4Capernaum area aerial from southeast Excavations at CapernaumSome early pottery has been found from the Middle Bronze, Late Bronze, Persian, and Hellenistic periods.In the mid-19th century A.D., the stones of the synagogue were slowly disappearing at the hands of local Arab building contractors. In 1894, however, the Franciscans purchased the property, and covered the area with dirt to preserve it. Various expeditions have excavated Capernaum in the last century:H. Kohl and C. Watzinger, 1905.F. V. Hinterkeuser,The Franciscans, under P. Gaudentius Orfali, This expedition dated the limestone synagogue to the 1st century, but that dating has been universally rejected. They began restoration work, but it was halted because of Orfali's tragic death in a road accident.V. Corbo and S. Loffreda,Capernaum desde el sureste
5Capernaum aerial from southeast Jesus’ Disciples in CapernaumFive of the apostles were chosen from Capernaum. Peter and Andrew and James and John all were fishermen from Capernaum (Mark 1:29). Matthew was a tax collector (Matt 9:9) who probably received tolls from people on the road. He collected from individuals, and merchants staying in town for the night, who had to pay a certain percentage of the value of their goods.Capernaum desde el sureste
6View of Capernaum from boat Miracles in CapernaumCapernaum was one of three cities (with Chorazin and Bethsaida) where the majority of Jesus’ miracles were done. These miracles are:Peter’s mother-in-law was healed (Matt 8:14, 15).The centurion’s servant was healed (Matt 8:5-13). This man had helped build the synagogue (Luke 7:2-20).The paralyzed man who was let down through the roof was also healed (Matt 9:1-8).A demoniac was healed in the synagogue (Mark 1:21-27).The paralytic was healed (Mark 2:1-12).The nobleman’s son was healed (John 4:46-54).Jairus’ daughter was raised from the dead (Matt 9:18-26).The two blind men were healed (Matt 9:27-30).Deliverance of the dumb man (Matt 9:32-34).The coin was pulled out of the fish’s mouth (Matt 17:24-27).In spite of all the miracles that the citizens of Capernaum saw, the town was cursed by Christ for its unbelief (Matt 11:23-24; Luke 10:15-16).Capernaum desde el agua
7CapernaumToday, the ruins are owned by two churches: the Franciscans control the western portion with the synagogue, and the Greek Orthodox have the property that is marked by the white church with red domes.Capernaum
8Capernaum synagogue from boat Sinagoga de Capernaum del agua
9Entrada de Capernaum Capernaum entrance Jesus in Capernaum (Mark 1 & 2)Jesus called his disciples (four of them) and they came to Capernaum on Friday evening (1:16-20).Jesus taught the Sabbath evening service (1:21-22).Jesus called a demon out of a man (1:23-27).Jesus and others entered Peter’s house (1:29).Jesus healed Simon Peter’s mother-in-law, and then she cooked them the Sabbath dinner (1:30-31).On Saturday night they brought him the sick (1:32-34).Jesus rose early in the morning and went out to pray (1:35-37).Jesus went to other synagogues around Galilee (1:38-39).Jesus returned to Peter’s house (2:1-12).Jesus called Levi/Matthew to follow him (2:13-14).Jesus had dinner with Matthew and other tax collectors and sinners (2:15-17).Entrada de Capernaum
10Sinagoga de Capernaum Capernaum synagogue Capernaum Synagogue This is the most impressive of all the Galilean synagogues. The synagogue in Gamla is 67 percent the size of this one; the synagogue at Masada is 47 percent; the synagogue at the Herodium is 46 percent; and the synagogue in Magdala is 13 percent.The dating of this synagogue is debated, but it is clearly later than the 1st century A.D.This synagogue is built in a basilica form, that is, the style of public buildings in Rome. Typically this includes a central room, flanked with side aisles.It is possible that there was more than one synagogue in Capernaum. The Gospels, however, speak of “the” synagogue at Capernaum.Sinagoga de Capernaum
12Capernaum synagogue panorama Jesus in the Capernaum SynagogueJesus taught here when he was confronted by a demoniac (Mark 1:21-27; Luke 4:31-37).Jesus healed the daughter of the synagogue ruler Jairus (Mark 5:22, Luke 8:41).Jesus healed the servant of the centurion, who built this synagogue (Matt 8:5, Luke 7:3). This centurion built it because he loved the nation.Jesus gave the sermon on the bread of life (John 6:35-59). This was just after feeding the 5,000.
13Capernaum synagogue carved lintel Sinagoga de Capernaum
14Capernaum synagogue interior Interior of the SynagogueBenches on which the elders sat lined the inside wall. There were probably mats on the floor inside for people to sit on (Strange and Shanks 1983: 26).The architrave was originally a single piece of limestone, but it has been broken.The corner columns are heart shaped.The synagogue in Capernaum is a typical Galilean synagogue. The doors face Jerusalem and the worshippers prayed in that direction. The Torah must have been wheeled around to the door area (see the inscription found with Torah on a cart). Later synagogues have doors on the opposite side from Jerusalem.Interior de la sinagoga
15Capernaum synagogue interior Jesus preached the “bread of life” sermon in the synagogue of Capernaum (John 6:16-59). John 6:59 (KJV) “These things said he in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.”Interior de la sinagoga
16Capernaum synagogue with earlier basalt level The entire length (78 ft) of the western wall of the 1st century synagogue has been uncovered.Sinagoga con nivel más temprano de basalto
17Capernaum synagogue with earlier basalt level The basalt stones underneath the white stones of the reconstructed synagogue are not just the foundation for it. It is noteworthy that the basalt stones are not aligned. At the southern end, the white stones are off by about 9 inches (23 cm).Sinagoga con nivel más temprano de basalto
19Marcos 1:21-45—Ejemplo de estructura chiástica A. Jesús hace salir un demonio de un hombre. Contraste entre Jesús y los escribus. (21-27)B. Su fama sale de la sinagoga a toda Galilea (1:28)C. La suegra de Simón sanada (29-31) D. Resumen de sanidades, exorcismos, identidad de Cristo. (32-34) C (1) Simón interrumpe la oración de Cristo (1:35-38) B (1). Jesús sale a las sinagogas de toda Galilea (1:39)A (1) Jesús hace salir la lepra de un hombre. Contraste entre Jesús y los sacerdotes (40-45)
20Sanidad de la suegra de Pedro LecturaSanidad de la suegra de PedroLucas 4:38-41, Mateo 8:14-17,“Tocó”, “Reprendio”Poder de la palabraNota en Mateo la conexión con Is. 53:4.
21Capernaum Franciscan church over Peter's house Traditional House of PeterScripture references: Matthew 8:14; 9:27-31; 17:25; Mark 1:29; 2:1; 3:20; 9:33.The remains of the church are from the 5th century A.D. and are located over the traditional location of the house of Peter.The evidence indicates that the traditional location of Peter’s house is correct.The tradition is strong.It is a fisherman’s house, in the fisherman’s quarter of the village. The owner of this house was apparently wealthy based on the size of the home.Egeria wrote in her diary (4th century A.D.) that the house of St. Peter had been turned into a church. “In Capernaum the house of the prince of the apostles [Peter] has been made into a church, with its original walls still standing…. There also is the synagogue where the Lord cured a man possessed by the devil. The way into it, is up many stairs, and it is made of dressed stone.”This area was in fact turned into a church. This makes for a strong suggestion that it is the right spot. Clearly, it was an early Christian worship center.One home from the 1st century received more attention than others in later centuries.The house was enlarged in the 4th century, at the expense of the nearby houses.In the 5th century, the house was removed and a church was built.Inscriptions mentioning Jesus and Peter were found in the house (in Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Syriac). Sacred and devotional graffiti have been left but their dates are uncertain. “We are skeptical of this alleged inscriptional support for identifying the original house as St. Peter’s” (Strange and Shanks 1982: 36).There is a baptismal with the mosaic of a peacock. The peacock was an early Christian symbol because the plucked feather of a peacock would not change colors, thus it was eternal.Iglesia de los Franciscanos sobre la casa de Pedro
22Capernaum Peter's house Epiphanius, writing in 374, said that Capernaum was one of the towns in which the Jews forbade Gentiles, Samaritans and Christians to live there. Apparently this was not enforceable, and rabbinic texts indicate that this was a site of considerable tension between Jews and Christians.Casa de Pedro
24Capernaum basalt houses Basalt HomesThe center house has a large courtyard, and the residences are off to the side.The small rooms indicate that this was not an affluent community.The poorly constructed walls were held together with mortar.Windows between the rooms were built to increase ventilation and lighting.Basalt cannot be used to span great lengths. The maximum length is 8 ft. Otherwise it will crack under its own weight. However, with a series of arches a larger span can be made for bigger rooms.There are a series of three insulae (extended houses here) but it is hard to discern where one ends and one begins.The roofs were made of packed clay or tiles. Peter’s house had a packed clay roof, and was only one story. It was into this that his friends tore a hole (Mark 2:1ff).Casas de basalto
25Hay más énfasis en lo que hace el maestro, de lo que dice. Marcos NO contiene bloques grandes de enseñanza, como Mateo, pero se ve que todo lo que hace es enseñanza.Mar. 1:27 menciona que es nueva enseñanza, pero no aparece enseñanza, sino acciones.
26El tema de la identidad de Cristo. Mar. 1:24, 34, y otros—no permitía (o les decía) que no hablara de quién era o qué había hecho.¿Quién sabe la identidad de Cristo, y quién no?Los demonios sí, los apóstoles no, a pesar del tiempo juntos y la instrucción privada.La última frase dicha por un discípulo en Marcos es “No conozco a la persona de que hablas.” (14:71)a.
27LecturaMarcos 1:35-38Seguía la voluntad de Dios, quizás no era popular.
28LecturaMateo 4:23-25Lucas 4:44 dice, “sinagogas de Galilea”inglés dice “de Judea”el griego dice “de los judíos”.
29Gamla desde el este Gamla from east The Eastern Wall The natural defenses of Gamla meant that only the eastern side needed to be protected against invaders. In 66 A.D., Jewish rebels fortified this wall in advance of the Roman march across Galilee. Gamla desde el este
30Gamla synagogue ruins Sinagoga de Gamla The Synagogue The synagogue stood near the city's entrance.It is one of the earliest known synagogues in Israel, dated to the early 1st century A.D.This synagogue was built in the typical "Galilean" style with three rows of columns, tiers of side benches, heart-shaped corner pillars, and an alcove for Torah scrolls in the northwest corner. The ceiling was supported by ornamented pillars, adorned with capitals, and the floor was unpaved and probably covered by rugs.This is the only synagogue known archaeologically that was built within city limits while the Temple was still in existence.Sinagoga de Gamla
31Gamla synagogue from above Sinagoga de Gamla desde arriba
34Contexto cultural e histórico de los maestros y los rabi La palabra para maestro en hebreo es “rav”, con el sufijo “i”, que significa “mi”. Entonces rabi significa “mi maestro”.
35Maestros del ToráMaestros (dominaban la material) del ToráSabían el Pentateuco de memoria y podía trabajar con él.Contaban historias, contectaban ideas.
36Sólo podían enseñar lo que ya había aprobado la comunidad como doctrina correcta. Podían pensar en nuevas parábolas o aplicaciones, pero no podían enseñar doctrina nueva.
37Patrón de enseñanza“Escrito está”—citar texto“Y eso significa”—explicar con parábola, aliteracion, etc.Citar autoridad como Rabí Akiva o Hillel que apoya su enseñanza.
38Rabis con “smicha”Maestros del Torá y Haf-Torá (resto del AT)Sabían todo el AT de memoria.Profesores excepcionalesMuchos sanabanRecibían smicha (autoridad) para enseñar nuevas ideas de Dios que nadie había enseñado antes.
39Patron de enseñanza“Escrito está”—citar texto“Oyeron que significa esto”….“Pero yo les digo que significa esto”…Al final del Sermón del Monte (7:29, cuando Jesús enseña así, ¿por qué se asombra la multitud?Porque enseñó como si tuviera smicha.
40¿Cómo obtiene uno smicha? Saber de memoria el AT.Dos otros rabis con smicha le impone las manos a uno y declara en público que también tenía autoridad de Dios para hacer enseñanzas nuevas.
42Jesús implica que Juan le dio smicha, y que la de Jesús vino del mismo lugar. En su bautismo, Dios confirma la smicha de Jesús directamente desde el cielo—el único rabi en la historia que lo había recibido así.¿De dónde vino la smicha original? Números 11: El Espíritu viene sobre los 70 ancianos en el tiempo de Moisés y Aarón.
43Los rabis con smicha eran los que tenían talmidim, o discípulos. Un alumno quiere saber lo que sabe el maestro. Mat. 10:24-25Un discípulo—talmid—quiere ser como su maestro.
46Galilee shoreline from above CorazinMt. de bienaventuranzasCapernaumBetsaidaScripture Passages related to GennesaretTraveling to Bethsaida, Jesus and his disciples were blown off course and landed instead at the region of Gennesaret (Matt 14:34; Mark 6:53).Jesus then healed the multitudes that were waiting there (Mark 6:53-56).The Pharisees and teachers of the law confronted Jesus over ritual impurity (Mark 7:1-23; Matt 15:1-20).The Pharisees and Sadducees came to Jesus asking for a sign (Mark 8:11-13; Matt 16:1-4).CanáMágdala
47Plain of Gennesaret from Arbel The Plain of Gennesaret (Ginosaur)The plain is about 5 miles long and 2 miles wide. It is 4 miles north of Tiberias.Gennesaret sometimes gives its name to the Sea of Galilee (Luke 5:1; 1 Macc 11:67).The International Highway passes through this plain.The region is also known as Dalmanutha (Mark 8:10). Dalmanutha is a Syriac word for “harbor.” This is a fitting name as it was an area of many ships, shipyard workers, and stores.Llanura de Genesaret desde Arbel
48Monte de Bienaventuranzas Mount of BeatitudesThe Sermon on the Mount or Sermon on the Plain?The so-called "Sermon on the Mount" is recorded in Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6. The alleged discrepancy between Matthew's version being on a hill and Luke's being on a level place is easily reconciled by observing the many level places on the Galilean hillsides. Monte de Bienaventuranzas
49Church of the Beatitudes Iglesia de Bienaventuranzas
50Mt of Beatitudes and Sea of Galilee to southeast The Beatitudes“Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake” (Matt 5:3-11, KJV).Monte de bienaventuranzas, Mar de Galilea al sureste
51Mount of Beatitudes hillside Monte de bienaventuranzas
52Tabgha harbor aerial from south A small harbor north of the Church of the Primacy of St. Peter is visible when the water level is m (694 ft) below sea level or lower.Two breakwaters form this harbor. The curved, western breakwater is 60 m (197 ft) long and is connected to the shore by many rocks. The breakwater perpendicular to the shore is 40 m (130 ft) long, and the basin is 30 m (98 ft) wide with an entrance from east.Tabgha
53Tabgha aerial from north Tabga (Magadan) del norte
55Dos versiones del mismo discurso Dos discursos distintos en dos momentos en dos lugares diferentes—la versión de Lucas primero.El contenido es algo que hubiera repetido igual en muchos lugares y en las sinagogas
56Principios de vida en el Reino de Dios. Mostrar la intención de Dios detrás de la ley.Enfatiza la parte interna (el corazón), no externa.Enfoca en los resultados eternos y no los temporariosDestaca la batalla entre dos amos, dos reinos, dos caminos
57¿Ha venido el Reino de Dios? La tensión entre Ya Está y No TodavíaEjemplo de la invasión final en la segunda guerra mundial
59Las Bienaventuranzas7 cualidades (perfección) del ciudadano del reino y 1 resultado de esa vida.8 cualidades solo10 declaraciones para comparar con los 10 mandamientos.
60Como un índice de los contenidos del sermón. V. 3 5:39-42, 6:1-7V. 4 5:11-12V. 5 5:39-42V. 6 todo el SermónV. 7 5:23-26, 43-48, 6:1-4, 7:1-5V. 8 5:27-30, 6:22-24, 7:17-20V. 9 5:21-26, 38-48, 6:14-15, 7:1-5
61Hacían los fuegos para cocinar en un horno con la forma de una colmena. Quemaba las pieles y piedras de olivos, o excremento de animales.Si se mezcla sal como combustible, pues el fuego es más caliente y duradero.Después de 10 fuegos, la sal pierda esas propiedades, y la sacan y la echan, porque ya no sirve.
62La misión de sal, pues, es: Darle sabor a la comidaPreservarPagar (soldados pagos en sal)Mezclar con los combustibles para mejorar el fuego.¿Aplicación?
63La misión de luz es dar luz. Apoc. 2:5 Candeleros quitados.Mat. 25: Talentos perdidos