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Clase 7 Capernaum La Identidad de Cristo. Los Maestros de la Torá.

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Presentación del tema: "Clase 7 Capernaum La Identidad de Cristo. Los Maestros de la Torá."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Clase 7 Capernaum La Identidad de Cristo. Los Maestros de la Torá.
El Sermón del Monte.

2 I. Capernaum

3 Capernaum area aerial from southeast
Excavations at Capernaum Some early pottery has been found from the Middle Bronze, Late Bronze, Persian, and Hellenistic periods. In the mid-19th century A.D., the stones of the synagogue were slowly disappearing at the hands of local Arab building contractors. In 1894, however, the Franciscans purchased the property, and covered the area with dirt to preserve it. Various expeditions have excavated Capernaum in the last century: H. Kohl and C. Watzinger, 1905. F. V. Hinterkeuser, The Franciscans, under P. Gaudentius Orfali, This expedition dated the limestone synagogue to the 1st century, but that dating has been universally rejected. They began restoration work, but it was halted because of Orfali's tragic death in a road accident. V. Corbo and S. Loffreda, Vista aérea de Capernaum desde el Sudeste

4 Capernaum aerial from southeast
Capernaum desde el Sureste Capernaum aerial from southeast Jesus’ Disciples in Capernaum Five of the apostles were chosen from Capernaum. Peter and Andrew and James and John all were fishermen from Capernaum (Mark 1:29). Matthew was a tax collector (Matt 9:9) who probably received tolls from people on the road. He collected from individuals, and merchants staying in town for the night, who had to pay a certain percentage of the value of their goods.

5 View of Capernaum from boat
Miracles in Capernaum Capernaum was one of three cities (with Chorazin and Bethsaida) where the majority of Jesus’ miracles were done. These miracles are: Peter’s mother-in-law was healed (Matt 8:14, 15). The centurion’s servant was healed (Matt 8:5-13). This man had helped build the synagogue (Luke 7:2-20). The paralyzed man who was let down through the roof was also healed (Matt 9:1-8). A demoniac was healed in the synagogue (Mark 1:21-27). The paralytic was healed (Mark 2:1-12). The nobleman’s son was healed (John 4:46-54). Jairus’ daughter was raised from the dead (Matt 9:18-26). The two blind men were healed (Matt 9:27-30). Deliverance of the dumb man (Matt 9:32-34). The coin was pulled out of the fish’s mouth (Matt 17:24-27). In spite of all the miracles that the citizens of Capernaum saw, the town was cursed by Christ for its unbelief (Matt 11:23-24; Luke 10:15-16). Capernaum vista desde el Mar de Galilea

6 Capernaum Capernaum Today, the ruins are owned by two churches: the Franciscans control the western portion with the synagogue, and the Greek Orthodox have the property that is marked by the white church with red domes.

7 Capernaum synagogue from boat
Sinagoga de Capernaum vista desde el agua

8 Entrada de Capernaum Capernaum entrance
Jesus in Capernaum (Mark 1 & 2) Jesus called his disciples (four of them) and they came to Capernaum on Friday evening (1:16-20). Jesus taught the Sabbath evening service (1:21-22). Jesus called a demon out of a man (1:23-27). Jesus and others entered Peter’s house (1:29). Jesus healed Simon Peter’s mother-in-law, and then she cooked them the Sabbath dinner (1:30-31). On Saturday night they brought him the sick (1:32-34). Jesus rose early in the morning and went out to pray (1:35-37). Jesus went to other synagogues around Galilee (1:38-39). Jesus returned to Peter’s house (2:1-12). Jesus called Levi/Matthew to follow him (2:13-14). Jesus had dinner with Matthew and other tax collectors and sinners (2:15-17). Entrada de Capernaum

9 Sinagoga de Capernaum Capernaum synagogue Capernaum Synagogue
This is the most impressive of all the Galilean synagogues. The synagogue in Gamla is 67 percent the size of this one; the synagogue at Masada is 47 percent; the synagogue at the Herodium is 46 percent; and the synagogue in Magdala is 13 percent. The dating of this synagogue is debated, but it is clearly later than the 1st century A.D. This synagogue is built in a basilica form, that is, the style of public buildings in Rome. Typically this includes a central room, flanked with side aisles. It is possible that there was more than one synagogue in Capernaum. The Gospels, however, speak of “the” synagogue at Capernaum.

10 Sinagoga de Capernaum Capernaum synagogue

11 Capernaum synagogue panorama
Jesus in the Capernaum Synagogue Jesus taught here when he was confronted by a demoniac (Mark 1:21-27; Luke 4:31-37). Jesus healed the daughter of the synagogue ruler Jairus (Mark 5:22, Luke 8:41). Jesus healed the servant of the centurion, who built this synagogue (Matt 8:5, Luke 7:3). This centurion built it because he loved the nation. Jesus gave the sermon on the bread of life (John 6:35-59). This was just after feeding the 5,000. Vista panorámica de la sinagoga de Capernaum.

12 Capernaum synagogue carved lintel
Dintel tallado de la entrada a la sinagoga de Capernaum Capernaum synagogue carved lintel

13 Capernaum synagogue interior
Interior of the Synagogue Benches on which the elders sat lined the inside wall. There were probably mats on the floor inside for people to sit on (Strange and Shanks 1983: 26). The architrave was originally a single piece of limestone, but it has been broken. The corner columns are heart shaped. The synagogue in Capernaum is a typical Galilean synagogue. The doors face Jerusalem and the worshippers prayed in that direction. The Torah must have been wheeled around to the door area (see the inscription found with Torah on a cart). Later synagogues have doors on the opposite side from Jerusalem. Interior de la sinagoga

14 Capernaum synagogue interior
Jesus preached the “bread of life” sermon in the synagogue of Capernaum (John 6:16-59). John 6:59 (KJV) “These things said he in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.” Interior de la sinagoga

15 Capernaum synagogue with earlier basalt level
Sinagoga de Capernaum – cimientos de basalto originales Capernaum synagogue with earlier basalt level The entire length (78 ft) of the western wall of the 1st century synagogue has been uncovered.

16 Capernaum synagogue with earlier basalt level
The basalt stones underneath the white stones of the reconstructed synagogue are not just the foundation for it. It is noteworthy that the basalt stones are not aligned. At the southern end, the white stones are off by about 9 inches (23 cm). Primitivos cimientos de basalto de la sinagoga

17 Lectura Lucas 4:31-37 Santiago 2:19

18 Mr. 1:21-45 Ejemplo de estructura Chiástica

19 A. Jesús expulsa a un demonio de un hombre
A. Jesús expulsa a un demonio de un hombre. Contraste entre Jesús y los escribas (1:21-27). B. La fama de Jesús sale de la sinagoga a toda Galilea (1:28) C. La suegra de Simón es sanada (1:29-31). D. Resumen de sanidades, exorcismos, identidad de Cristo (1:32-34). C. Simón interrumpe la oración de Cristo (1:35-38). Jesús sale a las sinagogas de toda Galilea (1:39). A. Jesús hace salir la lepra de un hombre. Contraste entre Jesús y los sacerdotes (1:40-45)

20 Sanidad de la suegra de Pedro Lectura
Lucas 4:38-41 Mateo 8:14-17 “Tocó” “Reprendió” Poder de la palabra Notar en Mateo, la conexión con Is. 53:4

21 Capernaum Franciscan church over Peter's house
Traditional House of Peter Scripture references: Matthew 8:14; 9:27-31; 17:25; Mark 1:29; 2:1; 3:20; 9:33. The remains of the church are from the 5th century A.D. and are located over the traditional location of the house of Peter. The evidence indicates that the traditional location of Peter’s house is correct. The tradition is strong. It is a fisherman’s house, in the fisherman’s quarter of the village. The owner of this house was apparently wealthy based on the size of the home. Egeria wrote in her diary (4th century A.D.) that the house of St. Peter had been turned into a church. “In Capernaum the house of the prince of the apostles [Peter] has been made into a church, with its original walls still standing…. There also is the synagogue where the Lord cured a man possessed by the devil. The way into it, is up many stairs, and it is made of dressed stone.” This area was in fact turned into a church. This makes for a strong suggestion that it is the right spot. Clearly, it was an early Christian worship center. One home from the 1st century received more attention than others in later centuries. The house was enlarged in the 4th century, at the expense of the nearby houses. In the 5th century, the house was removed and a church was built. Inscriptions mentioning Jesus and Peter were found in the house (in Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Syriac). Sacred and devotional graffiti have been left but their dates are uncertain. “We are skeptical of this alleged inscriptional support for identifying the original house as St. Peter’s” (Strange and Shanks 1982: 36). There is a baptismal with the mosaic of a peacock. The peacock was an early Christian symbol because the plucked feather of a peacock would not change colors, thus it was eternal. Capernaum Iglesia franciscana sobre la casa de Pedro

22 Capernaum Peter's house
Casa de Pedro Capernaum Peter's house Epiphanius, writing in 374, said that Capernaum was one of the towns in which the Jews forbade Gentiles, Samaritans and Christians to live there. Apparently this was not enforceable, and rabbinic texts indicate that this was a site of considerable tension between Jews and Christians.

23 La casa de Pedro desde arriba, de la iglesia

24 Capernaum basalt houses
Casas de basalto Capernaum basalt houses Basalt Homes The center house has a large courtyard, and the residences are off to the side. The small rooms indicate that this was not an affluent community. The poorly constructed walls were held together with mortar. Windows between the rooms were built to increase ventilation and lighting. Basalt cannot be used to span great lengths. The maximum length is 8 ft. Otherwise it will crack under its own weight. However, with a series of arches a larger span can be made for bigger rooms. There are a series of three insulae (extended houses here) but it is hard to discern where one ends and one begins. The roofs were made of packed clay or tiles. Peter’s house had a packed clay roof, and was only one story. It was into this that his friends tore a hole (Mark 2:1ff).

25 Hay más énfasis en lo que hace el maestro, de lo que dice.
El evangelio de Marcos NO contiene grandes bloques de enseñanza, como el de Mateo, pero se ve que todo lo que Jesús hace es enseñanza. Mr. 1:27 menciona que es una nueva enseñanza, pero no aparece una enseñanza, sino acciones.

26 La identidad de Cristo. Mr. 1:24, 34, y otros pasajes — Jesús no permitía (o les decía) que no hablaran de quién era él o de lo qué había hecho. ¿Quién conoce la identidad de Cristo, y quién no? Los demonios sí. Los apóstoles no, a pesar del tiempo juntos y la instrucción privada. La última frase dicha por un discípulo, en Marcos es: “No conozco a este hombre de quien habláis” (RV60)    

27 Lectura Marcos 1:35-38 Seguía la voluntad de Dios, quizás no era popular.

28 Lectura Mateo 4:23-25 Lucas 4:44 dice: “Sinagogas de Galilea”. Inglés dice: “de Judea”. El griego dice: “de los judíos”.

29 Gamla desde el Este Gamla from east The Eastern Wall
The natural defenses of Gamla meant that only the eastern side needed to be protected against invaders.  In 66 A.D., Jewish rebels fortified this wall in advance of the Roman march across Galilee. 

30 Sinagoga de Gamla Gamla synagogue ruins The Synagogue
The synagogue stood near the city's entrance. It is one of the earliest known synagogues in Israel, dated to the early 1st century A.D. This synagogue was built in the typical "Galilean" style with three rows of columns, tiers of side benches, heart-shaped corner pillars, and an alcove for Torah scrolls in the northwest corner.  The ceiling was supported by ornamented pillars, adorned with capitals, and the floor was unpaved and probably covered by rugs. This is the only synagogue known archaeologically that was built within city limits while the Temple was still in existence.

31 Gamla synagogue from above
Sinagoga de Gamla desde arriba Gamla synagogue from above

32 Sinagoga de Gamla

33 Sinagoga de Gamla Gamla synagogue

34 Contexto cultural e histórico de los maestros y los rabís
La palabra para maestro en hebreo es rav. El sufijo i significa mi. Entonces rabí significa mi maestro.

35 Maestros de la Torá Dominaban solamente la Torá.
Sabían el Pentateuco de memoria y podían trabajar con él. Contaban historias. Conectaban ideas. Podían pensar en parábolas o aplicaciones nuevas.

36 Sólo podían enseñar lo que ya había aprobado la comunidad como doctrina correcta.
No podían enseñar nueva doctrina.

37 Patrón de enseñanza de los Maestros de la Torá
“Escrito está” — citaban el texto. “Y esto significa” — Explicaban con parábola, aliteración, etc. Citaban a una autoridad como al Rabí Akiva o a Hillel que apoyaban su enseñanza.

38 Rabís con “Smicha” Smicha: Autoridad.
Eran maestros de la Torá y del Haf-Torá (resto del A. T.). Sabían de memoria todo el A. T. Eran profesores excepcionales. Muchos sanaban. Recibían smicha para enseñar nuevas ideas de Dios que nadie había enseñado antes.

39 Patrón de enseñanza de los Rabís con smicha
“Escrito está” — citaban el texto “Oyeron que significa esto….” “Pero yo les digo que significa esto…” Al finalizar el Sermón del Monte (Mt. 7:29), cuando Jesús enseñó así, ¿Por qué se asombró la multitud? Porque enseñó como uno que tenía smicha.

40 ¿Cómo obtenía uno smicha?
Debía saber de memoria el A. T. Otros dos otros rabís con smicha le imponeían las manos y Lo declaraban públicamente, como uno que también tenía autoridad de Dios para traer enseñanzas nuevas.

41 Mateo 21:23-27

42 Jesús deja entrever que Juan le dio una smicha que provenía del mismo lugar que la suya.
En el bautismo de Jesús, Dios confirmó que la smicha dada a su hijo, procede directamente del cielo. Jesús fue el único rabí en la historia que recibido su smicha así.

43 ¿De dónde vino la smicha original?
Números 11:24-25 El Espíritu viene sobre los 70 ancianos en el tiempo de Moisés y Aarón.

44 Los rabís con smicha eran los que tenían talmidim, o discípulos.
Un alumno quiere saber lo que sabe el maestro (Mt. 10:24-25). Un discípulo (talmid) quiere ser como su maestro.

45 IV. El Sermón del Monte


47 Vista aérea de la línea costera del Mar de Galilea
Corazín Mt. de las bienaventuranzas Capernaum Betsaida Caná Mágdala

48 Plain of Gennesaret from Arbel
The Plain of Gennesaret (Ginosaur) The plain is about 5 miles long and 2 miles wide. It is 4 miles north of Tiberias. Gennesaret sometimes gives its name to the Sea of Galilee (Luke 5:1; 1 Macc 11:67). The International Highway passes through this plain. The region is also known as Dalmanutha (Mark 8:10). Dalmanutha is a Syriac word for “harbor.” This is a fitting name as it was an area of many ships, shipyard workers, and stores. Llanura de Genesaret desde Arbel

49 Monte de Bienaventuranzas
Mount of Beatitudes The Sermon on the Mount or Sermon on the Plain? The so-called "Sermon on the Mount" is recorded in Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6.  The alleged discrepancy between Matthew's version being on a hill and Luke's being on a level place is easily reconciled by observing the many level places on the Galilean hillsides. 

50 Church of the Beatitudes
Iglesia de Bienaventuranzas

51 Mt of Beatitudes and Sea of Galilee to southeast
Monte de bienaventuranzas y Mar de Galilea al sureste Mt of Beatitudes and Sea of Galilee to southeast The Beatitudes “Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake” (Matt 5:3-11, KJV).

52 Mount of Beatitudes hillside
Monte de bienaventuranzas Mount of Beatitudes hillside

53 Tabgha harbor aerial from south
A small harbor north of the Church of the Primacy of St. Peter is visible when the water level is m (694 ft) below sea level or lower. Two breakwaters form this harbor. The curved, western breakwater is 60 m (197 ft) long and is connected to the shore by many rocks. The breakwater perpendicular to the shore is 40 m (130 ft) long, and the basin is 30 m (98 ft) wide with an entrance from east.

54 Tabgha aerial from north
Tabga (Magadan) del norte


56 Dos versiones del mismo discurso.
Dos discursos distintos en dos momentos en dos lugares diferentes. Primero veremos la versión de Lucas. El contenido de esta enseñanza de Jesús es algo que él, posiblemente, hubiera repetido en las sinagogas y en muchos otros lugares.

57 Los Principios de vida en el Reino de Dios
Mostrar la intención de Dios detrás de la ley. Enfatiza la parte interna (el corazón), y no la externa (las apariencias). Enfocarse en los resultados eternos y no los temporales. Destacar la batalla entre dos amos, dos reinos y dos caminos.

58 ¿Ha venido el Reino de Dios?
La tensión entre “Ya Está” y “No Todavía”. Ejemplo de la invasión final en la segunda guerra mundial.

59 Las Bienaventuranzas Lectura Mateo 5:1-12 Lucas 6:17-26
7 cualidades (perfección) del ciudadano del reino y un resultado de esa vida. 10 declaraciones para comparar con los 10 mandamientos.

60 Como un índice de los contenidos del sermón en el libro de Mateo.
Mt. 5:3 cp. Mt. 5:39-42, 6:1-7 Mt. 5:4 cp. Mt. 5:11-12 Mt. 5:5 cp. Mt. 5:39-42 Mt. 5:6 todo el Sermón Mt. 5:7 cp. Mt. 5:23-26, 43-48, 6:1-4, 7:1-5 Mt. 5:8 cp. Mt. 5:27-30, 6:22-24, 7:17-20 Mt. 5:9 cp. Mt. 5:21-26, 38-48, 6:14-15, 7:1-5

61 La Sal Los judíos hacían sus fuegos para cocinar en un horno con forma de colmena. Quemaban las pieles y los carozos de las aceitunas, y excremento de animales. Si se mezcla sal con el combustible, el fuego es más caliente y duradero. Después de ser usada en 10 fuegos, la sal pierde esta propiedad. Entonces la sacan y la tiran fuera, porque ya no sirve más.

62 La finalidad de sal. Darle sabor a la comida. Preservar. Medio de pago (a los soldados se les pagaba su “salario” con sal). Mejorar el fuego (cuando se la mezclaba con los combustibles). ¿Aplicación?

63 La Luz La función de la luz es alumbrar. Ap. 2:5 - Candeleros quitados. Mat. 25: Talentos perdidos

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