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Dirección Nacional de Medio Ambiente Mercury Storage and Disposal LAC Two Countries Project Inception workshop Waste, sites and legal framework Beatriz.

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Presentación del tema: "Dirección Nacional de Medio Ambiente Mercury Storage and Disposal LAC Two Countries Project Inception workshop Waste, sites and legal framework Beatriz."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Dirección Nacional de Medio Ambiente Mercury Storage and Disposal LAC Two Countries Project Inception workshop Waste, sites and legal framework Beatriz Olivet

2 2

3 3 Mercury and mercury waste in Uruguay Industry sectorGeneral waste Present SW Future SW (chlor-alkali dismantling) Lamps Batteries Switches Thermometers Others Health sector Thermometers Amalgam Sphygmomanometers Probes Others

4 Present waste Mercury emission inventory in the industrial sector –Energy transformation facilities included –Refinery facility included –Use of equipment (ex. Manometers, thermometers) not included –Intentional use of mercury in industry (chlor-alkali plant) as the principal source Project: Minimization and environmentally sound management of mercury containing waste in Latin America and the Caribbean 4

5 5 Mercury emission inventory in the industrial sector 2009 CSource categoriesExists Calculated Hg output, Kg/y Comentaries 5.1Extraction and use of fuels/energy sources s 47,2 Industry, energy transformation ande energry generation facilities included 5.2Primary (virgin) metal production s 29,5Gold extraction and purification 5.3 Production of other minerals and materials with mercury impurities s 150,8 Cement, lime and paper pulp sectors 5.4Intentional use of mercury in industrial processes s 1.140,0Chlor-alkali industry 5.5Consumer products with intentional use of mercury s 10,4 Timerosal use in local produced vaccines 5.6Other intentional product / process use n/a -Not included 5.7 Production of recycled metals ("secondary" metal production) s 1,7 Ferrous metal recycling was evaluated 5.8Waste incineration s 10,5Medical waste 5.9Waste deposition/landfilling and waste water treatment n/a -Not included 5.10Crematoria and cemetaries n/a -Not included SUM OF QUANTIFIED RELEASES-INDUSTRY: 1.390

6 6 Project: Minimization and environmentally sound management of mercury containing waste … in Latin America and the Caribbean... Mercury emission inventory in the industrial sector 2009

7 7 CSub-CCategorías de las fuentes Existe? (y/n/?) Salidas calculadas de mercurios, Kg/año Comentarios AireAguaTierra Impurezas en productos Desechos generales Tratamiento sectorial específico 5.1 Extracción y uso de combustibles y fuentes de energía 5.1.2Otros usos del carbóny 0, Uso metalúrgico en reciclado de metales 5.1.3Extracción, refinación y uso de petróleoy 27,8 0,1 - 0,7 1,0 -No hay extracción. Refinería y uso industrial 5.1.4Extracción, refinación y uso de gas naturaly 0, Muy bajo consumo. Planes de aumento a futuro Energía obtenida por la quema de biomasay 17, Leña, residuos de biomasa. No se incluye licor negro por estar en categoría de pulpa y papel. 5.2 Producción primaria de metales Extracción de oro y procesamiento inicial por métodos distintos que el amalgamamiento con mercurio y 0,6 1, ,8 Extracción de oro en Minas de Corrales, purificación con cianuro. 5.3 Producción de otros minerales y materiales con mercurio como impureza 5.3.1Producción de cementoy 60, ,2 2, Producción de pulpa y papely 32,6 21,0 - 6, Producción de cal y hornos de agregados ligerosy 4, Uso intencional de mercurio en procesos industriales 5.4.1Plantas de producción de cloro-álcali con tecnología de mercurioy 23,8 0,0 - 1, ,0Planta de cloro-álcali con tecnología de mercurio. 5.5 Productos de consumo con uso intencional de mercurio 5.5.8Productos farmacéuticos para uso humano y veterinarioy - 5, Uso de timerosal en vacunas de uso veterinario 5.5.9Productos cosméticos y relacionados con mercurion Otros usos intencionales en productos y procesos 5.7 Producción de metales reciclados (producción secundaria) 5.7.2Producción de metales ferrosos recicladosy 0, Producción de otros metales recicladosy No se cuantificó por falta de información sobre contenido de mercurio 5.8 Incineración de desechos 5.8.2Incineración de desechos peligrososy Incinerador de residuos peligrosos, principalmente de la industria farmacéutica no fue suficientemente evaluado Incineración de desechos médicosy 5, Incinerador de residuos de origen hospitalario (no incluye residuos comunes) 5.9 Disposición de desechos/rellenos sanitarios y tratamiento de aguas residuales 5.10 Crematorios y cementerios SUMA DE LIBERACIONES CUANTIFICADAS DE MERCURIO EN LA INDUSTRIA 172,927,55,632,18,91143,2

8 8 Total kg Total kg Mercury emission inventory in the industrial sector 2009 Scenario of a possible introduction of carbon in the energy matrix (200 MW) and high content mercury oil Total kgTotal kg

9 Mercury emission inventory in the industrial sector Release routes

10 10 AirWaterLand Impurity in pro-ducts General waste Sector specific treatment/di sposal (*) Mercury emission inventory in the industrial 2009 Release routes (*) Solid waste containing mercury from the chlorine plant (682kg) were considered sector-specific treatment. Mercury unaccounted (432kg) as well, based on a detailed study since it is estimated that it is divided between the sludge (which have a significant variability) and contained in the system itself. Project: Minimization and environmentally sound management of mercury containing waste … in Latin America and the Caribbean...

11 11 Mercury and mercury waste in Uruguay Industry sectorGeneral waste Present SW Future SW (chlor-alkali dismantling) Lamps Batteries Switches Thermometers Others Health sector Thermometers Amalgam Sphygmomanometers Probes Others

12 12 Future desmantling of the chlor – alkali facility Mercury containing waste –Equipment, building, –Abandonment plan proposal Metalic mercury –Probable export depending on the progress of negotiations on mercury at the time

13 13 Mercury and mercury waste in Uruguay Industry sectorGeneral waste Present SW Future SW (chlor-alkali dismantling) Lamps Batteries Switches Thermometers Others Health sector Thermometers Amalgam Sphygmomanometers Probes Others

14 Pilot inventory in the health sector (1) It was done at the Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República Background: between 2006 and 2008, eradication program for clinical thermometers and sphygmomanometers Some findings: The previous intervention was successful. 14

15 In 2006, at the HC, sphygmomanometers were repaired in unsuitable conditions for health and environment. Actually, it may be done in other institutions. Theres a place assigned to keep elemental mercury No more amalgams are used in the HC (except hemophilic patients) Theres no homogeneous criteria about disposal bags to put on mercury containing waste (sharps, infectious, general) Others emissions sources were also irrelevant (manometers, lamps, batteries, chemicals, etc) 15 Pilot inventory in the health sector (2)

16 General sectorial comments There are programs to replace clinical thermometers and sphygmomanometers with different levels of development Amalgam - more investigation is required. Medical waste route is in general autoclaving or incineration (infectious waste) or landfill Other hospitals are gathering (conditions?) medical waste containing mercury (like sphymomanometers) 16 Pilot inventory in the health sector (3)

17 17 Mercury containing waste in the health sector Posible action lines: Define eradication in applications where mercury use may be replaced Window of opportunity to use the metallic mercury in the chlor-alkali facility. To define / solve –Conditions for receiving and tracking waste –Equipment contaminated with mercury Considerations Intra-hospital Management - MSP responsibility Infectious hospital waste treatment –Incineration –Autoclaving

18 18 Mercury and mercury waste in Uruguay Industry sectorGeneral waste Present SW Future SW (chlor-alkali dismantling) Lamps Batteries Switches Thermometers Others Health sector Thermometers Amalgam Sphygmomanometer Probes Others

19 19 Mercury emissions inventory in products Mercury emissions 2010 –Max emissions: kg –Min emissions: 939 kg –Principal release route: general waste. –Principal products: switches, amalgams, thermometers, polyurethanes –It includes all types of products (used in industry, health sector or general) Project: Sound mangemente of mercury containing products

20 20 Inventario de emisiones en productos Mercury emissions inventory in products Project: Sound mangemente of mercury containing products

21 21 Present situation of industrial waste Local government authorized disposal –Comparable to USW (not hazardous) –Montevideo Sludge / Others Treatment by waste managers and authorized local disposal Disposal site company owned (4): –Ferrous metal recycling / paper pulp / tannery/ gold mining tailings (cyanide purification technology) Collection, waiting for a solution Informal / inadequate Industry disposal site for hazardous waste

22 22 Industry disposal site for hazardous waste Industry Chamber (CIU) (1) Project approved by DINAMA Agreement between CIU, Intendencia Montevideo, MVOTMA, MIEM Main Background: Waste Management Plan for the Metropolitan Area of Montevideo Transitional solution (pending a permanent location) Objet: site to receive HSW in an environmentally sound manner 4 cells (option for a 5th). Horizon years

23 23 Sludge cells (2) –Gas extraction, wet scrubbing. –Oxidation with sodium hypochlorite Other waste cells (2) –Pasive venting. Leachate treatment - physicochemical or biological Focus on tannery waste representing 2 / 3 of all HSW Industry disposal site for hazardous waste Industry Chamber (CIU) (2)

24 General municipal Law (1935) – municipal responsibility over urban cleaning and urban solid waste Constitution, article 47 –It declares the environmental protection as of general interest. –Every physical or legal person has the obligation not to affect seriously the environment Law Nº (1990) – creation of the Ministry of Housing, Territory and Environment 24 Environmental legal framework (1)

25 Law (1991) –Basel Convention Law (1999) – it bans the introduction of hazardous waste Law (2000) – Environment General Protection Law –It declares of general interest the reduction and sound management of chemicals and waste of any kind. –Art. 20 – Chemicals –Art. 21 – Waste 25 Environmental legal framework (2)

26 Law (2001) –Art 401 – Montreal Protocol –Art municipal and MVOTMA responsibilities for the localization of treatment plants and final disposition sites for urban and industrial waste Law (2002) – –Rotterdam Convention Law (2003) – –Stockholm Convention Environmental legal framework (3)

27 Decree 135/999 modified 586/009 – Medical waste –Health Ministry: responsible for the waste management inside the medical institutions –Environment Ministry: outside the medical institutions Law Nº (1994) – Environmental Impact Law Decree 349/005 – Environment impact an environmental authorizations Environmental legal framework (4)

28 Decree 560/003 – transport of hazardous substances Decree 307/008 – minimal requirements for health protection of workers from chemical risks. Law – Land Planning and Sustainable Development Agriculture Ministry Resolution (MGAP 1988) – prohibition of registry and commerce of mercury products in agriculture Environmental legal framework (5)

29 The national legislation is emerging and heterogeneous There are regulatory gaps and difficulties on definition and scope Lifecycle of the CS not considered Management of general information (registration and availability) not considered There arent economic instruments for environmentally sound management Cousillas, M. Presentation, National Workshop on Chemicals Management, UNEP Network -UNEP-DINAMA, December 2010 Environmental legal framework Partial (6)

30 Not legal but widely used as a guide. It establishes standards for the integrated management of industrial solid waste, agribusiness and services. It defines criteria for acceptance of waste at a disposal site –Depending on a basic characterization of the waste –Liquid, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing or flammable waste are not allowed 30 Environmental legal framework Waste Technical Proposal

31 Requirements for acceptance in a security cell: –Category I (medium and high risk) Considering the Hg as toxic, > 3% m / m –Have shown that there is no viable technology for recovery, recycling or treatment. –<80% moisture, –No free liquids –Leaching test according to PTR In the case of Hg 5mg / l Environmental legal framework Waste Technical Proposal

32 If the waste does not meet the admission requirements for disposal, DINAMA may authorize, as an exception and as a transitional measure, provided that the following conditions are accomplished: It has been technically demonstrated by the generator that is not possible to stabilize or treat the residue to meet established criteria. It has been demonstrated that theres no viable alternative technologies to make treat and / or recover the mercury. It has been considered whether the cell has sufficient guarantees to accept the entry of the waste

33 33 Industrial waste: strategie? Present waste –Incluir en la evaluación la posibilidad de tratamiento conjunto con los residuos de productos –Define the treatment requirements for entry into a security cell –Evaluate costs –Take advantage of the opportunity window for the between now and the technology conversion of the chlor-alkali plant. Promote it? –Consider the whole pack of residues

34 Future desmantling of the chlor-alkali plant –Definir necesidad de requisitos de tratamiento y disposición de equipos e inmuebles –Definir destino del mercurio metálico resultante del desmantelamiento, en función del desarrollo de las negociaciones sobre mercurio –Define the need and requirements for treatment and disposal for equipment and buildings contaminated with mercury –Define the destination of metallic mercury arising from decommissioning, depending on the progress of negotiations on mercury 34

35 Many thanks Beatriz Olivet 35


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