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7.2 Indefinite and negative words ANTE TODO Indefinite words refer to people and things that are not specific, for example, someone or something. Negative.

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Presentación del tema: "7.2 Indefinite and negative words ANTE TODO Indefinite words refer to people and things that are not specific, for example, someone or something. Negative."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 7.2 Indefinite and negative words ANTE TODO Indefinite words refer to people and things that are not specific, for example, someone or something. Negative words deny the existence of people and things or contradict statements, for instance, no one or nothing. As the chart on the next slides shows, Spanish indefinite words have corresponding negative words, which are opposite in meaning.

2 7.2 Indefinite and negative words Indefinite words algo something; anything alguien someone; somebody; anyone alguno/a(s), algún some; any o… o either… or siempre always también also; too

3 7.2 Indefinite and negative words Negative words nada nothing; not anything nadie no one; nobody; not anyone ninguno/a, ningún * No plural forms no; none; not any ni… ni neither… nor nunca, jamás never, not ever tampoco neither; not either

4 7.2 Indefinite and negative words There are two ways to form negative sentences in Spanish: 1) You can place the negative word before the verb, or 2) you can place no before the verb and the negative word after the verb. Nadie se levanta temprano. No se levanta nadie temprano. No one gets up early. Not anyone gets up early. Ellos nunca se enojan. Ellos no se enojan nunca. They never get angry. They dont get angry ever.

5 7.2 Indefinite and negative words ¡ATENCIÓN! Before a masculine singular noun, alguno and ninguno are shortened to algún and ningún. ¿Tienen ustedes algún amigo peruano? No, no tenemos ningún amigo peruano. Alguno/a, algunos/as are not always used in the same way English uses some or any. Often, algún is used where a would be used in English. ¿Tienes algún libro que hable de los incas? Do you have a book that talks about the Incas?

6 7.2 Indefinite and negative words Because they refer to people, alguien and nadie are often used with the personal a. The personal a is also used before alguno/a, algunos/as, and ninguno/a when these words refer to people and they are the direct object of the verb. Perdón, señor, ¿busca usted a alguien? No, gracias, señorita, no busco a nadie. Tomás, ¿buscas a alguno de tus hermanos? No, mamá, no busco a ninguno.

7 7.2 Indefinite and negative words In English, it is incorrect to use more than one negative word in a sentence. (double negatives) In Spanish, however, sentences frequently contain two or more negative words. Compare the following Spanish and English sentences. Nunca le escribo a nadie. I never write to anyone. No me preocupo por nada nunca. I do not ever worry about anything. COMPARE & CONTRAST

8 7.2 Indefinite and negative words As the preceding sentences show, once an English sentence contains one negative word (for example, not or never), no other negative word may be used. Instead, indefinite (or affirmative) words are used. In Spanish, however, once a sentence is negative, no other affirmative (that is, indefinite) word may be used. Instead, all indefinite ideas must be expressed in the negative. COMPARE & CONTRAST

9 7.2 Indefinite and negative words Although in Spanish pero and sino both mean but, they are not interchangeable. Sino is used when the first part of a sentence is negative and the second part contradicts it. In this context, sino means but rather or on the contrary. In all other cases, pero is used to mean but. Los estudiantes no se acuestan temprano, sino tarde. The students dont go to bed early, but rather late. Las toallas son caras, pero bonitas. The towels are expensive, but beautiful. Maria no habla francés, sino español. María doesnt speak French, but rather Spanish. José es inteligente, pero no saca buenas notas. José is intelligent but he doesnt get good grades.

10 7.2 Indefinite and negative words ¡INTÉNTALO! Cambia las siguientes frases para que sean negativas. 1. Siempre se viste bien. She always dresses well. ____ se viste bien. Nunca (Jamás) se viste bien. She never dresses well. ____ se viste bien ____. No se viste bien nunca (jamás). She doesnt ever dress well. 2. Alguien se ducha. Someone is showering. ____se ducha. Nadie se ducha.Nobody is showering. ____ se ducha ____. No se ducha nadie.Not anyone is showering.

11 7.2 Indefinite and negative words 3. Ellas van también.They are going also. Ellas ____ van. Ellas tampoco van.Neither are they going. Ellas ____ van ____. Ellas no van tampoco. They are not going either. 4. Alguien se pone nervioso. Someone is getting nervous. ____ se pone nervioso. Nadie se pone nervioso. Nobody is getting nervous. ____ se pone nervioso ____. No se pone nervioso nadie. Not anyone is getting nervous.

12 7.2 Indefinite and negative words 5. Tú siempre te lavas las manos. You always wash your hands. Tú ____ te lavas las manos. Tú nunca (jamás) te lavas las manos. You never wash your hands. Tú ____ te lavas las manos ____. Tú no te lavas las manos nunca (jamás). You dont wash your hands ever. 6. Voy a traer algo. I am going to bring something. ____ voy a traer ____. No voy a traer nada. I am not going to bring anything.

13 7.2 Indefinite and negative words 7. Juan se afeita también. Juan is also shaving. Juan ____ se afeita. Juan tampoco se afeita. Neither is Juan shaving. Juan ____ se afeita ____. Juan no se afeita tampoco. Juan isnt shaving either. 8. Mis amigos viven en una residencia o en casa. My friends live in a dorm or at home. Mis amigos ____ viven ____ en una residencia ____ en casa. Mis amigos no viven ni en una residencia ni en casa. My friends neither live in a dorm nor at home.

14 7.2 Indefinite and negative words 9. La profesora hace algo en su escritorio. The teacher is doing something at her desk. La profesora ____ hace ____ en su escritorio. La profesora no hace nada en su escritorio. The teacher is not doing anything at her desk. 10. Tú y yo vamos al mercado. You and I are going to the market. ____ tú ____ yo vamos al mercado. Ni tú ni yo vamos al mercado. Neither you nor I are going to the market.

15 7.2 Indefinite and negative words 11. Tienen un espejo en su casa. They have a mirror in their house. ____ tienen ____ espejo en su casa. No tienen ningún espejo en su casa. They dont have any mirror en their house. 12. Algunos niños se ponen el abrigo. Some children put on their coats. ____ niño se pone el abrigo. Ningún niño se pone el abrigo. No child puts on his/her coat.

16 7.2 Indefinite and negative words ¿Sino o Pero? Yo nunca me levanto temprano, _____tarde. sino Me baño, ____ también me ducho. pero No quiero despertarme a las ocho, __a las diez. sino Mis amigos no se afeitaron, ____ yo me afeité. pero


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