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Working with Stem-Changing Verbs How verbs change.

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Presentación del tema: "Working with Stem-Changing Verbs How verbs change."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Working with Stem-Changing Verbs How verbs change

2 What is a stem-changing verb? Stem-changing verbs are like other verbs in Spanish, except they are a little irregular when you go to conjugate them, meaning they dont keep the same pattern that you are used to when conjugating normal verbs. For example, hablar, comer, and salir are all examples of normal –ar, -er, and –ir verbs. This means that when we go to conjugate them, they follow a simple, regular pattern of conjugation.

3 Regular Verbs vs. Stem-changing Verbs For example, HABLAR: Hablar yonosotros tú él/ella/u sted ellos, ellas, ustedes hablo hablas habla hablamos hablan

4 Regular Verbs vs. Stem-changing Verbs However, stem-changing verbs also make an additional change in the spelling of the word before adding the conjugated endings, except in the nosotros y vosotros forms. empezar (e ie) yonosotros tú él/ella/u sted ellos, ellas, ustedes empiezo empiezas empieza empezamos empiezan

5 How to I recognize stem-changing verbs? There is good news and bad news. The bad news is that there is no fast and easy way to identify if a new verb is a stem-changing verb without seeing some examples of conjugations or looking it up in the dictionary. The good news is that there are only really three main classes of stem-changing verbs: o ue e ie e i(u ue)

6 How to I recognize stem- changing verbs? A few more helpful hints: 1.The only verbs that change from e i are all –ir verbs. 2.If you know a verb is a stem- changing verb and it has an o, it most likely is an o ue stem- changing verb. 3.Learn stem-changing verbs by ear (what sounds right) and memorization. 4.Practice makes perfect!

7 Lets practice conjugating a stem-changing verb. Carlos ir al cine. Carlos (to want) to go to the movie theatre. querer First, we need to ask ourselves, Are we conjugating for nosotros or vosotros? If so, we can just conjugate normally since there is no spelling change for nosotros or vosotros. The answer is no. We are conjugating for CARLOS or in other words, él.

8 Lets practice conjugating a stem-changing verb. Carlos ir al cine. Carlos (to want) to go to the movie theatre. querer Second, we need to find the stem. We do this by taking off the –ar, -er, or –ir. In this case, we take the –er off of querer. quer This leaves us with the stem that we need to change based upon the type of stem-changer it is.

9 Lets practice conjugating a stem-changing verb. Carlos ir al cine. Carlos (to want) to go to the movie theatre. Now we need to change the spelling of our stem, based upon the type of stem- changer that the verb is. We need to ask ourselves, what kind of stem-changer is QUERER? The answer is e ie. How do I know this? I memorized it. quer

10 Lets practice conjugating a stem-changing verb. Carlos ir al cine. Carlos (to want) to go to the movie theatre. Now that we know that it is an e ie stem-changing verb, we need to locate the vowel that must be changed. Look for the last e in the stem. Many times this is the only e in the stem. quer

11 Lets practice conjugating a stem-changing verb. Carlos ir al cine. Carlos (to want) to go to the movie theatre. Now that we know that it is an e ie stem-changing verb and we have found the correct vowel to change, now we change the vowel to the other vowel(s) we need to make the stem-change. Because querer is an e ie stem-changing verb, we will change it to ie. quer quier

12 Lets practice conjugating a stem-changing verb. Carlos ir al cine. Carlos (to want) to go to the movie theatre. Now we have our stem changed, we just need to conjugate the verb as we would normally for the type of verb it is. In this case, an –er verb since QUERER ends iner. Since Carlos is our subject, we want to conjugate for él by adding the normal –e ending. quiere

13 empezar (e ie) yonosotros tú él/ella /usted ellos, ellas, ustedes There is a fairly large group of verbs in Spanish that undergo changes in their stem when conjugated in the present tense. When a line is drawn around the forms that change, the resulting shape vaguely resembles a boot, and so sometimes these verbs are called boot/shoe verbs. There are three types or classes of boot verbs. There is also jugar which changes from u ue. empiezo empiezas empieza empezamos empiezan

14 e entender entiendo entiendes entiende entendemos entendéis entienden e ie Type 1: e ie Well use entender, to understand, as an example of this type. The stem undergoes the change only when stressed. Yo Tú Él, Ella Usted Nosotros Vosotros Ellos, Ellas Ustedes

15 Here are some other common e ie verbs: empezar to begin pensar [en] (+infinitive) to think; to plan (to do something) perder to lose querer to want, to love preferir to prefer

16 tengo tienes tiene tenemos tenéis tienen tener, venir The verbs tener and venir are what might be called partial stem-changing verbs; the yo forms do not have the stem change, but they do change their stems. vengo vienes viene venimos venís vienen Tengo exámenes mañana. I have exams tomorrow. Vengo de la biblioteca. Im coming from the library. Yo Tú Él, Ella Usted Nosotros Vosotros Ellos, Ellas Ustedes Yo Tú Él, Ella Usted Nosotros Vosotros Ellos, Ellas Ustedes

17 servir sirvo sirves sirve servimos servís sirven Type 2: e i Well use servir, to serve, as an example of this type. Note: All e i verbs are - ir verbs. Yo Tú Él, Ella Usted Nosotros Vosotros Ellos, Ellas Ustedes

18 Here are some other common e i verbs: repetir to repeat, to have a second helping pedir to ask for, to request conseguir to get, to obtain seguir to follow

19 digo dices dice decimos decís dicen decir The verb decir is another partial stem-changing verb; the yo form does not have the stem change, but they do change their stems. Digo la verdad. I am telling the truth. Yo Tú Él, Ella Usted Nosotros Vosotros Ellos, Ellas Ustedes

20 almorzar almuerzo almuerzas almuerza almorzamos almorzáis almuerzan Type 3: o ue Well use almorzar, to have lunch, as an example of this type. Yo Tú Él, Ella Usted Nosotros Vosotros Ellos, Ellas Ustedes

21 jugar juego juegas juega jugamos jugáis juegan The verb jugar, to play (games or sports), follows the same pattern as o ue verbs, but the change is u ue. Yo Tú Él, Ella Usted Nosotros Vosotros Ellos, Ellas Ustedes

22 Here are some other common o ue verbs: volver to go back, to return to a place costar* to cost dormir to sleep encontrar to find poder to be able; can recordar to remember soñar (con) to dream (about) * Costar is normally used only in the third persons.

23 Lets practice conjugating a stem-changing verb. Carlos ir al cine. Carlos (to want) to go to the movie theatre. So this is how you conjugate a stem- changing verb. It really isnt that hard, is it? Remember the steps: 1.If it is for nosotros, conjugate normally. 2.Find the stem. 3.Find the correct vowel. 4.Change the vowel to the new vowel(es). 5.Add the correct conjugated ending. quiere

24 A couple of things to remember… Remember that TENER, DECIR, and VENIR are irregular verbs as well and not only stem- changing verbs. They all take an –go in the yo form instead of the regular spelling change This only happens in the yo form. VerboTener e ie Venir e ie Decir e i Yo tengovengodigo

25 Now, why dont you try? 1.El libro (costar) mucho dinero. 2.Los estudiantes (devolver) los papeles de Sr. Bowerman. 3.Yo (dormir) mucho los fines de semana. 4.Nosotros (encontrar) a la abuela en la cocina. 5.El maestro (mostrar) cómo hacer la tarea.

26 Now, why dont you try? 1.El gato (morir) porque no tiene comida. 2.Tú (poder) hacer la tarea muy bien. 3.Mis hermanos (probar) la comida mexicana. 4.Mi padre (recordar) mi cumpleaños cada año. 5.Jesus (volver) muy pronto.

27 Now, you try… 1.Yo (cerrar) la puerta de la casa. 2.Nosotros (despertar) a las seis para ir a la escuela. 3.David (empezar) la tarea antes de ver la televisión. 4.Los estudiantes (entender) el español. 5.¿Tú y Marcos (pensar) en venir a Shiloh?

28 Now, you try… 1.Las chicas (perder) el juego. 2.Tú (preferir) tomar soda. 3.Yo (querer) comer pizza. 4.Los niños (sentar) en la alfombra. 5.Nosotros lo (sentir) mucho. 6.Sr. Jones (venir) a la clase.

29 Now, you try… 1.Tú quieres (conseguir) un libro de francés. 2.Yo (decir) la verdad. 3.Nosotros (despedir) a Carlos hoy a las tres. 4.David (pedir) ayuda con la tarea. 5.Ellos (reír) mucho. 6.Tú (repetir) la pregunta.

30 Now, you try… 1.Todos los niños (seguir) a la maestra. 2.Yo (servir) a Cristo. 3.Nosotros (sonreír) mucho. 4.Tú (vestir) en tu mejor vestido para la fiesta.


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