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Youth training and employment in the knowledge society ILO International Training Centre Alessandra Molz Employment and Skills Development Programme.

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Presentación del tema: "Youth training and employment in the knowledge society ILO International Training Centre Alessandra Molz Employment and Skills Development Programme."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 youth training and employment in the knowledge society ILO International Training Centre Alessandra Molz Employment and Skills Development Programme

2 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento … why should I waste my time with training? Look at my uncle: he was trained to be a dentist, but now the only work he finds is being a taxi driver! I would like to employ more young people in my enterprises, but they do not know how to work We have to create jobs for youth: lets design a training programme!!! perceptions about training These youngsters hang around in the street all day long, some are engaging in criminal activities – we have to train them so they do something useful I just finished 3 years of VET training and I dont find a job. I would like to set up my own business: but how?

3 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento training: an important decision it influences peoples chances and performance on the labour market it has a great influence on an individuals future living conditions VET training is being carried out during adolescence: –cognitively, socially, culturally a different phase in life –not big children, not little adults –parents and role models play an important role –young people should take informed decisions about their training and tertiary education the decision about an individuals job should not be taken too early

4 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento what training cannot do training does not create jobs training by itself cannot change peoples attitudes or keep unruly youth off the streets training is never cheap training alone does not attract foreign investment training alone is not a guarantee for a job training often does not meet the demands of the labour market formal training generally only covers only a minority of workers and youth who need to be trained training cannot compensate totally for the lack of basic education

5 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento what training can do provide people with combinations of knowledge, experience and attitudes which help people to find a job or to carry out a specific task correctly or to improve their professional performance help to adapt to new technologies and requirements in the labour market improve workers employability: their mobility in the labour market, in their professional careers and for maintaining their jobs create multiple benefits for individuals, enterprises and the society increase productivity and competitively helps promoting equity and equal opportunities contributes to improving work quality

6 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento an organised effort to transfer combinations of knowledge, skills and attitudes which help people to - find a job - carry out a specific task correctly - improve their professional performance training: a definition

7 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento training is not an objective in itself, but a means to reach a specific objective. In order to be meaningful, training needs a purpose, objectives and policies golden rule

8 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento vocational training labour market training training in the workplace training categories life long learning

9 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento education and training citizens basic skills and competencies for everyday life ideally: primary and secondary training education workers professional skills and competencies ideally: life long learning after VET

10 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento vocational education and training institutions apprenticeship continuous training and life long learning technical competencies generic/key competencies employability training learn to learn training training for self- employment training for and in the informal economy technical education training for people with disabilities training for knowing how (e.g. access, analyse, use and transform information)

11 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento urban vs. rural formal vs. informal equity vs. competitiveness specialisation vs. generic technical education vs. general education primary and pre-school vs. higher education training: trade-offs

12 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento why do we want to train? What are good reasons to train and, consequently, what are good training objectives? who should be trained? How many people should be trained? Who should be trained first? What about equity? how should training be planned, organised, coordinated and financed? Who does what? what should people learn? How is this decision made? Who decides? How can we improve standards, exams, certification and quality control? what is the best way to organise training? Where, when and by whom? 5 basic questions on training

13 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento respond to a specific demand for trained workers (esp. new qualifications) skills upgrading for improving worker productivity retraining: prepare people for new technologies, new tasks, new forms of work improve working conditions and occupational health and safety help people to succeed in their job, including the self- employed improve peoples chances on the labour market improve the life perspectives of vulnerable and discriminated groups appropriate training objectives

14 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento create jobs create enterprises attract foreign investment reduce social problems, e.g. crime and prostitution change the aspirations and attitudes of a specific group of youth not-so-appropriate objectives

15 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento informal economy underemployed managers the elderly rural population apprentices unemployed young people the self-employed women workers in a specific sector ICT employed persons men losers winners the poorest urban populations formal economy school-leavers basic questions: who?

16 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento labour market agriculture informal economy wage employment self- employment rural urban

17 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento training and learning opportunities should be adjusted to the different target groups and the different phases of their lives basic questions: who?

18 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento relevance: does the training system meet national socio- economic and development objectives and priorities? Does it meet the demand of the labour market and of society (impact on the economy and on equality)? effectiveness: Do the outcomes of the training system correspond to what was intended (e.g. training objectives)? Is the training system able to provide the intended results – in terms of quality and quantity ? efficiency: What is the relation between inputs and output? Is the input adequate? Can similar or better results be achieved with less or the same input? Is there a waste of resources? Are there sufficient resources or are they being used for the wrong things? criteria

19 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento training interventions targeted at youth vocational education and training (VET) –preparation for the work life labour market training –integration of vulnerable groups –integration of groups with difficulties in finding a job –integration of groups with low educational levels training on the job, enterprise-based training –career development

20 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento what about the informal economy? many young people are working in the informal economy many young people will only find a workplace in the informal economy many young people today are being trained in the informal economy (e.g. in apprenticeship arrangements) improving their skills and competencies is key to promoting decent work in the informal economy mechanisms for certification of their competencies should be put in place

21 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento training interventions targeted at youth should take into account their previous educational level and their social, economic and cultural background it is often necessary to complement training with basic education upgrading should be tailored to the specific groups should include a gender perspective and vulnerable groups the more practice, the better employability and generic skills training should be paralleled with programmes to complete secondary education evaluation and feedback

22 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento training interventions not targeted at youth … should consider to integrate components that specifically address the characteristics of youth –address deficits in education –address deficits in work experience –include orientation on labour market

23 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento training alone is not enough training 30% classroom 70% practice employability education -primary -secondary + orientation labour market integration -orientation -coaching -practical experience -business start up -etc. Young people should be able to build up their own employability and professional careers

24 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento it meets the training demand of the labour market, the employers and the economy it meets the training needs (and the gaps) of the population (workers, informal economy, self- employment, poverty groups, technicians …) it is linked with programmes and services to effectively integrate (and keep) the graduates in the labour market it is being supported by the economic and social policies of a country training only has positive effects when:

25 recommendation 195 on human resource development education, training and lifelong learning

26 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento adopted: June 17 th 2004 International Labour Conference, Geneva recommendation 195 workers employers governments

27 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento a set of criteria and principles for training that all member states should put in practice recommendation 195 the access to education, training and lifelong learning is a right for all

28 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento educational and training policies knowledge society employability lifelong learning training in enterprises recognition of competencies equality in access to training responsibilities for training focus most recent international instrument for the orientation of training policies

29 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento changes in productive processes technology: equipment, tools & instruments, hardware & software programmes, means of communication work organisation: multiple tasks, flexibility, adaptability, versatility, innovation is a continuous process, continuous quality improvement requirements for qualifications and competencies change more rapidly and every time they become more precise knowledge society

30 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento this requires a continuous process of data collection, labour market observation and curriculum adaptation career changes & less job security: it is every time less probable to stay with the same employer or in the same job/workplace, but to change jobs several times during our work life importance of generic competencies and employability generally there is a demand for higher educational and training levels (but less specialisation) knowledge society

31 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento knowledge society in the world of today knowledge plays a central role in the economic process: it has become a factor for competitiveness. nowadays, knowledge is crucial for growth, productivity and job creation.

32 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento there is an excess of information in the world today the total amount of facts and information today is duplicated every years there are around 30 billions of web pages on the internet, tendency rising knowledge is an indispensable resource and it is a resource that is growing European Union: strives to be the worlds biggest and most dynamic knowledge based economic area knowledge society

33 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento Education and training are less and less process of transmitting information – because there is too much information in the world today – it is increasingly becoming a process through which individuals have to learn how to learn; to be able to find and apply the information that they need. The relevance of knowing facts and figures is continuously decreasing, but the necessity of knowing how to access, analyse and take advantage of information and how to transform it into knowledge is constantly increasing. This implies to stimulate among the people the desire to learn, and to offer tools (including financial tools) that enable people to take responsibility for their own learning. knowledge society

34 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento if we want to be a nation of discoverers, we should not teach our people how to build ships, but awaken and stimulate their passion for the sea aprender a aprender

35 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento employability portable competencies and qualifications that enhance an individual's capacity to make use of the education and training opportunities available in order to secure and retain decent work progress within the enterprise and between jobs, and cope with changing technology and labour market conditions

36 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento employability competencies and qualifications that can be transferred from one job to another that allow us to maintain our job and/or to move horizontally or vertically in the labour market (to find a new job or to make a career) what is your employability? Which are the competencies that allow you to: maintain your job find a new job in case you lose your job adapt well to a new job grow professionally

37 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento employability key competencies: reading, writing, communication, languages maths, informatics teamwork, follow and/or give instructions human relations / relating with others, client orientation work planning and management: time, tasks, projects problem solving skills, creativity know how to access information and acquire new skills

38 formación para el empleo en la sociedad del conocimiento key competencies are the skills that help workers to progress in their professional and personal life key competencies are the skills that employers want, technological specialisation is done on-the- job improving young peoples employability helps with their labour market integration – be it wage employment or self-employment employability

39 thank you for your attention! Alessandra Molz


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