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VERBAL TENSES IN ENGLISH. PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I work You work He works She works It works We work You work They work FORMA.

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Presentación del tema: "VERBAL TENSES IN ENGLISH. PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I work You work He works She works It works We work You work They work FORMA."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 VERBAL TENSES IN ENGLISH

2 PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I work You work He works She works It works We work You work They work FORMA NEGATIVA I do not (dont) work You do not (dont) work He does not (doesnt) work She does not (doesnt) work It does not (doesnt) work We dont work You dont work They dont work

3 PRESENT SIMPLE. SPELLING RULES Verbos acabados en -y. 1- -y precedida de consonante: carry carries 2- -y precedida de vocal: stay stays Verbos acabados en -o. Go goes Verbos acabados en -s, -ss, -sh, ch, -z, -x. pass passes wash washes teach teaches relax relaxes Al verbo se le añade una sílaba, que suena /iz/

4 PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA Do I work ? Do you work ? Does he work ? Does she work ? Does it work ? Do we work ? Do you work ? Do they work ? RESPUESTAS BREVES Yes, I do / No, I dont Yes, you do / No, you dont Yes, he does / No, he doesnt Yes, she does / No, she doesnt Yes, it does / No, it doesnt Yes, we do / No, we dont Yes, you do / No, you dont Yes, they do / No, they dont

5 ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA ALWAYS: siempre ALMOST ALWAYS: casi siempre OFTEN: a menudo USUALLY: usualmente SOMETIMES: a veces HARDLY EVER: casi nunca NEVER: nunca ALWAYS ALMOST ALWAYS OFTEN USUALLY SOMETIMES HARDLY EVER NEVER Los adverbios de frecuencia de colocan delante del verbo

6 EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES Every day, week, month..: todos los días, semanas, meses.. At the weekend: el fin de semana Once a week: una vez a la semana Twice a week: dos veces a la semana On Sundays...: los domingos.. Estas expresiones adverbiales se colocan al principio o al final de la frase

7 PRESENT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I am (Im) work ing : yo estoy trabajando You are (youre) work ing : tú estás trabajando He is (hes) work ing : él está trabajando She is ( shes) work ing : ella está trabajando It is (its) work ing : está trabajando We are (were) working: estamos trabajando You are ( youre) work ing : estáis trabajando They are (theyre) work ing : están trabajando. FORMA NEGATIVA I am (Im not ) work ing : yo no estoy trabajando You are not ( you arent ) work ing : tú no estás trabajando He is not (isnt) work ing : él no está trabajando She is not (isnt) work ing : ella no está trabajando It is not (isnt) work ing : no está trabajando We are not (we arent) work ing : no estamos trabajando You are not (you arent) work ing : vosotros no estáis trabajando They are not (they arent) work ing : no están trabajando.

8 PRESENT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA Am I work ing ? Are you work ing ? Is he work ing ? Is she work ing ? Is it work ing ? Are we work ing ? Are you work ing ? Are they work ing ? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I am / No Im not Yes you are / No, you arent Yes, he is / No, he isnt Yes, she is / No, she isnt Yes, it is / No, it isnt Yes, we are / No we arent Yes, you are / No you arent Yes, they are / No they arent

9 PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR PROGRESSIVE. SPELLING RULES Verbos acabados en -e muda ( no se pronuncia). Write Writing Agree Agreeing ( La -e se mantiene porque suena en el infinitivo) Verbos acabados en -y. Carry Carrying (La -y se mantiene siempre) StayStaying Verbos de una sílaba con el esquema C+V+C Stop Stopping RunRunning Verbos acabados con el diptongo -ie Die Dying Lie Lying La consonante se dobla El diptongo cambia a -y

10 ADVERBIOS Y EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES CON PRESENT SIMPLE Y PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT SIMPLE Always Almost always Usually Sometimes Hardly ever Never Every day At the weekend Once a week.. On Sundays.. PRESENT CONTINUOUS Now: ahora Right now: ahora mismo At the moment: en este momento These days,weeks..: estos días, estas semanas..

11 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Present Simple Presente de indicativo Example:I teach English in a secondary school Doy inglés en un instituto. Present Simple Presente de subjuntivo Example:When I get home, I will ring you up. Cuando llegue a casa te llamaré.

12 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Present Continuous Presente de estar + gerundio Example:What are you doing? ¿Qué estás haciendo?.

13 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Un uso especial del Present Continuous or Progressive es para referirnos a nuestros planes o intenciones. En este caso, el Present Continuous or Progressive va acompañado de una referencia de tiempo futura ( tomorrow= mañana; next weekend= el fin de semana que viene). En este caso, el Present Continuous se traduce con la perífrasis: ir a hacer algo. Example: What are you doing tomorrow evening? ¿Qué vas a hacer mañana por la noche? Tomorrow evening Im going out for dinner Mañana por la noche voy a cenar fuera

14 PAST SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I worked You worked He worked She worked It worked We worked You worked They worked FORMA NEGATIVA I did not (didnt) work You did not (didnt) work He did not (didnt) work She did not (didnt)work It did not (didnt) work We did not (didnt)work You did not (didnt) work They did not (didnt) work

15 PAST SIMPLE. SPELLING RULES Verbos acabados en -y. 1- -y precedida de consonante: carry carried 2- -y precedida de vocal: stay stayed Verbos acabados en -e. advise advised Verbos de una sílaba con el esquema C+V+C Stop Stopped PlanPlanned Verbos de dos sílabas con el esquema C+V+C cuya última sílaba es tónica (se pronuncia con más fuerza) PreFER Preferred PerMIT Permitted La consonante se dobla

16 PAST SIMPLE. PRONUNCIATION RULES La terminación -ed tiene tres pronunciaciones diferentes: /d/ - /t/ - /id/. Pronunciamos /id/, por tanto añadimos una sílaba más al verbo, cuando éste acaba en sonido dental, esto es, sonido /d/ o sonido /t/. Ejemplo: StartStarted EndEnded ID

17 PAST SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA Did I work ? Did you work ? Did he work ? Did she work ? Did it work ? Did we work ? Did you work ? Did they work ? RESPUESTAS BREVES Yes, I did / No, I didnt Yes, you did / No, you didnt Yes, he did / No, he didnt Yes, she did / No, she didnt Yes, it did / No, it didnt Yes, we did / No, we didnt Yes, you did / No, you didnt Yes, they did / No, they didnt

18 IRREGULAR VERBS Hay unos verbos en inglés que no siguen la regla de la terminación -ed para formar el pasado. Estos verbos tienen su propia forma de pasado y constituyen el grupo de verbos llamado verbos irregulares. FallFell WriteWrote

19 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Past Simple Pretérito Perfecto Simple de Indicativo Example:I worked very late yesterday. Trabajé hasta muy tarde ayer. Past Simple Pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo (-ara;-ase) Example:If I saw him today Si lo viera / viese hoy

20 PAST CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I was work ing You were work ing He was work ing She was work ing It was work ing We were working You were work ing They were work ing FORMA NEGATIVA I was not (wasnt) work ing You were not (werent) work ing He was not (wasnt) work ing She was not (wasnt) work ing It was not (wasnt) work ing We were not (werent) work ing You were not (werent) work ing They were not (werent) work ing

21 PAST CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA Was I work ing ? Were you work ing ? Was he work ing ? Was she work ing ? Was it work ing ? Were we work ing ? Were you work ing ? Were they work ing ? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I was / No I wasnt Yes you were / No, you werent Yes, he was / No, he wasnt Yes, she was / No, she wasnt Yes, it was / No, it wasnt Yes, we were / No we werent Yes, you were / No you werent Yes, they were / No they werent

22 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Past Continuous Pretérito Imperfecto de Indicativo (-aba;-ía) Example:She was driving very fast. Conducía muy rápido. Past Continuous Perífrasis verbal: estaba + gerundio. Example:We were having a good time. Nos lo estábamos pasando bien.

23 PAST CONTINUOUS AND PAST SIMPLE IN A SENTENCE En una frase podemos combinar el Past Simple con el Past Continuos or Progressive. El Past Continuous se refiere a lo que estaba sucediendo mientras que el Past Simple se refiere a lo que de repente pasó mientras algo ya estaba ocurriendo. En estos casos las conjunciones que usamos para unir estas acciones son when: cuando; while: mientras Example: The teacher was writing on the board when the bell rang. El profesor escribía/ estaba escribiendo en la pizarra cuando sonó el timbre. The teacher was writing on the board The bell rang

24 PAST PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I had worked You had worked He had worked She had worked It had worked We had worked You had worked They had worked FORMA NEGATIVA I had not (hadnt) worked You had not (hadnt) worked He had not (hadnt) worked She had not (hadnt) worked It had not (hadnt) worked We had not (hadnt) worked You had not (hadnt) worked They had not (hadnt) worked

25 PAST PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA Had I work ed ? Had you work ed ? Had he work ed ? Had she work ed ? Had it work ed ? Had we work ed ? Had you work ed ? Had they work ed ? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I had/ No I hadnt Yes you had / No, you hadnt Yes, he had / No, he hadnt Yes, she had / No, she hadnt Yes, it had / No, it hadnt Yes, we had / No we hadnt Yes, you had / No you handt Yes, they had / No they hadnt

26 PAST PERFECT DE UN VERBO IRREGULAR Como hemos visto en las anteriores diapositivas el past perfect se forma con had + participio, cuya terminación es igual que la del pasado de un verbo regular, esto es, con la terminación -ed. De nuevo tenemos el problema de los verbos irregulares. El participio de estos verbos tiene su propia forma y por tanto habrá que aprender dicho participio. Por ejemplo: Write Witten You had written KnowKnownShe had known

27 USE OF PAST PERFECT El past perfect se usa para describir una acción pasada que es anterior a otra pasada. Example:I had laid the table before my guests arrived Había puesto la mesa antes de que llegaran mis invitados ¿Qué acción sucede en primer lugar? Poner la mesa Por tanto el verbo va en past pefect

28 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Past PerfectPretérito Pluscuamperfecto de indicativo I had made a reservation before we arrived at the hotel Había hecho una reserva antes de que llegáramos al hotel Past PerfectPretérito pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo If I hadnt made a reservation before.... Si no hubiera/ hubiese hecho antes una reseva......

29 WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I will work You will work He will work She will work It will work We will work You will work They will work FORMA NEGATIVA I will not ( wont) work You will not ( wont) work He will not ( wont) work She will not ( wont) work It will not ( wont) work We will not ( wont) work You will not ( wont) work They will not ( wont) work

30 WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. WILL.TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA Will I work? Will you work? Will he work? Will she work? Will it work? Will we work? Will you work? Will they work? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I will/ No I wont Yes you will / No, you wont Yes, he will / No, he wont Yes, she will / No, she wont Yes, it will / No, it wont Yes, we will / No we wont Yes, you will / No you wont Yes, they will / No they wont

31 USE OF WILL PREDICTIONS People will live longer and so life expectancy will increase Las persona vivirán más y por tanto la expectativa de vida aumentará. Im afraid the prices of flats will not (wont) go down. Me temo que los precios de los pisos no bajarán.

32 USE OF WILL PROMISES I promise I wont let you down. Prometo que no te defraudaré.

33 OFFERINGS ( SHALL I....?) Shall I get you a drink? ¿Quieres que te ponga algo de beber? SUGGESTIONS ( SHALL WE...?) Shall we dine out tonight? ¿Quieres que salgamos cenar esta noche? USE OF WILL

34 SPONTANEOUS DECISIONS YOU HAVE LEARNT YOU HAVE WON THE LOTTERY. YOUR FIRST REACTION IS : I will buy a big house! YOU SEE YOUR NEIGHBOUR CARRYING TWO HEAVY BAGS. YOUR REACTION IS: I will help you. YOU SEE SOMEONE HAS BEEN ROBBED. YOUR FIRST REACTION IS: I will phone the police!

35 WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. BE GOING TO. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) AFFIRMATIVE FORM I am( Im) going to work You are( youre) going to work He is (hes) going to work She is (shes) going to work It is (its) going to work We are (were) going to work You are (youre) going to work They are (theyre) going to work NEGATIVE FORM I am notgoing to work You are not (arent) going to work He is not (isnt) going to work She is not (isnt) going to work It is not (isnt) going to work We are not (arent) going to work You are not (arent) going to work They are not (arent) going to work

36 WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. BE GOING TO. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) INTERROGATIVE FORM Am I going to work? Are you going to work? Is he going to work? Is she going to work? Is it going to work? Are we going to work? Are you going to work? Are they going to work? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I am / No Im not Yes you are / No, you arent Yes, he is / No, he isnt Yes, she is / No, she isnt Yes, it is / No, it isnt Yes, we are / No we arent Yes, you are / No you arent Yes, they are / No they arent

37 USES OF BE GOING TO PLANS AND INTENTIONS (Ir a hacer algo) This year Im going to learn English! Este año voy a aprender inglés.

38 USES OF BE GOING TO IMMEDIATE FUTURE (Futuro inmediato, algo está a punto de suceder) A:The sky is very cloudy B:Yes. Its going to rain. Sí.Va a llover

39 WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE. PRESENT CONTINUOUS HAZ CLICK AQUÍ PARA IR A LA DIAPOSITIVA CORRESPONDIENTEAQUÍ

40 PRESENT PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I have worked You have worked He has worked She has worked It has worked We have worked You have worked They have worked FORMA NEGATIVA I have not / havent worked You have not / havent worked He has not / hasnt worked She has not / hasnt worked It has not / hasnt worked We have not / havent worked You have not / havent worked They have not / havent worked

41 PRESENT PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTEROGATIVA Have I work ed ? Have you work ed ? Has he work ed ? Has she work ed ? Has it work ed ? Have we work ed ? Have you work ed ? Have they work ed ? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I have/ No, I havent Yes you have / No, you havent Yes, he has / No, he hasnt Yes, she has / No, she hasnt Yes, it has / No, it hasnt Yes, we have / No, we havent Yes, you have / No, you havent Yes,they have /No, they havent

42 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Present Perfect Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto I have travelled to many different countries He viajado a muchos países diferentes She has met a lot of celebrities in her career as a journalist Ha conocido a muchos famosos en su profesión como periodista.

43 ADVERBIOS USADOS CON PRESENT PERFECT EVER: alguna vez. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio). Ejemplo: Have you ever seen a falling star?: ¿Has visto alguna vez una estrella fugaz? NEVER: nunca. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio). Ejemplo: I have never been to the USA: Nunca he estado en los Estados Unidos. JUST: Con este adverbio nos referimos a acciones muy recientes, por tanto lo traducimos como acabar de hacer algo. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio). Ejemplo: -Is Claudia in? –Yes, she has just arrived. – ¿Esta Claudia? - Sí, acaba de llegar. RECENTLY: recientemente. Podemos usar este adverbio en distintas posiciones dentro de la frase. Ejemplo: Have you been on a diet recently? (final de la frase) ¿Te has puesto a dieta recientemente? I have recently re-read Cien Años de Soledad (antes del participio) : He vuelto a leer recientemente Cien Años de Soledad.

44 DIFERENCIAS ENTRE PRESENT PERFECT Y PAST SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT 1- Preguntamos si alguien ha hecho alguna vez en su vida: Ejemplo: Have you ever eaten snails? ¿Has comido alguna vez caracoles? 2- Decimos lo que hemos hecho en nuestra vida Ejemplo. I have eaten snails. He comido caracoles 3- Usamos el present prefect con referencias de tiempo que aún no han acabado.como por ejemplo: this year, today.. Ejemplo: Ive seen Carla today. Hoy he visto a Carla PAST SIMPLE 1- Preguntamos cuándo hizo alguien algo. Ejemplo: When did you eat snails? ¿Cuándo comiste caracoles? 2- Decimos cuándo hicimos algo. Evidentemente acompañaremos esta frase con una referencia de tiempo pasada. Ejemplo: I ate snails when I was a child. Comí caracoles cuando era niño. 3- Usamos el past simple con referencias de tiempo ya acabadas, como por ejemplo: last year, yesterday Ejemplo; I saw Carla yesterday. Ayer vi a Carla

45 ADVERBIOS USADOS CON PRESENT PERFECT ALREADY: Ya. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio) y en oraciones afirmativas. Ejemplo: They have already finished their work so they are going home. Ya han acabado su trabajo así que se van a casa. YET: Este adverbio tiene dos significados diferentes según el tipo de oración. Veamos: 1- oraciones interrogativas: ya. Su posición es al final. Ejemplo: Have you sent all these s yet? ¿Has enviado ya todos estos correos? 2- oraciones negativas: todavía. Su posición es al final. Ejemplo: No I havent sent them yet. No, todavía no los he enviado.

46 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA I have been working You have been working He has been working She has been working It has been working We have ben working You have been working They have been working FORMA NEGATIVA I have not / havent been working You have not / havent been working He has not / hasnt been working She has not / hasnt been working It has not / hasnt been working We have not / havent been working You have not / havent been working They have not / havent been working

47 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTEROGATIVA Have I been work ing ? Have you been work ing ? Has he been work ing ? Has she been work ing ? Has it been work ing ? Have we been work ing ? Have you been work ing ? Have they been work ing ? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, I have/ No, I havent Yes you have / No, you havent Yes, he has / No, he hasnt Yes, she has / No, she hasnt Yes, it has / No, it hasnt Yes, we have / No, we havent Yes, you have / No, you havent Yes,they have /No, they havent

48 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO El Present Perfect Continuous equivale a nuestra perífrasis: haber estado haciendo algo. En este sentido, su uso es muy parecido al del present perfect + just: acabar de hacer algo. Ejemplo: -Whats the matter? You have tears in your eyes! ¿Qué pasa? ¡Tienes lágrimas en los ojos! - Dont worry. I have been peeling onions. No te preocupes. He estado pelando cebollas

49 USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE. Es muy frecuente usar ambos tiempos verbales con las preposiciones de tiempo for y since. Son frases del tipo: I have been a teacher for 23 years. Soy profesor desde hace veintitrés años. I have been living in Madrid since Vivo/Llevo viviendo en Madrid desde Llama la atención como he traducido estas frases ¿verdad?

50 USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE. En primer lugar hay que saber que usamos el present perfect simple o el present perfect continuous con for/since para referirnos a acciones que empezaron en el pasado pero que todavía se continúan en el presente. I became a teacher I am a teacher I have been a teacher for 23 years Soy profesor desde hace 23 años I have been a teacher since 1987 Soy profesor desde 1987

51 USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE FOR Y SINCE. FOR: se usa para indicar la cantidad de tiempo que llevamos haciendo algo. Ejemplo: I have been studying sign language for four months: Llevo estudiando/estudio lengua de signos desde hace cuatro meses. SINCE: se usa para indicar el momento o fecha exacta en que empezamos a hacer algo. Ejemplo: I have been studying sign language since October: Llevo estudiando/estudio lengua de signos desde octubre.

52 EXPRESIONES CON FOR/SINCE FOR Three minutes Two hours Some weeks (unas, algunas semanas) One month Many years Ages (mucho tiempo) A long time (mucho tiempo) Como se ve con estos ejemplos, siempre usamos for con expresiones referidas a cantidades de tiempo. SINCE Nine oclock Yesterday Thursday 2006 Last Christmas I was a child (era niño) I first saw you... (te vi por primera vez) Como se ve a partir de estos ejemplos, usamos since con expresiones de tiempo exactas, que nos marcan el comienzo de una acción.

53 HOW LONG WITH PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS). Es muy frecuente usar el Present Perfect Simple y el Present Perfect Continuous en interrogativas con how long. En este caso lo traducimos al castellano como: ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que Ejemplos: How long have you been a teacher? ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que eres profesor? How long have you been living in Madrid? ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que llevas viviendo en Madrid? haces algo? llevas haciendo algo?

54 EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Cuando usamos el Present Perfect Simple (have/has+participio) o el Present Perfect Continuous (have/has been+ing) con las preposiciones For /Since la equivalencia en castellano es: 1- Presente de indicativo 2- Llevar haciendo algo x tiempo. Ejemplos: 1- I have known my English teacher since October: Conozco a mi profesor de inglés desde octubre. 2- I have been teaching for 23 years: Llevo dando clase desde hace 23 años.

55 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS CON FOR/SINCE. Por último saber cuándo usar Present Perfect Simple (have/has+participio) y cuándo Present Perfect Continuous (have/has been+ing). Present Perfect Simple Non-action verbs: be – have (cuando expresa posesión) – know- love-hate... Ejemplos: Ive had this car since 1999: tengo este coche desde 1999 They have known their teacher for four months: Conocen a su profesor desde hace cuatro meses.

56 PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS CON FOR/SINCE. Present Perfect Continuous Action verbs: Verbos que describen una acción, en vez de un estado, como en la diapositiva anterior Ejemplos: Ive been working as a teacher since 1987: Trabajo / Llevo trabajando de profesor desde 1987 They have been learning English with Jesús for four months: Llevan aprendiendo inglés con Jesús (desde hace) cuatro meses.


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