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© Boardworks Ltd 2003 Grammar 4 The comparative and the superlative The immediate future The future tense The conditional tense The subjunctive Impersonal.

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Presentación del tema: "© Boardworks Ltd 2003 Grammar 4 The comparative and the superlative The immediate future The future tense The conditional tense The subjunctive Impersonal."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Grammar 4 The comparative and the superlative The immediate future The future tense The conditional tense The subjunctive Impersonal se Verbs which take the infinitive

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The comparative and the superlative 1 When you compare two or more things, you will probably need to use the words más and que. Más means more and you can use it to say that something is more important, bigger, smaller, more interesting etc. El coche es más rápido que la bicicleta. Cars are faster (more fast) than bikes. Un taxi es más caro que un autobús. A taxi is more expensive than a bus.

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Menos works in the same way, but means the opposite. It is used to say that something is less big, fast, expensive than something else. El autobús es menos rápido que el coche. The bus is less fast than the car. El tren es menos peligroso que la moto. The train is less dangerous than the motorbike. With both más and menos, it is important that you remember to make the adjective agree with what is being described: La bicicleta es más rápida que ir a pie. The comparative and the superlative 2

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Both más and menos can be used with adverbs as well as adjectives, to say that someone is doing something more quickly, less slowly etc than someone else: Voy en coche más lentamente que tú. I drive more slowly than you. Llegué menos rápidamente que mi amigo. I arrived less quickly than my friend. The comparative and the superlative 3

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 There are some irregular forms to remember, however. If you want to say that something is better or worse than something else, you need to use the following expressions: Mi coche es mejor que su coche. My car is better than his car. El coche de mi abuela es peor que mi coche. My grandmothers car is worse than my car. The comparative and the superlative 4

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The superlative is used to say that something is the biggest, the best, the most interesting, the least exciting etc. Look at the following sentences: El avión es el medio de transporte más rapido. The plane is the fastest mode of transport. Ir a pie es el medio de transporte menos rápido. Walking is the slowest mode of transport. The comparative and the superlative 5 menu

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The immediate future 1 Instead of using the full future tense in Spanish, you can use the present tense of the verb IR (to go) with an infinitive, which translates as "going to do something. Example: Voy a comer = I am going to eat The action you are describing is going to happen sometime in the immediate (near) future. To form the immediate future you need to use three things: 1. The correct part of the present tense of the verb IR. 2. The preposition a. 3. The infinitive of the verb you are going to do. Examples: Ana va a salir. Ana is going to go out. Yo no voy a salir. I am not going to go out. ¿Vas a salir? Are you going to go out?

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 IR = to go voy I am going vas you are going va he/she is going vamos we are going vais you are going van they are going a bailar comer salirhablar ver dormir cenar beber cantar vivir desayunar trabajarcharlar lavarse The immediate future 2

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 ¿Qué vas a hacer?Voy a dormir. Ahora, ¡haz unas frases! The immediate future 3 menu Voy a esquiar. Voy a visitar el museo. Voy a ir de compras. Voy a ir a las montañas.

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The future tense 1 This tense is used to refer to events and actions in the future. Example: I will go out later. Saldré más tarde. The good news is that it is easy to form. You use the same endings for all verbs even if they are irregular! Ejemplo: hablar = to talk Hablaré con el jefe mañana. I will talk to the boss tomorrow. How to form the future tense: 1.Take the infinitive of the verb 2.Add the following endings: -é ás á emos éis án.

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The future tense of regular verbs. hablar = to speak hablar é ás á emos éis án The future tense 2 I will speak you will speak he/she will speak we will speak you will speak they will speak

12 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Put the following verbs into the future. ir … ir … lavar … limpiar … ir … ir … beber … comer … escuchar vivir … abrir … comer … hablar … entrar 1.Mañana Paco ___ al instituto, pero Pepita no ___. 2.Mi padre _____ el coche, mi madre _______ la casa. 3.Tú ___ al teatro esta noche y después ___ a una cafetería. 4.Nosotros __________ café con leche y _________ churros. 5. Tú __________ música pop y música moderna. 6.Ellos ______ en el norte de España cerca de Santander. 7. Tú ______ el regalo especial el día de tu cumpleaños. 8. Ellos ________ patatas con salsa picante. 9.Vosotros _________ con el profesor después de la clase. 10. Yo ______ en la discoteca. irá lavará limpiará irás beberemoscomeremos escucharás vivirán abrirás comerán hablaréis entraré The future tense 3

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 There are only a few irregular verbs to learn when using the future tense. You use exactly the same endings as you do for the regular verbs. The irregular verbs are only irregular in the spelling of the stem. Example: decir = to say Stem change: dir You now add the same endings to this new stem. decir = to say dir é ás á I will say diremos dir éis án You will say He/she will say We will say You will say They will say The future tense 4Irregular verbs.

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Here is the list of verbs which have irregular stems in the future tense: Irregular stems:haber habr-habréI will have hacerhar- haré I will do poder podr- podré I will be able poner pondr- pondré I will put querer querr- querré I will want/love saber sabr- sabré I will know salir saldr- saldré I will leave tener tendr- tendré I will have venir vendr- vendré I will come Now choose one of these verbs and try to write it out in full! The future tense 5Irregular verbs.

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Now read these sentences and change the verb in blue into the future tense. 1. Mi amigo siempre dice la verdad. 2. Por la mañana hace sol en Granada. 3. Me pongo la corbata nueva. 4. Mis amigas no quieren salir. 5. Sabes hacer los deberes. 6. Venimos a tu casa el domingo. 7. ¿Sales el viernes que viene? 8. Tengo que llegar más temprano. 9. ¿Podéis hablar más despacio por favor? 10. Hay mucha gente en la calle durante la fiesta. dirá hará pondré querrán Sabrás Vendremos Saldrás Tendré Podréis Habrá The future tense 6Irregular verbs.

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Read the text. Can you put the verbs in brackets into the future tense? El sábado que viene, yo ( quedarse) en casa y (ver) la tele. El sábado por la tarde (ser) muy bueno, pero primero (tener) que arreglarme. Mis padres no (estar) en casa y (ser) posible ver todos mis programas preferidos. Por la tarde yo (ir) de compras al supermercado de al lado. (Comprar) dulces, caramelos y gaseosa. Sí señor, ¡yo (comprar) una caja de chocolates! Mis padres (salir) a las 7:00, así que después de volver de compras (sentarme) en el sofá y la tarde de la tele (empezar). Primero (ver) un concurso, TVE (poner) Millonario desde las 7:15 hasta las 8:15. Luego (cambiar) a TVE2 para ver una telenovela. Vecinos (durar) media hora. A las 8:45 (querer) llamar a mi amigo. A las 9:00 (tener) que ver una película especial de Mel Gibson que no he visto. ¡(Poder) pasarlo muy bien. No puedo esperar! The future tense 7

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 El sábado que viene, yo me quedaré en casa y veré la tele. El sábado por la tarde será muy bueno, pero primero tendré que arreglarme. Mis padres no estarán en casa y será posible ver todos mis programas preferidos. Por la tarde yo iré de compras al supermercado de al lado. Compraré dulces, caramelos y gaseosa. Sí señor, ¡yo compraré una caja de chocolates! Mis padres saldrán a las 7: 00, así que después de volver de compras me sentaré en el sofá y la tarde de la tele empezará. Primero veré un concurso, TVE pondrá Millonario desde las 7:15 hasta las 8:15. Luego cambiaré a TVE2 para ver una telenovela. Vecinos durará media hora. A las 8:45 querré llamar a mi amigo. A las 9:00 tendré que ver una película especial de Mel Gibson que no he visto. ¡Podré pasarlo muy bien. No puedo esperar! The future tense 8 menu Answers:

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The conditional tense 1 The conditional tense is used when you want to say would. You will most often see it used with the following verbs: se debería (one) you should no se debería (one) you shouldnt sería mejor it would be better

19 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Forming the conditional tense is easy! Just add the following endings onto the infinitive of the verb. (yo) hablar (tú) hablar (él/ella) hablar (nosotros) hablar (vosotros) hablar (ellos/ellas)hablar ía ías ía íamos íais ían This is the same for all verbs, e.g. comería / viviría / tomaría The conditional tense 2

20 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 HACER haría TENER tendría SALIR saldría QUERER querría The conditional tense 3 If you know the future tense, then you will recognize the irregular verbs in the conditional tense too, as they are exactly the same. Here are some examples:

21 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Fill in the gaps using one of the verbs at the bottom. 1. ______________ contaminar el medio ambiente. 2. ______________ ir en bici en vez de ir en coche. 3. Es una buena idea reciclar el plástico pero ______________ mejor reutilizarlo. 4. Si fuera rico, me ______________ una casa lujosa. 5. Si saco buenas notas ______________ ir a la universidad 6. ¿Qué ______________ si tuvieras mucho dinero? haríascompraríame gustaría seríadeberíamos no se debería No se debería Deberíamos sería compraría me gustaría harías The conditional tense 4

22 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Write what you would do in the following situations. Use your imagination! ¿Qué harías si… fueras presidente de los Estados Unidos? fueras director/a de tu instituto? tuvieras muchísimo dinero? fueras un perro / gato? pudieras volar? pudieras elegir cualquier trabajo? The conditional tense 5 menu

23 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Look at the following sentence: Mi madre no soporta a mi novio, no quiere que hable con él por teléfono, que salga con él y ¡además no quiere que entre en casa! The verb endings are different than you would expect. This is because you have to use a different form when you are telling someone that you want them to do / not to do something, using quiero que. This form is called the subjunctive. To form the subjunctive, replace the a of the present tense endings with e for - ar verbs and the e of the present tense of -er/-ir verbs with a. Example: Mi madre no quiere que hable por teléfono. (not hablo) Quiero que me compres una manzana. (not compras) Mi médico quiere que coma menos. (not como) Quiero que comas todo. (not comes) The subjunctive 1

24 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Mi madre no quiere que hable por teléfono. Quiero que me compres una manzana. Mi médico quiere que coma menos. Quiero que comas todo. What do these sentences mean? My mother doesnt want me to speak on the phone. I want you to buy me an apple. My doctor wants me to eat less. I want you to eat everything. The subjunctive 2

25 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Irregular verbs in the subjunctive. estar esté / estés etc dar dé / des etc. ser sea / seas etc. ir vaya / vayas etc. saber sepa / sepas etc. NB because you take the first person of the present tense, the following verbs look like this in the subjunctive: tener tenga salir salga hacer haga poner ponga volver vuelva decir diga etc. The subjunctive 3

26 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 You use the subjunctive to express a wish / like / order: e.g. Do you want me to help you with your homework? But which of the following is in the subjunctive? A)¿Quieres ayuda con los deberes? B)¿Quieres que te ayude con los deberes? ¿Quieres que te ayude con los deberes? Only the second sentence has two verbs, each with a different subject, and this is when the subjunctive is needed. The subjunctive 4

27 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Make sentences using the subjunctive! Mis padres (no) quieren que: 1.salir 2.ver la tele 3.escuchar 4.ir de vacaciones 5.tener Mis profesores (no) quieren que: 1.estudiar 2.escuchar 3.ser 4.entregar 5.hablar The subjunctive 5 menu

28 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Impersonal se 1 In English, if we dont want to refer to anyone specific, we can use the following forms: In England, we eat dinner earlier than in Spain. In England, you eat dinner earlier than in Spain. In England, one eats dinner earlier than in Spain. To do the same in Spanish, you can use whats called the impersonal se. Look at the following sentences: En España se desayuna muy rápido. In Spain we have / one has breakfast quickly. Normalmente se come un primer plato de ensalada o tortilla. Normally we eat / one eats a first course of salad or tortilla. Se bebe un refresco con la comida. We drink / one drinks a soft drink with lunch.

29 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Another way of translating this into English is by using the passive voice, i.e. is done. En España la comida se come sobre las 2 o 3. Lunch is eaten at around 2 or 3 oclock. En España se habla español. In Spain, Spanish is spoken. Impersonal se 2

30 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Put the verb in brackets in the following sentences into the impersonal se form. 1.En Inglaterra inglés. 2.En mi colegio mucho. 3.En un restaurante la comida. 4.En una discoteca mucho. 5.En España la cena a las 9 o 10. (hablar) (estudiar) (comer) (bailar) (tomar) se toma se habla se estudia se come se baila Impersonal se 3 menu

31 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Verbs which take the infinitive 1 aconsejar = to advise to parecer = to seem to conseguir = to manage to pedir = to ask to deber = to have to pensar = to intend to decidir = to decide to poder = to be able to esperar = to hope to querer = to want to intentar = to try to There are certain verbs which are always followed by an infinitive. Here are some of them: 1.I advise you to eat. 2. He managed to arrive early. 3.She must leave. 4. We decided to come. 5. They hope to win. 6. I tried to phone you. 7. It seems to be true. 8. He asked to talk to the secretary. 9. I intend to earn a lot of money. 10.Do you (tú) want to go to the town centre? Now try putting these sentences into Spanish:

32 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Verbs which take the infinitive 2 Respuestas: 1.Le aconsejo comer. 2.Consiguió llegar temprano. 3.(Ella) debe irse. 4.Decidimos venir. 5.Esperan ganar. 6.Intenté llamarte por teléfono. 7.Parece ser verdad. 8.Pidió hablar con el secretario. 9.Pienso ganar mucho dinero. 10.¿Quieres ir al centro de la ciudad?

33 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 There are other verbs which are followed by an infinitive but which also have a preposition like a, de, en or por: Verbs which use: de en por a + infinitive + infinitive + infinitive + infinitive empezar = to begin acabar = to have insistir = to insist acabar = to just…finish enseñar = to teach cansarse = to getpensar = to think of empezar = to aprender = to learn tired tardar = to take start by decidirse = to decide dejar = to stop a while to volver = to do again ir = to be going tratar = to try acordarse = to remember Verbs which take the infinitive 3

34 © Boardworks Ltd We began to get tired. 2. She stopped watching the programme. 3. They decided to go. 4. It began to rain. 5. We taught him how to swim. 6. He insisted on accompanying me. 7. They thought of not coming. 8. You took a long time to return. 9. I finished by eating everything. 10. Did you (tú) remember to bring it? Respuestas: 1. Empezamos a cansarnos. 2. (Ella) dejó de ver el programa. 3. Se decidieron a irse. 4. Empezó a llover. 5. Le enseñamos a nadar. 6. (El) insistió en acompañarme. 7. Pensaron en no venir. 8. Tardaste en volver. (or) Tardasteis en volver. 9. Acabé por comerlo todo. 10.¿Te acordaste de traerlo? Verbs which take the infinitive 4 menu Now try to put these sentences into Spanish:


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