2Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) in ShrimpMelba B. ReantasoFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)andBruno Gomez-GilCIAD, A.C. Unidad MazatlánI am going to make this presentation on behalf of Dr Melba B. Reantaso of FAO who sends her regrets for not being able to make it to this conference due to urgent tasks related to Haiyan Typhoon (Yolanda) that has severely devastated many parts of the Philippines. She sends her apologies to the organizers and best wishes for a productive conference.
3OutlineGeneral background on early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (EMS/AHPNS)Regional and international initiativesImpacts of EMSFAO technical assistanceStatus of EMS in MexicoLatest findingsThe Way ForwardRead text as isCourtesy of Prof. Lightner
4General background on EMS/AHPN Unknown disease called Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) affecting Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, and P. chinensisEarliest publication in GAA Jan/Feb 2012: Prof. Donald Lightner (UAZ) reported the first occurrence of this disease in China and Hainan Island in 2010.Role of bacteria was suggested to be secondary; bacterial colonization was prominent at the latter stage of the disease.The role of bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus came up on several occasions.Vibrio parahaemolyticus was consistently isolated from EMS-infected shrimp. Based on the work done in China (Zhang et al., 2012), Chinese researchers reported on a virulent strain of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from P. vannamei suffering from this early mortality disease in 2010 in Guangxi Province.Read text as is
5General background EMS/AHPN The potential involvement of a phage (a virus infecting bacteria) was highlighted, during the FAO TCP/VIE/3304 First Joint Technical Workshop conducted in Hanoi, Viet Nam from 5–8 November 2012, by Prof. Timothy W. Flegel of Mahidol University (MU).Studies at MU also reported on the isolation of phage from two cases: (i) most probably from V. parahaemolyticus samples from Rayong, Thailand, and (ii) from V. fluvialis (anonymous source).The breakthrough finding of Prof. Lightner’s team pointing to a strain of V. parahaemolyticus as the causative agent of EMS/AHPNSGlobal Aquaculture Alliance and FAO, May 2012Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, June 2013 (Tran et al., 2013)Read text as is
6EMS/APHND Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) not an appropriate name Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (APHND)Significant atrophy of the hepatopancreas (HP)Destruction of the HP epithelial cells that round off and detachMassive secondary bacterial infections
7EMS en Asia20112009Año de aparición2010200920122013
8Impacts of EMS/AHPNS GAA estimate: Asian losses 1 billion USD Shortage of supply = impact on shrimp pricesPublic health concernsPrivate sectorClosure of farms (non-stocking)Thai Frozen Foods: annual output to half in 2013 to tCP Foods: 70% drop in operating profit (USD 109 M)Thai Union Frozen Products: decline by 30% this yearImpacts on tradeseveral countries have suspended or banned the importation of live shrimps and/or all forms of shrimp productsRead text as is
9Findings of the FAO TCP/VIE/3304 Bacterial aetiology: found by UAZMixed infections with WSSV, MBV, HPV, gregarine-like entities, fungi, and other bacterial speciesBLASTn analysis of these mass sequences gave 99 percent identity to V. proteolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The results suggested that further research should be focused on these two bacterial species.Transmission of EMS/AHPNS occurred via water (16/60 tested shrimp) and cohabitation (27/60 tested shrimp) of healthy shrimp in EMS/AHPNS-infected ponds.Read text as isCMC-AH Mission: July 2011Emergency TCP Project Formulation Mission: September 2011TCP/VIE/3304: April August 2013
10Findings of TCP/VIE/3304Human pathogens: tdh and trh genes (marker genes for human pathogens) not detectedEnvironmental studies: assessment of toxins in feed, sediment, and waterFindings did not show an association between environmental conditions (water quality, sediment condition, pollution, or feed ingredients) and EMS/AHPNS-status of shrimp.Read text as is
11Findings of TCP/VIE/3304 At the farm level: Risk factors identified during the cross-sectional studiesAt the farm level:characteristics of AHPND-affected farmslarger farmwater supply from brackish watersemi-closed systemfactors reducing the risk of AHPNDratio of water reservoir and culture area more than 30 percentholding of water longer than 35 days before use in pondsfeed control through use of feeding trayRead text as is
12Findings of TCP/VIE/3304 At the pond level: factors increasing the risk of AHPND:larger pond sizeextreme weather conditionssource of post-larvae.factors reducing the risk of AHPNDculture of shrimp in ponds deeper than 1.8 metersuse of sufficient aerationdecreased feeding rates during first month after stockinglower density stocking of PLapplication of probiotics in the pond during culture periodRead text as is
13Hanoi EMS Technical Consultation12-point EMS Actions and Risk Management measures “Complacency in the shrimp aquaculture sector resulting to laxity, during a period of trouble-free shrimp production, led to vulnerability of the sector to any newly emerging pathogen that might arise unexpectedly, as is the case of EMS/AHPNS. Poor management practices, weak compliance with standard good biosecurity, and good aquaculture practices still evident. Shrimp aquaculture sector needs to improve and continue to implement responsible and science-based farming practices.”The June 2013 technical consultation came up with a 12-point EMS actions and risk management measures pertaining to various aspects and various actors/players in the shrimp aquaculture sector. The general feeling of the experts was that... Read text as is (Complacency.....)
1412-point EMS Actions and Risk Management measures Nomenclature: from EMS to AHPNDDiagnosis: rapid and reliable pond-sideReporting/notification: OIE Feb. 2014International trade: live shrimp, products, liveCountries affected by AHPND: proactive reportingCountries not yet affected by AHPND: notification/reportingRead text as is..
1512-point EMS Actions and Risk Management measures Farm facilities: good aquaculture practices (GAP)Hatchery facilities: good hatchery practices (GHP)Pharmaceutical and feed companies and shrimp producers: no know treatmentKnowledge and capacity development: trainingOutbreak investigation/emergency response: authorities and public and private sectors.Targeted AHPND research: epidemiology, diagnostics, pathogenicity and virulence, public health, mixed infections, control measures, environment measures, polyculture technologiesRead text as is..
16Centro de Investigación en Acuicultura y Desarrollo, A.C. Unidad Mazatlán en Acuicultura y Manejo AmbientalMéxicoMortalidades atípicas inician en abril 2013 en Nayarit, quizá ya desde fin de marzo.1ª semana de abril se reportan en Sinaloa y Sonora.La enfermedad se presenta de manera muy parecida a la reportada recientemente en Asia EMS/APHNS que afecta a P. vannamei y P. monodon (FAO 2013).Descenso de hasta 90% de la producción de camarón:Pérdidas estimadas de 3 mil millones de pesos.Pérdidas aproximadamente 13 mil empleos directos y 67 mil indirectos.
17Estados afectados Sonora Sinaloa Nayarit Centro de Investigación en Acuicultura y Desarrollo, A.C.Unidad Mazatlán en Acuicultura y Manejo AmbientalEstados afectadosSonoraSinaloaNayarit
25Identificación del agente causal Centro de Investigación en Acuicultura y Desarrollo, A.C.Unidad Mazatlán en Acuicultura y Manejo AmbientalIdentificación del agente causalMéxico
26Postulados KochEl microorganismo debe estar presente en todos los organismos enfermosDebe aislarse del organismos enfermo y cultivarlo en forma puraInocularlo en un organismo sano y reproducir la enfermedadRe aislarlo del organismo enfermo
27Postulado 1. Agente causal presente en organismos enfermos Se obtuvieron camarones enfermos de varias granjasSe aislaron mas de 300 cepas de vibriosSe obtuvieron 37 cepas de Vibrio parahaemolyticus10 fueron PCR+ a EMS (D. Lightner, Univ. Arizona- OIE)De diferentes camarones y de agua
28Postulado 2. Cultivado en forma pura Se obtuvieron al menos seis cepas de Vp patógenasabcdef
29Postulado 3. Causar la enfermedad en organismos sanos Mortalidad causada por tres cepas de Vp en camarones sanos inoculados por inmersión (108 cel-ml)Horas post infección
30Postulado 4. Re-aislarlo del organismo enfermo Rep-PCR de aislados de camarones infectados en bioensayoCam3 HPAguaCam2 ESCam2 HPCtrlM0603
31Latest findings/developments (November 2013) PCR Rapid Detection Kit for EMS/AHPND released to GeneReach Biotechnology Corp. on October 17, by UAZ – may take 2-3 months before marketingRapid detectionCost effective without the need for histologyTesting of much larger quantities of shrimpEMS in India: news reports of suspicion but yet to be confirmedAdditional species: news reports of V. owensii association with EMS but yet to be confirmedRead text as is
32The Way Forward Diagnostic kit will be available soon (in 2-3 months) Still many things are unknown about EMS/AHPNDRisk management measures and research identified (FAO report); in addition (V. Alday):Ecology of vibrios, similarity with choleraMicrobial ecosystem studies in shrimp farming areasExclusion health strategyExtreme caution in the use of antibioticsMonitor presence of pathogen in frozen productsMore detailed studies on risk factors identifiedTrans boundary aquatic diseasesFAO Inter-regional TCP on EMS (pipeline): LAC and Asia – will provide additional platform to better understand the disease and practical measures to control.Read text as is
33gracias Centro de Investigación en Acuicultura y Desarrollo, A.C. Unidad Mazatlán en Acuicultura y Manejo AmbientalEMS/APHNDgracias