armario. 5. Tú (leer) ________ el reportaje en el periódico. 6. Los supermercados (vender) ________ de todo. 7. Luis me (deber) ________ mucho dinero. 8. Los alumnos (ver) ________ un programa muy bueno. 1. Mis amigos (beber) bebieron café con leche toda la noche. 2. Mi tía (coser) cosió muchos vestidos. 3.Yo (correr) corrí para coger el autobús. 4. Los chicos (meter) metieron la ropa en el armario. 5. Tú (leer) leiste el reportaje en el periódico. 6. Los supermercados (vender) vendieron de todo. 7. Luis me (deber) debió mucho dinero. 8. Los alumnos (ver) vieron un programa muy bueno. The preterite tense 6 Regular -ER verbs.

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 ABRIR= to open abr í iste ió imos isteis ieron Regular -IR verbs. The preterite tense 7 I opened, I did open. You opened, you did open. He / she / it opened, did open. We opened, we did open. You opened, you did open. They opened, they did open.

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Practise saying or writing out these other verbs. Like ABRIR batir = to beat escribir = to write cubrir = to cover permitir = to allow recibir = to receive Put the verb in brackets into the correct part of the preterite. 1. Mi madre (batir) ________ los huevos para hacer una tortilla. 2. Los obreros (cubrir) ________ los agujeros en la carreterra. 3. Yo (recibir) ________ muchos regalos el día de mi cumpleaños. 4. Elena (escribir) ________ a sus amigas de la universidad. 5. El guardia me (permitir) ________ pasar. 1. Mi madre (batir) batió los huevos para hacer una tortilla. 2. Los obreros (cubrir) cubrieron los agujeros en la carreterra. 3. Yo (recibir) recibí muchos regalos el día de mi cumpleaños. 4. Elena (escribir) escribió a sus amigas de la universidad. 5. El guardia me (permitir) permitió pasar. The preterite tense 8 Regular -IR verbs.

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The first group of irregular verbs are only slightly irregular as they show spelling changes in the first person singular only. There are three types: 1. Verbs which end in –GAR change to GUÉ 2. Verbs which end in –CAR change to QUÉ 3. Verbs which end in –ZAR change to CÉ jugar = to play juguéI played jugaste you played jugó he she it played jugamos we played jugasteis you played jugaron they played explicar = to explain expliqué I explained explicaste you explained explicó he she it explained explicamos we explained explicasteis you explained explicaron they explained cruzar = to cross crucé I crossed cruzaste you crossed cruzó he / she it crossed cruzamos we crossed cruzasteis you crossed cruzaron they crossed The preterite tense 9 Irregular verbs.

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 apagar = to put out acercarse = to approach cazar = to hunt cargar = to load atacar = to attack empezar = to begin descargar = to unload buscar = to look for organizar = to organizeentregar = to hand over secar = to dry rezar = to pray llegar = to arrive pescar = to fish utilizar = to usenavegar = to sail chocar contra = to crash intopagar = to pay sacar = to take outregar= to water marcar = to score a goal, dial a number The preterite tense 10 Irregular verbs. The following verbs work in the same way. Can you write out three of them in full?

12 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Some spelling changes occur in the 3 rd person of a limited number of verbs which do not have a spelling change in any other person. Verb 1 st person3 rd person3 rd person singular singular plural caer = to fall caí cayó cayeron creer = to believe creí creyó creyeron leer = to read leí leyó leyeron oír = to hear oí oyó oyeron destruir = destruí destruyó destruyeron to destroy construir = construí construyó construyeron to build The preterite tense 11 Irregular verbs.

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Spelling change verbs. Unlike the present tense in which the spelling change verbs change in four persons, in the preterite tense the changes only affect two of the three types and occur in the 3 rd person only. 1. o > ue verbs The most common verbs affected here are dormir(se) and morir(se). DORMIR(SE) durmiódurmierondormí Pedro durmió bien en su tienda. Se durmió en seguida. Pedro slept well in his tent. He went to sleep at once. El soldado casí murió de risa. Al día siguiente se murió en la batalla. The soldier nearly died of laughter. The next day he died in the battle. MORIR(SE) morímuriómurieron The preterite tense 12

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The second spelling change group involves -IR verbs. PEDIR pedípidió pidieron En el restaurante Paco pidió tortilla de jamón. Paco asked for ham omelette in the restaurant. Mis amigos pidieron una paella enorme. My friends ordered an enormous paella. The preterite tense e > i verbs

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 What would the third person singular and plural be for each of the verbs below? despedirse de = to say goodbye to divertirse = to enjoy oneself hervir = to boil pedir = to ask for preferir = to prefer rendirse = to surrender repetir = to repeat seguir = to follow sentir = to feel, to be sorry servir = to serve vestirse = to get dressed se despidió se despidieron se divirtió se divirtieron hirvió hirvieron pidió pidieron prefirió prefirieron rindió rindieron repitió repitieron siguió siguieron sintió sintieron sirvió sirvieron se vistió se vistieron The preterite tense 14

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The last group of irregular verbs in the preterite tense is easy once you have learnt the first person singular! PONER = to put puse pusiste puso pusimos pusisteis pusieron There are no accents on these verbs. Just learn the first person and then put the endings on the new stem. The endings are almost the same as for regular –er and –ir verbs. Can you spot the differences? The preterite tense 15 I put You put He / she / it put We put You put They put

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Verbs which follow the same pattern as poner: Verb stem 1 st person andar - to walk anduv anduve estar - to be estuv estuve obtener - to obtain obtuv obtuve tener - to have tuv tuve hacer - to do hic hice poder - to be able pud pude saber - to know sup supe suponer - to suppose supus supuse venir - to come vin vine querer - to love/want quis quise conducir - to drive conduj conduje traer - to bring traj traje producir - to produce produj produje decir - to say dij dije Endings -e -iste -o -imos -isteis -ieron Note: hacer has a different stem in the 3 rd person singular - hizo The preterite tense 16

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 hacer = to do / make hice I did / I made hiciste You did / you made hizo He / she / it did / made hicimos We did / we made hicisteis You did / you made hicieron They did / they made estar = to be estuve I was estuviste You were estuvo He / she / it was estuvimos We were estuvisteis You were estuvieron They were ser = to be + ir = to go I was fui I went You were fuiste You went He / she / it was fue He / she / it went We were fuimos We went You were fuisteis You went They were fueron They went Notice ser and ir have the same parts The preterite tense 17 Some very important verbs!

19 © Boardworks Ltd Yesterday I went to the cinema. 2.It was a fantastic film. 3.Before I went I did my homework. 4.He was a great soldier and a wonderful father. 5.My grandfather went to Australia in They went to the hairdressers. 7.The boys made their beds for the first time! 8.The bank was in the middle of the town, then they moved it. 9.I went to the match and my friend was there. 10.It was a great day and the weather was very good. estar, ir, hacer and ser The preterite tense 18 Practise using the preterite of estar, ir, hacer and ser by writing out these sentences in Spanish.

20 © Boardworks Ltd Ayer fui al cine. 2.Fue una película fenomenal. 3.Antes de ir hice los deberes. 4.Fue un gran soldado y un padre maravilloso. 5.Mi abuelo se fue a Australia en mil novecientos sesenta. 6.Fueron a la peluquería. 7.¡Por primera vez los chicos hicieron sus camas! 8.El banco estuvo en el centro de la ciudad, luego lo movieron. 9.Fui al partido y mi amigo estuvo allí. 10.Fue un día fantástico e hizo muy buen tiempo. The preterite tense 19 estar, ir, hacer and ser

21 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Por la mañana me levanto temprano, a las 6:00 para abrir la cafetería, para recibir los repartos, para limpiar la cocina y preparar el desayuno para los clientes que vienen de las oficinas de al lado. Las dos camareras preparan las mesas y se preparan a recibir a la gente. Servimos el desayuno y los platos combinados todo el día y la gente viene en grupos. A veces no hay muchos clientes en la cafetería pero cuando la gente quiere comer o tomar un café parece que todos llegan al mismo tiempo. Por la tarde cuando hay menos gente, yo como pero no es una gran comida porque siempre hay clientes a servir y no hay mucho tiempo libre, aun con dos camareras, mi esposa y los que friegan los platos. Por la tarde siempre vienen muchos clientes y turistas a comer y a tomar copas. A veces tengo que ayudar en la cocina o servir a los clientes. En invierno me puedo ir a la cama a las 23:00 horas, pero en verano me voy a la cama a las dos de la madrugada. Es duro pero me gusta el trabajo y me recompensa. Por la mañana me levanté temprano, a las 6:00, para abrir la cafetería, para recibir los repartos, para limpiar la cocina y preparar el desayuno para los clientes que vinieron de las oficinas de al lado. Las dos camareras prepararon las mesas y se prepararon a recibir a la gente. Servimos el desayuno y los platos combinados todo el día y la gente vino en grupos. A veces no hubo muchos clientes en la cafetería pero cuando la gente quiso comer o tomar un café pareció que todos llegaron al mismo tiempo. Por la tarde cuando hubo menos gente, yo comí pero no fue una gran comida porque siempre hubo clientes a servir y no hubo mucho tiempo libre, aun con dos camareras, mi esposa y los que fregaron los platos. Por la tarde siempre vinieron muchos clientes y turistas a comer y tomar copas. A veces tuve que ayudar en la cocina o servir a los clientes. En invierno me pude ir a la cama a las 23:00 horas, pero en verano me fui a la cama a las dos de la madrugada. Fue duro pero me gusta el trabajo y me recompensó. ¿Puedes describir un día típico de tu vida? Los verbos que tienes que cambiar aparecen en rojo. menu The preterite tense 20

22 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The imperfect tense is used to talk about the past. Whereas the preterite describes a single completed action in the past, the imperfect tense... describes something that happened frequently or regularly in the past. is used for descriptions in the past, such as describing what the weather was like or giving your opinion of something you did. tells us what something used to be like. describes something that went on for a long period of time. The imperfect tense 1

23 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 This tense is used in four different ways: 1. To describe actions, people or things in the past. 2. To describe an action that started in the past and was going on or continued in the past. 3.To describe actions that used to be done frequently in the past. 4. To describe thing(s) which were going on in the past before another event started. The imperfect tense translates any of the following English clue words or phrases: I was eating. We were talking. I used to eat. She was an interesting teacher. The imperfect tense 2

24 © Boardworks Ltd General descriptions in the past. Example: La casa era enorme. The house was enormous. Describing what the weather was like. Example : Ayer, hacía sol. Yesterday it was sunny. Giving your opinion of something you did. Example: Comí pollo, era muy rico. I ate chicken, it was delicious. Main uses of the imperfect. The imperfect tense 3

25 © Boardworks Ltd Saying what something used to be or would be like. Examples: Cuando era joven, comía muchos caramelos. When I was young, I used to eat lots of sweets. Cuando visitábamos a nuestros parientes nos daban regalos y revistas. When we used to visit our relatives they would give us presents and magazines. Both of these examples describe things and events that were repeated in the past. The imperfect tense 4

26 © Boardworks Ltd Describing something that happened frequently or regularly in the past. Examples: Cuando tenía 10 diez años, hacía natación dos veces por semana. When I was 10 years old, I went swimming twice a week. Durante mis vacaciones del verano pasado me levantaba temprano, desayunaba e iba a la playa. During my holidays last summer I used to get up early, have breakfast and go to the beach. The imperfect tense 5

27 © Boardworks Ltd Describing something that went on for a long period of time. Examples: Cuando era joven, vivía en el campo y teníamos dos gatos. When I was young, I lived in the country and we had two cats. Cuando íbamos al campo podía nadar en el río y dar un paseo. When we went to the country I could swim in the river and go for a walk. The imperfect tense 6

28 © Boardworks Ltd Was…doing and were…doing If you want to translate was or were doing something, you must use the imperfect tense. These are the clue phrases that help you identify the tense and mean you must use the imperfect tense. Examples: Hacía los deberes cuando mi madre regresó a la casa. I was doing my homework when my mother came home. Jugábamos al fútbol cuando empezó a llover. We were playing football when it started to rain. The imperfect tense 7

29 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Regular verbs. The imperfect tense is quite easy to form and has very few irregular parts. There are only two sets of endings to learn and only three irregular verbs. Formation of the imperfect tense Take the following steps: 1. Take the infinitive of the verb you wish to use. 2. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR. 3. Add the endings. -AR endings: -aba -abas -aba -ábamos -abais -aban. -ER / IR endings -ía -ías -ía -íamos -íais -ían. The imperfect tense 8

30 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 All regular -AR verbs are formed in the following way: HABLAR= to speak / talk habl aba abas aba abais ábamos aban The imperfect tense 9 I talked, I was talking, I used to talk. You talked, you were talking, you used to talk. He / she / it talked, was talking, used to talk. We talked, we were talking, we used to talk. You talked, you were talking, you used to talk. They talked, they were talking, they used to talk

31 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 All regular -ER and -IR verbs are formed in the following way. COMER = to eat com ía ías ía íamos ían íais The imperfect tense 10 I ate, I was eating, I used to eat. You ate, you were eating, you used to eat. He / she / it ate, was eating, used to eat. We ate, we were eating, we used to eat. You ate, you were eating, you used to eat. They ate, they were eating, they used to eat.

32 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 ía ías ía íamos íais ían abr ABRIR= to open The imperfect tense 11 I opened, was opening, I used to open. You opened, were opening, you used to open. He / she/ it / opened, was opening, used to open. We opened, we were opening, we used to open. You opened, you were opening, you used to open. They opened, they were opening, they used to open.

33 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The good news about the imperfect tense is that all of the verbs except three are regular. The three irregular verbs are SER, IR and VER. VER = to see veía I saw, used to see. veías you saw, used to see. veía he / she / it saw, used to see. veíamos we saw, used to see. veíais you saw, used to see. veían they saw, used to see. leer = to read also does this. leía I read, used to read The imperfect tense 12 SER = to be era I was, used to be. eras you were, used to be. era he / she / it was, used to be. éramos we were, used to be. erais you were, used to be. eran they were, used to be. IR = to go iba I went, used to go. ibas you went, used to go. iba he / she / it went, used to go. íbamos we went, used to go. ibais you went, used to go. iban they went, used to go.

34 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 To summarise: The imperfect tense is used for descriptions in the past and the meaning of the imperfect tense can change according to context and use. (Yo) Iba a Madrid. Could mean: 1.I went to Madrid. Repeated action. 2.I was going to Madrid. Action begun in past and probably going to be interrupted by another event. 3.I used to go to Madrid. Frequent action 4.I would go to Madrid. Frequent action The imperfect tense 13

35 © Boardworks Ltd Yo (ir) ___a menudo al centro de la ciudad. 2 Tú no (levantarse) ___________ nunca antes de las doce. 3 Ana (telefonear) __________ a su madre cada día. 4Yo (comer) _____ cuando el teléfono sonó. 5Nosotros (jugar) _________ al fútbol en el parque. 6Vosotras (comer) _______ ensalada con todas las comidas. 7Ella (bañarse) _________ cuando alguien llamó a la puerta. 8El niño siempre (abrir) ____ la nevera. 9Roberto nunca (escoger) ______ el mismo libro que María. 10Yo (leer) ___ el mapa mientras mi padre (conducir)________. 11 (Empezar) _________ a nevar cuando nos pusimos en camino. 12 Nosotros siempre (llegar) _________ temprano. Change the verb in brackets to the imperfect tense. The imperfect tense 14 iba te levantabas telefoneaba comía jugábamos comíais se bañaba abría escogía leíaconducía Empezaba llegábamos menu

36 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Using the imperfect and preterite together These two past tenses are often used together especially for stories or narratives in the past. Look at these examples and try to use the tenses in a similar way. Examples: Cuando miré por la ventana llovía. When I looked out of the window it was raining. Leía cuando el teléfono sonó. I was reading when the telephone rang. In each of these sentences: (1)the verb in the preterite describes a single, completed action. (2) the verb in the imperfect describes an action which was already going on and which was interrupted by another action. menu

37 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The same kind of verb construction can be used with the imperfect tense to describe continuous actions in the past. This time the English phrase you are describing is: - was doing something. Example: I was eating. Estaba comiendo To form the imperfect continuous in Spanish you need two parts: (1) The imperfect tense of the verb to be ESTAR. (2) The present participle of the verb you are emphasising. Notice that you still use the present participle. The imperfect continuous 1

38 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 I was eating You were eating We were eating You were eating They were eating He / she / it was eating Estaba comiendo Estabas comiendo Estaba comiendo How to form the imperfect continuous tense. comer = to eat Estábamos comiendo Estabais comiendo Estaban comiendo Now practise saying and writing out these verbs: ABRIR HABLAR The imperfect continuous 2

39 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 ¿Sabes cambiar estos verbos del presente al imperfecto progresivo? 1.Juan y Ana beben café con leche en la cafetería. 2.Anita pone la mesa para ayudar a su madre. 3.Hoy llueve a cántaros, no acaba. 4.Nosotros leemos revistas en la clase de ciencias. 5.Los camareros sirven a muchos clientes hoy. 6.El gato duerme en el jardín. 7.Los niños juegan al fútbol en el parque. 8.María se viste en su dormitorio. 9.Mi madre ve su telenovela preferida en la tele. 10.Yo aprendo el español en el instituto. 11.Vosotras cantáis en el coro. 12.El cliente pide la cuenta. 1.Juan y Ana estaban bebiendo café con leche en la cafetería. 2.Anita estaba poniendo la mesa para ayudar a su madre. 3.Hoy estaba lloviendo a cántaros, no acaba. 4.Nosotros estábamos leyendo revistas en la clase de ciencias. 5.Los camareros estaban sirviendo a muchos clientes hoy. 6.El gato estaba durmiendo en el jardín. 7.Los niños estaban jugando al fútbol en el parque. 8.María estaba vistiéndose en su dormitorio. 9.Mi madre estaba viendo su telenovela preferida en la tele. 10.Yo estaba aprendiendo el español en el instituto. 11.Vosotras estabais cantando en el coro. 12.El cliente estaba pidiendo la cuenta. menu The imperfect continuous 3


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