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Dr. Rafael Cartagena. 1) El modelo de las Esferas Superpuestas de Influencia provee un armazón teórico sólido para explicar la relación entre padres,

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Presentación del tema: "Dr. Rafael Cartagena. 1) El modelo de las Esferas Superpuestas de Influencia provee un armazón teórico sólido para explicar la relación entre padres,"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Dr. Rafael Cartagena

2 1) El modelo de las Esferas Superpuestas de Influencia provee un armazón teórico sólido para explicar la relación entre padres, escuela y comunidad. Significa que los padres solos no tienen la responsabilidad de decidir cómo involucrarse en la educación de sus hijos. Las escuelas comparten esta carga creando condiciones y programas que informen, consulten e involucren a las familias.

3 Además, los grupos comunitarios, las agencias, y los individuos no son excluídos ni operan en aislamiento geográfico o social (Bronfenbremmer, 1979, Conor, 1980, Ellder, 1997, Luchter, 1974, Lightfoot, 1978, Litwak & Meyer, 1974, Sceley, 1981.) Los educadores, padres y miembros de las comunidades deben combinarn esfuerzos para crear programas que ayuden a los estudiantes a tener éxito.

4 2) Según el modelo de las Esferas Superpuestas, los resultados de las interacciones de las familias, escuela y comunidad se acumulan y almacenan como capital social. Este capital aumenta cuando la interacción es productiva. Y esto se gasta cuando se invierte en actividades, ayuda a los estudiantes a desarrollarse y aprender, fortalecer las familias, mejorar las escuelas o enriquece las comunidades. Ej. Un maestro se pone contacto con un profesional de salud para ayudar a una familia o un padre se pone en contacto con otro para que sus hijos hagan trabajo escolar juntos.

5 3) El modelo ayuda a entender la influencia de la familia, escuela y comunidad en los niños pequeños. Es decir, el desarrollo de los niños pequeños, su aprendizaje, salud y otros cuidados, son influenciados por contextos múltiples simultáneamente no secuencialmente. 4) Las investigaciones apuntan a que los maestros, padres y estudiantes conocen poco de los intereses en asuntos escolares y que las familias con más educación y dinero se involucran más en los asuntos de sus hijos.

6 5) De forma contundente los estudios confirman que las prácticas de involucrar a los padres con los maestros son tan importantes como la raza, etnicidad, clase social, estado marital, educación de los padres para determinar el grado de compromiso de los padres con la escuela. Los maestros que involucran a los padres, también los estereotipan menos a los estudiantes.

7 Tipos de Participación a) Ayudar a las familias a entender el desarrollo de niños y adolescentes y a establecer ambientes en la casa que apoyen al niño como estudiante. b) Diseñar e implantar formas efectivas de comunicación sobre los programas escolares y el progreso del niño. c) Reclutar y organizar ayudas y apoyo a las familias y actividades escolares. (voluntarios)

8 d) Proveer información e ideas a las familias sobre cómo ayudar a los estudiantes en el hogar con las asignaciones y las actividades relativas al currículo. e) Incluir representantes de los padres y todas las familias en las decisiones escolares. f) Identificar e integrar los recursos y servicios de la comunidad para fortalecer las escuelas, los estudiantes y sus familias.

9 Learning Together-A Checklist for Schools Making Your Family-Community Partnership Work Following are examples of practices and programs that schools and districts can use to encourage family and community support of childrens learning. They are meant to be advisory and should be adapted to each schools or districts needs.

10 Parenting and Family Skills 1. We sponsor parent education and family learning worshops. 2. We ask families what types of workshops or informational events they would be interested in attending and what session times are most convenient. 3. We provide families with information on child development.

11 4. We lend families books and tapes on parenting and parent workshops. 5. We provide families with information about developing home conditions that support school learning. 6. We survey parents to determine their needs, assing staff members to help address those needs, and work to link parents with community resources.

12 7. We have a family resource center or help parents access other resource centers in the community. 8. We have support groups for families with special interests and needs. 9. We train staff members and support them in reaching out to all families.

13 Communicating 1. We have parent-teacher-student conferences to establish student learning goals for the year. 2. We listen to parents tell us about their childrens strengths and how they learn. 3. We follow the Rule of Seven: offering seven different ways that parents and community members can learn about what is happening in the school and comment on it.

14 4. Teachers have ready access to telephones to communicate with parents during or after the school day. 5. Staff members send home positive messages about students. 6. We make efforts to communicate with fathers.

15 7. Parents know the telephone numbers of school staff members and the times teachers are available to take phone calls from parents. 8. We involve families in student award and recognition events. 9. We encourage and make provisions for staff members to talk with parents about the childs progress several times each semester.

16 10. We communicate the schools mission and expectations for students to parents. The school has a homework hotline or other kind of telephone system. 11. We provide parents with structured ways to comment on the schools communications, for example, with mailed, phone, or take home surveys. 12. We ha staff members available to assist and support parents in their interactions with the school (i.e., home-school liaisons).

17 13. We send home communications about student academic progress meetings at school how parents can be involved in student activities PTA/PTO student discipline child development the curriculum

18 how parents can be involved as volunteers how parents can be involved in school governance how parents can help with homework and encourage learning at home community resources available to families how parents can communicate with school staff the schools philosophy of learning

19 14. Staff members make home visits. 15. Before a crisis occurs, we speak directly to parents (does not include leaving messages on answering machines) if students are having academic difficulty or causing classroom disruptions. 16. We provide copies of school textbooks and publications about the school to the public library.

20 Learning at Home 1. We have a structured program to help parents assist their children with homework. 2. We offer learning activities and events for the whole family. 3. We invite parents to borrow resources from school libraries for themselves and their families.

21 4. We link parents with resources and activities in the community that promote learning. 5. We give parents questionnaires they can use to evaluate their childs progress and provide feedback to teachers. 6. School staff and school communications help parents link home learning activities to learning in the classroom.

22 Volunteering 1. We encourage families and other community members to attend school events. 2. We offer youth service learning opportunities for students who want to volunteer in the community. 3. We help school staff learn how to work with parent and community volunteers.

23 4. We ask family members how they would like to participate as volunteers at their childs school or in the community. 5. We encourage family and community members to become involved as participants in site-based management councils presenters to students on careers and other topics assistants with art shows, read-aloud events, theater workshops, book swaps, and other activities.

24 tutors/mentors chaperones on field trips and other class outings instructional assistants in classrooms, libraries, and computer laboratories noninstructional assistants from-the-home contributors of baked goods, assembled materials, typing, etc.

25 6. We have a program to recognize school volunteers. 7. We offer volunteer opportunities for working and single parents. 8. We gather information about the level and frequency of family and community participation

26 Governance and Advocacy 1. We encourage parents to attend school board meetings. 2. We assign staff members to help parents address concerns or complaints. 3. We invite staff and parent groups to meet collaboratively. We help families advocate for each other.

27 5. We involve parents in revising school and district curricula planning orientation programs for new families developing parenting skills programs establishing membership for site-based councils hiring staff members

28 Community Outreach 1. We act as a source of information and referral about services available in the community for families. 2. We use a variety of strategies to reach out to adults, families, and children of all ages, races, and socioeconomic backgrounds in the community. We encourage local civic and service groups to become involved in schools in a variety of ways, such as mentoring students, volunteering, speaking to classes, and helping with fundraising events.

29 4. We encourage staff and students to participate in youth service learning opportunities. 5. We open our school buildings for use by the community beyond regular school hours. 6. We work with local chamber of commerce or business partnership council and public library to promote adult literacy.

30 7. We have a program with local businesses that enhances student work skills. 8. We widely publish and disseminate school board meeting notices, summaries, and board policies and agendas and encourage the feedback and participation of community members.


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