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EQUIPO PROTECTIVO PERSONAL

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Presentación del tema: "EQUIPO PROTECTIVO PERSONAL"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 EQUIPO PROTECTIVO PERSONAL
This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA 10-hour General Industry outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.

2 Protegiendo empleados por peligros en el trabajo
Empleadores deben de proteger a los empleados de peligros en el trabajo, tales como maquinarias, sustancias peligrosas y procedimientos de trabajo peligrosos que puedan causar lesiones. Empleadors deben de : Usar todo los controles de ingenieria y practicas de trabajo factibles para eliminar o reducir peligros. Usar equipo protectivo personal si estos controles no eliminan el peligro. Recuerden, PPE es el ultimo nivel de control! Additional information: OSHA Instruction CPL 2.103, Field Inspection Reference Manual, Chapter IV, Section A 29 CFR 1910, Subpart I, Appendix B (e)

3 Controles de Ingenieria
Si. . . La maquina o el ambiente de trabajo puede ser fisicamente cambiado para prevenir exposicion del empleado a un peligro potencial, Entonces . . . El peligro puede ser eliminado con un control de ingenieria.

4 Controles de Ingenieria
Ejemplos . . . Especificaciones de diseño inicial Sustituir materiales menos dañinos Cambiar procesos Encerrar procesos Aislar procesos Ventilacion

5 Controles de Practicas de Trabajo
Si . . . Empleados pueden ser removidos de la exposicion al peligro potencial cambiando la manera que hacen el trabajo, Entonces . . . El peligro puede ser eliminado con un control de practica de trabajo

6 Controles de Practica de Trabajo
Uso de metodo mojado para suprimir el polvo Higiene personal Limpieza y mantenimiento Rotacion de los obreros Ejemplos . . . Note: Job rotation of workers only reduces exposure – it does not eliminate the hazard. Machine Shop Example: A milling operation produces large quantities of metal chips that fly all over the surrounding work areas. Recognizing that flying metal chips were a potential hazard to employees in the surrounding areas, the machine shop owner had to decide how best to protect the workers. Option 1—Engineering and work practice controls: Engineering control - Enclose the milling operation or install a deflector to contain the metal chips and prevent them from flying into the surrounding areas. Work practice control - Operate the machine only at certain times of the day when adjacent operations have stopped. Option 2—PPE: Provide employees with safety goggles or safety glasses with side shields. Option 1 is more effective since enclosing the operation will eliminate the hazard of flying metal chips. Providing a deflector will contain most, if not all, of the flying chips. In a machine shop, however, safety glasses should also be required for added protection.

7 Ejemplos de PPE Ojos-espejuelos de seguridad.
Cara - mascaras protectoras Cabeza - cascos Pies - zapatos de seguridad Manos y brazos - guantes Cuerpo - chalecos Oidos - tapones, orejeras NOTE: Respirators and electrical protective equipment (gloves, sleeves, blankets, etc.) are also considered PPE. However, because OSHA has specific requirements for them, they are not discussed here.

8 Estableciendo un programa de PPE
Establece procedimientos para seleccionar, proveer y usar PPE como parte de las operaciones de rutina de un empleador. Primero- Evaluar el lugar de trabajo para determinar si hay peligros presentes, o que puedan estar presentes, que hagan necesario el uso de PPE Una vez que el apropiado PPE ha sido seleccionado, el empleador debe de proveer entrenamiento a cada empleado que requiera usar PPE (d) If all feasible engineering and work practice controls are in place, but employees are still exposed to potential hazards, PPE must be provided. See Checklist B in OSHA Publication 3151, Assessing the Need for PPE, A Guide for Small Business Employers, to assess the need for PPE.

9 Entrenamiento Cuando es el PPE necesario.
Empleados requeridos a usar PPE deben de estar entrenados a conocer por lo menos lo siguiente: Cuando es el PPE necesario. Que tipo de PPE es necesario. Como ponerselo apropiadamente, quitarselo, ajustarlo y usarlo. Limitaciones del PPE Cuidado apropiado, mantenimiento, duracion y desecho (f) Each affected employee must demonstrate an understanding of the required training, and the ability to use PPE properly, before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of PPE. When the employee does not have the required skill and understanding, retraining is required. Written certification of completion of training is required.

10 Proteccion para los ojos
Employers must provide eye protection for employees whenever they are exposed to potential eye injuries during their work if engineering or work practice controls do not eliminate the risk of injury. Eye and face PPE purchased after July 5, 1994 must comply with ANSI Z , American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, and must be distinctly marked to facilitate identification of the manufacturer.

11 Algunas de las causas de lesiones a los ojos
Polvo y otras particuas volantes, tales como aserrin y virutas de metal. Metales derretidos que puedan salpicar. Acidos y otras quimicas liquidas causticas que puedan salpicar. Sangre y otros fluidos potencialmente infectados del cuerpo que puedan salpicar o ser rociados. Luz intensa creadas por soldadura o laser.

12 Espejuelos o gafas de seguridad
Hechos con armaduras de seguridad de plastico o metal. Muchas operaciones requieren proteccion a los lados Usados para impacto moderado de particulas producidas por trabajos tales como carpinteria, trabajo en madera, amolando o raspando

13 Mascara para ojos (Goggles)
Protejen los ojos y el area facial alrededor de los ojos de impactos, polvos y salpicaduras. Algunas se usan por encima de espejuelos de prescripcion Corrective lenses include contacts and glasses.

14 Mascaras o cascos de soldar
Protegen los ojos de quemaduras causadas por luz radiante o infraroja. Protegen la cara y ojos de chispas, salpicaduras de metal, y metal derretido producidos durante la soldadura y corte con antorcha de los metales. (a)(5) Also see 1910 Subpart Q, Welding, Cutting & Brazing.

15 Espejuelos de seguridad contra laser
Protegen los ojos de las intensas concentraciones de luz producidas por la luz de lasers.

16 Mascaras para la cara Protejen la cara de polvos y salpicaduras o rocios de quimicas peligrosas. No protegen a los empleados por peligros de impacto

17 Proteccion para la cabeza

18 Algunas de las causas de lesiones a cabeza
Objetos que se caen Dandose en la cabeza contra objetos fijos, tales como tuberias y vigas expuestas. Contacto con conductores electricos expuestos.

19 Clases de Cascos Clase A (ANSI Z89.1 1997) Clase G
Servicio General ( construccion, manufactura, etc.) Buena proteccion contra impacto, proteccion hasta 2,200 voltios Clase B =Clase E (1997) Trabajo electrico Protege contra objetos que caen y quemaduras y choques de alto voltaje hasta 20,000 voltios Clase C= Clase C (1997) Diseñado para conforte, ofrece proteccion limitada Protege la cabeza contra golpes con objetos, pero no protege contra objetos que caen o choque electrico Hard hats require a hard outer shell and a shock-absorbing lining. The lining should incorporate a head band and straps that suspend the shell from 1 to 1-1/4 inches away from the user’s head to provide shock absorption during impact and ventilation during wear. Protective helmets purchased after July 5, 1994, must comply with ANSI Z , whereas those purchased before this date must meet the ANSI Z standard. Look at the inside of any protective helmet you are considering for your employees, and you should see a label showing the manufacturer’s name, the ANSI standard it meets, and its class. NOTE: Helmets must be worn as designed to be in compliance with ANSI standards. Do not wear helmets backwards. Employers must make sure that hard hats continue to provide sufficient protection to employees by training employees in the proper use and maintenance of hard hats, including daily inspection. Remove hard hats from service if the suspension system shows signs of deterioration or no longer holds the shell away from the employee’s head. Also make sure the brim or shell is not cracked, perforated or deformed or shows signs of exposure to heat, chemicals, or ultraviolet light. Limit use of paints and stickers which can hide signs of deterioration in the hard hat shell. Paints, paint thinners, and some cleaning agents can weaken the shell of the hard hat and may eliminate electrical resistance.

20 Proteccion para los oidos
Determining the need to provide hearing protection is complicated. Employee exposure to excessive noise depends upon several factors: - How loud is the noise as measured in decibels (dBA)? - What is the duration of each employee’s exposure to noise? - Do employees move between separate work areas with different noise levels? - Is noise generated from one source or multiple sources? Generally, the louder the noise, the shorter the exposure time before you must provide hearing protection. See the OSHA technical link for Noise and Hearing Conservation and go to Section III, Chapter 5, “Noise Measurement,” at

21 Protectores de Oidos Orejeras Tapones Cobertores 1910.95(b)(1)
Employers must implement feasible engineering controls and work practices before resorting to PPE such as earmuffs, earplugs, or canal caps. If engineering and work practice controls do not lower employee noise exposure to acceptable levels, then employers must provide employees with appropriate PPE.

22 Protectores del pie Safety footwear must meet the minimum compression and impact performance standards and testing requirements established by ANSI Z , if purchased after July 5, Protective footwear purchased before that date must comply with ANSI Z

23 Causas de lesiones a los pies
Objetos pesados tales como barriles o herramientas que puedan rodar o caer en los pies. Objetos afilados, tales como puntillas o clavos que puedan traspasar las suelas de zapatos ordinarios Metales derretidos que pueden salpicar Superficies calientes o mojadas. Superficies resbaladozas

24 Zapatos de seguridad Tienen la punta resistente a impactos y suelas que protegen contra superficies calientes Algunos tienen suelas con metal para proteger contra herizas punzantes. Pueden estar diseñados para ser conductores de electricidad para uso en atmosferas explosivas o no conductores para proteger contra peligros electricos. Conductive Shoes Electrically conductive shoes protect against the buildup of static electricity. Essentially, these shoes ground the employees wearing them. Employees working in explosive and hazardous locations such as explosives manufacturing facilities or grain elevators must wear conductive shoes to reduce the risk of static electricity buildup on an employee’s body that could produce a spark and cause an explosion or fire. During training, employees must be instructed not to use foot powder or wear socks made of silk, wool, or nylon with conductive shoes. Foot powder insulates and retards the conductive ability of the shoes. Silk, wool, and nylon produce static electricity. Conductive shoes are not general-purpose shoes and must be removed upon completion of the tasks for which they are required. Employees exposed to electrical hazards must NEVER wear conductive shoes. Electrical Hazard, Safety-Toe Shoes Electrical hazard, safety-toe shoes are nonconductive and will prevent your employee’s feet from completing an electrical circuit to ground. They can protect employees against open circuits of up to 600 volts in dry conditions. These shoes should be used in conjunction with other insulating equipment and precautions to reduce or eliminate the potential for providing a path for hazardous electrical energy. NOTE: Nonconductive footwear must not be used in explosive or hazardous locations; in such locations, electrically conductive shoes are required.

25 Cubiertas para el metatarso
Una pieza es aplicada a la parte de afuera del zapato para proteger la parte superior del pie contra impacto y compresion.

26 Proteccion para las manos

27 Algunas de las lesiones a las manos
Quemadas Golpes Abrasiones Cortadas Pinchadas Fracturas Amputaciones Exposiciones quimicas

28 Tipos de guantes Norfoil resiste penetracion y deterioro de una cantidad de quimicas peligrosas y toxicas Butyl provee la mayor resistencia a vapores de gas y agua; usado frecuentemente para ketones (M.E.K., Acetone) y esters (Amyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate). The nature of the hazard(s) and the operation to be performed will determine your selection of gloves. The variety of potential hand injuries may make selecting the appropriate pair of gloves more difficult than choosing other protective equipment. Take care to choose gloves designed for the particular circumstances of your workplace. Glove manufacturers can provide valuable assistance.

29 Tipos de guantes Viton es altamente resistente a solventes clorinados y aromaticos. Nitrile provee proteccion cotra una gran variedad de solventes, quimicas, grasas y productos de petroleo, tambien es resistente a cortadas, pinchadas y roturas.

30 Tipos de guantes Kevlar protege contra cortadas, laceraciones y abrasion. Malla de acero inoxidable protege contra cortadas y laceraciones.

31 Proteccion para el cuerpo

32 Causas de lesiones al cuerpo
Calor intenso Salpicaduras de metales o liquidos calientes Impactos por herramientas, maquinarias o materiales Cortadas Quimicas peligrosas Contacto con materiales infestados, como sangre Radiacion

33 Proteccion al cuerpo Chaleco de enfriar Mangas y delantal
Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials, each suited to particular hazards. Conduct your hazard assessment and identify potential sources of bodily injury. Install feasible engineering controls, and institute work practice controls to eliminate the hazards. If the possibility of bodily injury still exists, provide protective clothing constructed of material that will protect against the specific hazards in your workplace. Different materials will protect against different chemical and physical hazards. When chemical or physical hazards are present, check with the clothing manufacturer to make sure that the material selected will provide protection from the specific chemical or physical hazards in your workplace.

34 Proteccion para el cuerpo
Traje completo Covertores

35 Resumen Evaluen el trabajo por peligros
Empleadores deben de implementar un programa de PPE en donde: Evaluen el trabajo por peligros Usen controles de ingenieria y practicas de trabajo para eliminar o reducir peligros. Seleccionen el PPE apropiado para proteger a los empleados de peligros que no pueden ser eliminados. Le informen a los empleados porque el PPE es necesario y cuando debe de ser usado Entrenen empleados como usar y cuidar el PPE y como reconocer fallos Requiran que los empleados usen el PPE en el trabajo For more information: -- OSHA Publication 3151, Assessing the Need for Personal Protective Equipment: A Guide for Small Business Employers. It is available at OSHA’s home page (www.osha.gov), or for sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.


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