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La democracia y la pedagogía crítica Dr. Paul R. Carr Youngstown State University

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Presentación del tema: "La democracia y la pedagogía crítica Dr. Paul R. Carr Youngstown State University"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 La democracia y la pedagogía crítica Dr. Paul R. Carr Youngstown State University

2 El plan de la presentación 1.¿Qué es la democracia? a)las elecciones... la democracia b)las desigualdades c)la educación como instrumento de transformación 2.La pedagogía crítica a)la epistemología b)la hegemonía del Occidente c)Esperanza, paz, construcción del conocimiento y la opresión 3.La alfabetización política de los medios a)la identidad, el racismo y el poder b)el papel de los medios c)el estudio del caso de la democracia en educación 4.¿Qué (puedo) hacer? a) un armazón de la imputabilidad de la justicia social a)resistencia a la hegemonía opresiva b)trabajo colectivo e individual

3 ¿Qué es la democracia? 3

4 ¿Es posible la democracia? ¿Es posible tener democracia al tiempo que existe la pobreza sistémica, la guerra permanente, las desigualdades institucionales...? ¿Es posible tener democracia sin tener la participación completa, crítica y transformadora de toda la gente? ¿Es posible tener democracia sin educación? la pedagogía crítica la democracia es un proceso, no un evento de selección de un líder

5 La democracia según el diccionario El Diccionario American-Heritage (2005) la define como: Un tipo de gobierno dirigido por el pueblo el cual es ejercitado directamente o indirectamente, es decir, por representantes electos. Una unidad política o social la cual tiene el tipo gobierno antes mencionado. El pueblo o proletariado, considerado como la mayor fuente de poder político. El gobierno de la mayoría. Principios de igualdad social y respeto del individuo en una comunidad en particular.

6 Christiano (2006): ?Qué es la democracia? Primero, la democracia esta intrínsecamente relacionada con el poder de decisión colectiva. Segundo, esta definición pretende cubrir varios tipos de grupos que pueden ser llamados democráticos. … democracia en la familia, en asociaciones de trabajo voluntario, firmas económicas, al igual que estados y organizaciones transnacionales y globales. Tercero, esta definición no pretende llevar un peso normativo. … es compatible con la idea de que en algunos contextos no es deseable tener democracia. …la definición de democracia no establece cuestiones normativas. Cuarto, la igualdad requerida por esta definición de democracia puede ser más o menos profunda. Puede ser desde una igualdad formal de un voto por persona durante una elección de representantes, hasta una asamblea en donde existe competencia entre candidatos para obtener una posición determinada. O, puede ser más robusta, incluyendo igualdad en los procesos de deliberación y construcción de una coalición. La palabra democracia puede referirse a cualquiera de estas medidas políticas. Puede involucrar la participación de los miembros de una sociedad en la decisión de leyes y políticas de la misma, o puede involucrar la participación de los miembros en la selección de representantes …

7 Contexto (basado en conceptos de Daniel Schugarensky) Mandela, Morales, Lula, Sirleaf, Bachelet... y Obama son símbolos del poder de elección Contra la hegemonía tradicional, hay : – el Fórum Social Mundial – el movimiento de la democracia participativa – el nuevo cooperativismo – Fair Trade – libre acceso a la tecnología, (Linux, Creative Commons, Wikipedia, YouTube, Twitter, FLISOL, etc.) – el Earth Charter – el Hague Appeal for Peace – el movimiento de Transition Towns – el movimiento Mundial de la Marcha de la Paz – Bhutan (Gross National Happiness) Pero la gente a través del mundo no se siente representada por sus gobiernos y no tiene confianza en sus líderes políticos 10% de la gente controla el 85% de la riqueza del mundo Todavía hay injusticia, discriminación, guerras y problemas sociales

8 Participación electoral en los países democráticos País Año Población Electores elegibles% que votó Australia M 14M 95% Austria M 6M 72% Belgium M 8M 91% Canada M 23M 59% France M 44M 84% Germany M 62M 71% Great Britain M 44M 61% Netherlands M 12M 80% Portugal M 9M 61% Spain M 35M 74% Sweden M 7M 82% United States M 230M 63% 8

9 Participación electoral en las elecciones presidenciales norteamericanos Year % participation 59% 60% 57% 61% 54% 60% 64% 65%

10 Catorce puntos del fascismo (Britt) 1) Nacionalismo poderoso y continuo Fascist regimes tend to make use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere as are patriotic symbols on clothing, public displays…. 2) Desdén por el reconocimiento de los derechos humanos Because of the fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights and civil liberties can be ignored in certain cases because of need. The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, long incarcerations of prisoners without trial, etc. 3) Indentificación de enemigos para generar unificación The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived a common threat or foe: ethnic or religious minorities, liberals, communists, terrorists, etc. 4) Supremacía militar Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. 5) Sexismo excesivo The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Opposition to abortion is high as is homophobia, and anti-gay legislation as national policy. 6) Control de los medios masivos de comunicación Sometimes the media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is common. 7) Obsesión por la seguridad nacional Fear is used as a motivational tool over the masses.

11 Catorce puntos del fascismo (Britt) 8) Religión y gobierno están interrelacionados Governments in fascist regimes tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when … religion is diametrically opposed to the governments policies and actions. 9) Protección del poder corporativo The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship for the power elite. 10) Supresión del poder laboral (eliminación de sindicatos) Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government. Labor unions are either eliminated entirely or are severely suppressed 11) Desdén por los intelectuales y el arte Fascist regimes tend to promote and tolerate hostility to higher education and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts is openly attacked, and governments often refuse to fund the arts. 12) Obsesión con el crimen y castigo Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations. 13) Nepotismo y corrupción excesiva Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability…. 14) Elecciones fraudulentas Sometimes elections in fascist regimes are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and the manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also tend to use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.

12 La pedagogía crítica 12

13 Explicación de la Pedagogía Crítica de Joe Kincheloe Fundada sobre una visión de justicia e igualdad social y educativa. Construida sobre la creencia de que la educación es inherentemente política. Su objetivo es el alivio del sufrimiento humano. Su preocupación esta enfocada en que las escuelas no lastimen a los estudianteslas buenas escuelas no culpan a los estudiantes por sus fracasos ni eliminan el conocimiento que estos traen al salón de clases. Es llevada a cabo por medio del uso de temas generativos que involucren el uso educativo de los aspectos y problemas centrales de la vida de los estudiantes (el currículum). Centrado en la noción de que los docentes deben ser investigadorespor medio de esta los docentes aprenden a producir y enseñar a los estudiantes a producir/ construir sus propios conocimientos. Basado en la noción de que los docentes se convierten en investigadores de sus estudiantescomo investigadores, los docentes estudian a sus estudiantes, sus contextos y las fuerzas que los forman.

14 Explicación de la Pedagogía Crítica de Joe Kincheloe Su interés se centra en mantener un fino balance entre el cambio social y el cultivo del intelectoesto requiere de una pedagogía rigorosa que cumpla ambos objetivos. Se preocupa por los márgenes de la sociedad, las experiencias y necesidades de individuos que se enfrentan opresión y subyugación. Construida sobre una conciencia de que la ciencia puede ser utilizada como una fuerza para regular y controlar. Dedicada al entendimiento del contexto en el cual la actividad educativa tiene lugar. Comprometida a resistir los efectos dañinos del poder dominante. Comprende la importancia de lo complejoentiende la teoría de la complejidad al construir una educación rigorosa y transformativa. Se enfoca en el entendimiento del profundo impacto que tienen las estructuras neo-coloniales en cuanto a la formación de la educación y el conocimiento. 14

15 Critica de la investigación positivista y la construcción del conocimiento (FIDUROD) FIDUROD es una epistemología que representa un conocimiento que es: Formal - produced by rigid adherence to a particular research methodology that never changes no matter what new circumstances are encountered, no matter how much these new circumstances might lend themselves to rethinking the mode of inquiry one is using. Intractable- grounded on the assumption that the world is basically an inert, static entity. What we find today about, say, childhood will be true in all circumstances and will remain true indefinitely. Here childhood (in the same manner as limestone or the chemical composition of salt) is assumed to be a fixed, never changing concept. Of course, such an epistemological stance doesnt account for the ever-changing nature of the world and the observers who study it. Decontextulizada - constructed by researchers who have removed a phenomenon from the diverse contexts of which it is a part and that grant it meaning. Without these contexts- e.g., the lived world of a student who takes an I.Q. test- the knowledge produced is distorted as it gives a misleading partial picture. The I.Q. tested student may come from a home where her parents were not first English language speakers and had no formal education, characterized by dire poverty where most energies are directed toward survival not school performance. Might these contextual factors make a difference in the girls I.Q. test scores? Do they have anything to do with some genetic, inherited notion of intelligence? 15

16 Critica de la investigación positivista y la construcción del conocimiento (FIDUROD) Universalistica - what inquirers discover when strictly following the correct epistemology and the research methods it supports applies to all domains of the world and the universe. In pre –Einsteinian physics, for example, gravity was assumed to remain constant in all domains of the cosmos. Einsteins work in the General Theory of Relativity undermines the universality of gravity as it delineates special circumstances where Sir Isaac Newtons notion of gravity does not work as he postulated-black holes, for example, where nothing can escape the depression in space caused by the concentrated mass of the black hole. There are countless examples one could provide in the social, psychological, and educational sciences to illustrate this same concept. Going back to our I.Q. example, how valid is and I.Q. test in a culture that operates on socio-epistemological assumptions that are profoundly different from Western culture. Another central dimension here is the decontextualization that comes from colonialism-both traditionally and in its new, reconfigured format- that decontextualizes knowledge produced in colonial centers of power by dominant power blocs that dismiss and degrade the knowledges and well beings of marginalized, colonial groups. Reductionistica - focusing on those factors that lend themselves most easily to measurement, research/knowledge produced in this context fail to account for the multitude of factors that shape the nature of knowledge produced: the belief and value structure of the researcher, the structural forces that create particular ideological and cultural climates in which the research process operates, the discursive practices of the research community involved in the process, the perspective of numerous individuals from other cultural settings about the phenomenon in question, to name only a few. Such reductionism provides a parochial, limited, and deceptive body of knowledge. Unidimensional - shaped by the belief that there is one true reality that can be discovered and completely described by following correct research methods. Such an epistemological orientation posits that the walking dimension of human consciousness is the only state worthy of study and use in our daily existence. Thus, the reality that Westerners have depicted via their knowledge production over the last 350 years is a certified reflection of the way the world really is. Anyone that suggest differently has been labeled as crazy, deranged, anti-American, and enemy of Western civilization, or at least a bad scholar. 16

17 La alfabetización política de los medios 17

18 ?Qué sabemos? Epistemología Conocimiento Experiencia ?Cual es la verdad? ?Es posible que lo que sabemos podría influenciar lo que hacemos? 18

19 19 ODA in US $ millionsODA as % of GNI Country Australia2,0052,4432,6693, Austria1,8051,6791,8081, Belgium2.2642,2091,9532, Canada4,4764,0084,0804, Denmark2,4102,4822,5622, Finland1, , France11,59911,8469,88410, ,39 8Germany11,36911,59212,29112, Greece Ireland8301,1291,1921, Italy5,8344,0613,9714, Japan ,9187,6798, Luxembourg Netherlands5,8186,0366,2246, New Zealand Norway3,3733,2873,7283, Portugal Spain3,5694,2915,1406, Sweden3,8844,4414,3394, Switzerland1,9041,7501,6851, UK12,51913,9389, USA ,16621,78725, Ayuda exterior ($M)(GNI = Gross National Income)

20 20 CountryAidPurpose 1. Israel$2.4 B Virtually all of this money is used to buy weapons (up to 75% made in the U.S.). Beginning in 2009, the U.S. plans to give $30 billion over 10 years. 2. Egypt$1.7 B $1.3 billion to buy weapons; $103 million for education; $74 million for health care; $45 million to promote civic participation and human rights. 3. Pakistan$798 M $330 million for security efforts, including military-equipment upgrades and border security; $20 million for infrastructure. 4. Jordan$688 M $326 million to fight terrorism and promote regional stability through equipment upgrades and training; $163 million cash payment to the Jordanian government. 5. Kenya$586 M $501 million to fight HIV/AIDS through drug treatment and abstinence education and to combat malaria; $15 million for agricultural development; $5.4 million for programs that promote government accountability. 6. South Africa$574 M$557 million to fight TB and HIV/AIDS; $3 million for education. Ayuda (militar) exterior norteamericano (los seis países lo mas importante)

21 21 DateCountryRegimeOutcome El SalvadorMaximiliano HernandezAssassinations; repression NicaraguaAnastasio Somoza & sonsPolitical repression; civilians attacked IranShah of IranRepression, corruption and instability CubaFulgencio BatistaTorture, women raped, repression, and killings GuatemalaArmas, Fuentes, Montt400 Mayan villages razed; rape and torture ParaguayStroessnerWide-spread torture; political repression HaitiPapa Doc Duvalier & son20,000-60,000 murdered; political repression BrazilBancoRebels executed; students tortured IndonesiaSuharto100, ,000 dead; violent repression ZaireMobutuStole $3-5B; repression leading to bloodshed BoliviaHugo BanzerDrug production and trafficking; repression ChileAugusto Pinochet3,000 murdered; 400,000 tortured AngolaJonas Savimbi/UNITAKilled/displaced millions ArgentinaJorge Rafael Videla30,000 murdered;repression 1978-presentEgyptSadat, MubarakCivilians killed; corruption; repression IraqSaddam HusseinRepression; 1 million killed in war with Iran PanamaNoriegaSupport to contras; repression 1990-presentUzbekistanKamirovRebels executed; conspirators tortured PakistanMusharaffRepression; political censorship; torture US foreign policy, democracy and un-democratic activity

22 22 Presupuesto Militar Norteamericano U.S. Federal budget 2009 (fiscal year) (billions of dollars) Total Outlays (Federal Funds) - $2,659B MILITARY: 51% (details below) - Non-MILITARY: 49% Human Resources - $789B (30%) Health/Human Services Soc. Sec. Administration Education Dept. Food/Nutrition programs Housing & Urban Dev. Labor Dept. other H.R. Past Military - $484B (23%) Veterans Benefits - $94B Interest on national-debt (80%) due to military spending, $390B General Government - $304B (13%) Treasury, including 20% interest on debt ($97B) Government personnel Justice Dept. State Dept. (partial) Homeland Security (15%) International Affairs NASA (50%) Judicial Legislative other general government. Physical Resources - $117B (6%) Agriculture Interior Transportation Homeland Security (15%) HUD Commerce Energy (non-military) Environmental Protection Nat. Science Found. Army Corps Engineers Fed. Commerce Com. other physical resources Current Military - $965B (28%) Military Personnel $129B Operation & Maintenance $241B Procurement $143B Research & Development $79B Construction $15B Family Housing $3B DoD miscellaneous $4B Retiree Pay/Healthcare $70B DoE nuclear weapons $17B NASA (50%) $9B International Security $9B Homeland Security (70% military) $35B State Dept. (partial) $6B other military (non-DoD) $5B Global War on Terror $200 billion

23 La democracia en educación Es mas que las normas, los programas, las practicas y la evaluación la cultura institucional la conexión con la comunidad la problematización de la opresión, la industria de guerra, la concentración de la riqueza es lo que hacemos para batir una sociedad la paz, la humildad, la liberación, la transformación y un cuestionamiento de las relaciones de poder desigualdades 23

24 Principles from Democracy and diversity: Checklist for teaching for, and about, democracy (Banks et al., 2005) Are students taught about the complex relationships between unity and diversity in their local communities, the nation, and the world? Do students learn about the ways in which people in their community, nation, and region are increasingly interdependent with other people around the world and are connected to the economic, political, cultural, environmental, and technological changes taking place across the planet? Does the teaching of human rights underpin citizenship education courses and programs? Are students taught knowledge about democracy and democratic institutions and provided opportunities to practice democracy? 24

25 Concepts from Democracy and diversity: Checklist for teaching for, and about, democracy (Banks et al., 2005) Democracy : Do students develop a deep understanding of the meaning of democracy and what it means to be a citizen in a democratic society? Diversity : Is the diversity of cultures and groups within all multicultural societies explicitly recognized in the formal and informal curriculum? Globalization : Do students develop an understanding of globalization that encompasses its history, the multiple dimensions and sites of globalization, as well as the complex outcomes of globalization? Sustainable Development : Is the need for sustainable development an explicit part of the curriculum? Empire, Imperialism, and Power : Are students grappling with how relationships among nations can be more democratic and equitable by discussing the concepts of imperialism and power? Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism : Does the curriculum help students to understand the nature of prejudice, discrimination, and racism, and how they operate at interpersonal, intergroup, and institutional levels? Migration : Do students understand the history and the forces that cause the movement of people? Identity/Diversity : Does the curriculum nurture an understanding of the multiplicity, fluidity, and contextuality of identity? Multiple Perspectives : Are students exposed to a range of perspectives on varying issues? Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism : Do students develop a rich and complex understanding of patriotism and cosmopolitanism? 25

26 Parker (2003): conceptualización de la educación democrática 1) no es un proyecto neutralizado pero trata de ayudar los cuídanos a tomar decisiones de una manera razonable y justo con respecto de los otros. 2) los educadores necesitan, en el mismo tiempo, hacer la educación multicultural y la educación a la ciudanía…. 3) Hay que reconocer la diversidad que existe a la escuela y en la comunidad 4) El diálogo juega un papel indispensable en la educación democrática, el desarrollo moral y el proceso de la elaboración de la políticas…. 5) Hay que considerar la problemática de incluir esos estudiantes y grupos que normalmente no tienen acceso a la democracia Dewey: la educación democrática puede resultar en una sociedad donde la gente puede resolver problemas sociales… 26

27 27 Voting and elections are the key to democracyVoting and elections are but one component to democracy, and must be problematized Studying mainstream political parties, processes and structures forms the core of teaching about democracy Studying about democracy necessarily involves preparing (and engaging) for democracy, including dialectical critique, and a focus on power Democratic education is generally concentrated within a single class or subject (i.e., Government, and/or Social Studies) Democratic education is infused across the curriculum, and involves all aspects of how education is organized (i.e., assemblies, extra-curricular, staff meetings…) Weak connection between democracy and education Explicit, engaged connection; democracy must involve a politically literate populace Support for democracy involves uncritical assessment of foreign policy, militarization, conflicts, patriotism Foreign interventions, war, conflicts, racism, injustice and human rights abuses are critically interrogated, linking local issues/concerns with the international/global context Politics generally pertains to elections, the predominant political parties, and the agenda set by the mainstream media Politics pertains to all aspects of education, including decisionmaking, oppression, marginalization and power (what is omitted is as equally important) Concern that teaching for and about democracy may be contentious, and could even be considered indoctrination To not teach about and for democracy in a critical fashion is to privilege dominant hegemony; avoiding contentious matter and concepts can lead to great harm (racism, war, poverty, etc.) Weak linkage between school experience and the broader societal experience Education is linked to society, and should seek to understand, and, in some cases, to transform it Limited formal curriculum on the vastness, richness, and complexity of democracy, with limited opportunities to experience democracy outside of the voting process Formal and informal opportunities to cultivate, stimulate and inculcate democracy and democratic practices; what is most important here is that knowledge is constructed, not merely conveyed or transmitted (as in the banking model) Thick-thin spectrum of democracy and democratic education THIN THICK

28 28 Narrow engagement with alternative visions, movements, concepts and phenomena outside of formal curriculum and mainstream hegemony Seeking to understand political and social movements not mentioned in mainstream media and the formal curriculum is important; linking what we know with what we do is encouraged Diversity is generally understood in essentialized way, with limited linkages to White power/privilege, and inequities Democracy cannot be understood without a critical linkage to social justice, which problematizes identity/diversity and social change, including power and privilege Curriculum is generally prescriptive, with limited emphasis on critical analysis and engagement, and assessment often suffocates dynamic and complex interplay between groups and power-structures; formal democratic education avoids political nature of education Assessment is not the focus of thick democratic education; seeking critical engagement with authentic encounters, understanding that knowledge is constructed, and accepting that teachers do not have all of the answers are key; Freires generative themes and Deweys progressive education underscore notion that education is a political project Discussion about and for democracy is limited, contrived and aims for comfort and reassurance rather than questioning complicity, change, and power Deliberative democracy must be made more authentic with engagement with a broad range of groups/interests/concerns; students should be encouraged to question and challenge problems Literacy is constructed in a limited way, often focused on skills and knowledge considered relevant for employment Political and media literacy are fundamental pillars, seeking what Giroux calls emancipatory literacy and democratic conscientization Thick-thin spectrum of democracy and democratic education THIN THICK

29 La alfabetización de la media how teachers are trained, certified, and supported in their quest to be media literate; the absence of a clear and relevant conceptual framework in education that creates the conditions and impetus to undertake media literacy in schools; if standards, high-stakes tests and other barometers of the neo-liberal reform period continue to rule the day, it would be important to, at the very least, develop and require the usage of specific standards and outcomes related to media literacy, the absence of which will further perpetuate the myth that this is an add-on or supplementary concern only; a support-network and curriculum-base from which teachers could draw on appropriate resources, activities, strategies and evaluation-measures to formalize the media literacy experience in schools is needed; students, as exemplified in the educational experiences of the participants, are not generally afforded an educational experience that fully and freely acknowledges political and media literacy, which can be a significant impediment to creating a more robust and critical educational experience; the media plays a significant role in defining the youth educational and cultural experience, and to omit or diminish a concerted effort at media literacy in schools would have the effect of, ultimately, working against the interests of an engaged and productive citizenry which will be called on to make decisions about social justice, war, poverty, and the fabric of democracy. 29

30 Ejemplos de tipos de análisis Análisis de factores, examinando factores legales, económicos, políticos, sociales y otros; Análisis de grupos de interés, examinado posiciones de varios grupos concernidos (por ejemplo, minorías, maestros, padres, empresarios); Análisis ideológica, examinando consideraciones que definan problemas; Análisis epistemológica, buscando a explicar el entendimiento de la cuestiones y la identidades sociales; Análisis de relaciones de poder, elucidando quien detiene el poder, como lo utiliza y como funciona el proceso de prisa de decisión. 30

31 CommitmentCapacityConnection W Why should I be committed to actively engaging issues in my community and beyond? How can I engage issues?Who is going to engage issues with me? T For example: show students that society needs improving and provide positive experiences seeking solutions. For example: engage students in real-world projects; teach civic skills and provide knowledge through workshops and simulations so students can be effective civic actors. For example: provide a supportive community of peers and connections to role models. R I am committed to civic engagement. I have the skills, knowledge, and networks I need to act effectively for change in my community and beyond. I know and admire people who have made a difference in the past and feel connected to those who want to make a difference now, and I want to work with them. Prioridades de programas de educación democrática éxitos (Kahne & Westheimer, 2003) (W=what students ask?; T=teaching democracy; R=results) 31

32 Tipos de ciudanía (Westheimer & Kahne, 2004) Personally responsibleParticipatorySocial-justice oriented D Acts responsibly in their community Works and pays taxes Picks up litter, recycles, and gives blood Helps those in need, lends a hand during times of crisis Obeys laws Active member of community organizations and/or improvement efforts Organizes community efforts to care for those in need, promote economic development, or clean up environment Knows how government agencies work Know strategies for accomplishing collective tasks Critically assesses social, political, and economic structures Explores strategies for change that address root causes of problem Know about social movements and how to effect systemic change Seeks out and addresses areas of injustice S Contributes food to a food driveHelps to organize a food drive Explores why people are hungry and acts to solve root causes C To solve social problems and improve society, citizens must have good character; they must be honest, responsible, and law-abiding members of the community To solve social problems and improve society, citizens must actively participate and take leadership positions within established systems and community structures To solve social problems and improve society, citizens must question and change established systems and structures when they reproduce patterns of injustice over time. Legend: D=description; S=sample action; C=core assumptions 32

33 3) Identity and identity formation * Social construction of identity * Intersectionality of identity and power * Whiteness * Critique of social organization * Problematizing color- blindness 4) Decision-making process * Inclusion, representation & consultation * Leadership * Accountability * Funding * Needs, results and systemic behavior 2) Commitment to social justice (SJ) * Place and profile of social justice * Historical/present discrimination, marginalization and oppression * Critical analysis of SJ * Demonstrable action related to SJ Democratic citizenship -Diverse representation - Participation/civic engagement - Distribution of resources - Political/media literacy - Critical (pedagogical) education 1) Linkages with international milieu * Migration, immigration and displacement * Economics of globalization * War, famine, poverty and conflicts *Environment * International institutions and events Democratic citizenship Conceptualización de la educación de la justicia social 33

34 Armazón para elaborar la democracia Programa de estudio i. What is explicitly asked of teachers and students through curriculum and other policy documents with regard to democracy, citizenship, and social justice? ii. Who is involved in developing the formal and informal curricula of schools? iii. How can the myth of social studies as the only area to explore politics best be rectified? Formation de maestros i. How are educators prepared to understand and interact with democracy? ii. What types of on-going support are provided to teachers to undertake critical work? iii. How are educators evaluated to ensure that they are able to effectively engage in democracy? Cultura institutional i. How do educational systems support, cultivate, and demonstrate leadership for democracy? ii. What is, and should be, done to encourage a culture of democracy in schools? iii. How are macro issues defined, articulated, and funded and what is the linkage to social justice within the institutional culture of educational systems? 34

35 Armazón para elaborar la democracia a. Currículo educativo i. ¿Qué se le pide explícitamente a maestros y estudiantes, mediante el currículo y otros documentos oficiales, con respecto a la democracia, la ciudadanía y la justicia social? ii. ¿Quién está involucrado en el desarrollo formal e informal de los currículos escolares? iii. ¿Cuál es la mejor manera de enfrentar y rectificar el mito de que los estudios sociales son la única área en la que puede explorarse la política? b. Preparación de los docentes i. ¿Cómo están preparados los educadores para entender e interactuar con la democracia? ii. ¿Qué clases de apoyo continuo reciben los maestros para realizar una labor crítica? iii. ¿Cómo se evalúa a los profesores para garantizar que sean capaces de involucrarse de forma efectiva con la democracia? c. Cultura Institucional i. ¿De qué maneras apoyan, cultivan y demuestran los sistemas educativos el liderazgo para la democracia en educación? ii. ¿Qué se hace o debería hacerse para promover una cultura democrática en las escuelas? iii. ¿Cómo se definen, articulan y financian los temas macro y cuál es el vínculo con la justicia social al interior de la cultura institucional de los sistemas educativos? 35

36 Armazón para elaborar la democracia d. Rendición de Cuentas i. ¿Qué acciones de liderazgo se han dispuesto para asegurar la obtención de políticas, prácticas y resultados democráticos? ii. ¿Cómo se conectan los estándares académicos con la democracia, la ciudadanía y la justicia social? iii.¿Cómo se evalúan los procesos de toma de decisiones para garantizar que la justicia social sea una preocupación auténtica en las escuelas y no un mero requisito burocrático? e. Participación Cívica i. ¿Cómo deberían los estudiantes involucrarse con la democracia en la escuela? ii. ¿Qué debe hacerse para forjar un vínculo más fuerte entre los ciudadanos de Estados Unidos y las comunidades y los asuntos internacionales? iii.¿Cómo debería el currículo formal reconocer la importancia de la participación cívica? f. Educación Política i. ¿Cómo pueden los maestros abordar temas polémicos sin el miedo a que se les tache de antipatriotas? ii. ¿Qué se puede hacer para introducir a los alumnos a la complejidad de la política, incluyendo la problematización del proceso electoral? iii. ¿Qué estrategias, medidas, actividades y experiencias debieran incorporarse en la experiencia educativa formal e informal para apoyar e integrar la educación y la formación política en las escuelas? 36

37 1. Inclusion 2.Representation 3. Decision Making Process 4. Communication 5. Funding 6. Data-Collection Processes 7. Accountability 8. Monitoring/Review 1-Strategic Policy 2-Leadership 3-Curriculum 4-Extra-Curricular 5-Service-Learning 6-Community Involvement 7-Training 8-Evaluation Armazón de imputabilidad para la justicia social 37

38 ¿Qué (puedo) hacer? 38

39 La lista ?Pero qué puedo hacer, yo?: Quince sugestiones 1.Accept that no one knows everything, and that we can always learn 2.Content is never devoid of context 3.Work locally but make the linkage with the international milieu 4.Media literacy is not a sound-bite 5.History is not uni-dimensional 6.Culture is more than sombreros, tacos and mariachis 7.Problematize war, and fight for peace 39

40 La lista ?Pero qué puedo hacer, yo?: Quince sugestiones 8. Humility is an unbelievable virtue 9. Be wary of being a follower 10. Accept that you are a political being 11. Read and write, and seek out authors far from mainstream culture 12. Problematize the discrepancy in wealth, but also the importance of money as an indicator of worth or value 13. Consider the proposition that there is hope 14. Examine important events, personalities and experiences in your own education 15. Affirm That I Can Do What I Can Do 40

41 Gracias Merci Thank You 41


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