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RE = MB + ETA + PAL. METABOLISMO BASAL (TMB – TMR): Basal metabolism. This comprises a series of functions that are essential for life, such as cell function.

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Presentación del tema: "RE = MB + ETA + PAL. METABOLISMO BASAL (TMB – TMR): Basal metabolism. This comprises a series of functions that are essential for life, such as cell function."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 RE = MB + ETA + PAL

2 METABOLISMO BASAL (TMB – TMR): Basal metabolism. This comprises a series of functions that are essential for life, such as cell function and replacement; the synthesis, secretion and metabolism of enzymes and hormones to transport proteins and other substances and molecules; the maintenance of body temperature; uninterrupted work of cardiac and respiratory muscles; and brain function. The amount of energy used for basal metabolism in a period of time is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR), and is measured under standard conditions that include being awake in the supine position after ten to 12 hours of fasting and eight hours of physical rest, and being in a state of mental relaxation in an ambient environmental temperature that does not elicit heat-generating or heat-dissipating processes. Depending on age and lifestyle, BMR represents 45 to 70 percent of daily total energy expenditure, and it is determined mainly by the individuals age, gender, body size and body composition.

3 EFECTO TERMICO DEL ALIMENTO (ETA): Metabolic response to food. Eating requires energy for the ingestion and digestion of food, and for the absorption, transport, interconversion, oxidation and deposition of nutrients. These metabolic processes increase heat production and oxygen consumption, and are known by terms such as dietary-induced thermogenesis, specific dynamic action of food and thermic effect of feeding. The metabolic response to food increases total energy expenditure by about 10 percent of the BMR over a 24-hour period in individuals eating a mixed diet Termorregulación: TERMOGENESIS ADAPTATIVA

4 ACTIVIDAD FISICA: Physical activity. This is the most variable and, after BMR, the second largest component of daily energy expenditure. Humans perform obligatory and discretionary physical activities. Obligatory activities can seldom be avoided within a given setting, and they are imposed on the individual by economic, cultural or societal demands. The term obligatory is more comprehensive than the term occupational that was used in the 1985 report (WHO, 1985)because, in addition to occupational work, obligatory activities include daily activities such as going to school, tending to the home and family and other demands made on children and adults by their economic, social and cultural environment. Discretionary activities, although not socially or economically essential, are important for health, well- being and a good quality of life in general. They include the regular practice of physical activity for fitness and health; the performance of optional household tasks that may contribute to family comfort and well- being; and the engagement in individually and socially desirable activities for personal enjoyment, social interaction and community development

5 CRECIMIENTO: Growth. The energy cost of growth has two components: 1) the energy needed to synthesize growing tissues; and 2) the energy deposited in those tissues. The energy cost of growth is about 35 percent of total energy requirement during the first three months of age, falls rapidly to about 5 percent at 12 months and about 3 percent in the second year, remains at 1 to 2 percent until mid-adolescence, and is negligible in the late teens. GESTACION: Pregnancy. During pregnancy, extra energy is needed for the growth of the foetus, placenta and various maternal tissues, such as in the uterus, breasts and fat stores, as well as for changes in maternal metabolism and the increase in maternal effort at rest and during physical activity. LACTACION: Lactation. The energy cost of lactation has two components: 1) the energy content of the milk secreted; and 2) the energy required to produce that milk. Well-nourished lactating women can derive part of this additional requirement from body fat stores accumulated during pregnancy.

6 Formula (N. U. - CEPAL, 2004), para edad de 18 a 30 años : (15.4(p) – 27(t) + 717) ó (kg) …….Hombres Formula ( O.M.S ) para el cálculo de la Tasa Metabólica en Reposo (TMR) en Kcal/día : 15.3 (P) …. Hombres (18 – 29 años) 14.7 (P) …. Mujeres (18 – 29 años) Fórmula de Harris-Benedict para calcular la TMR : Hombres (GEB) : TMR = 66 + [13,7 x P (kg)] + [5 x T (cm) – [6,8 x edad (años)] Mujeres (GEB) : TMR = [9,6 x P (kg)] + [1,8 x T(cm)] – [4,7 x edad (años)] RCT = GEB (Sexo) + ADE (10% GEB) + Actividad + Deporte P = Peso vivo del estudiante en kg. T = Talla del estudiante en cm.

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10 ESTIMACION DE LOS REQUERIMIENTOS ENERGETICOS Y NUTRICIONALES PARA ESTUDIANTES EJERCICIO: 1. Registre sus propias actividades a lo largo de 3 días en un diario de actividades. Incluir 1 día durante el fin de semana, y sacar el promedio de esos tres días (solo trabaje con el promedio) 2. Calcule el número total de minutos empleados en cada tipo de actividad y utilice la tabla del costo energético por actividad y luego transferirlo al formulario de registro de actividades. (Baje el libro: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/y5686e/y5686e00.pdf)ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/y5686e/y5686e00.pdf En el anexo de este libro encontrará las actividades y su costo energético 3. Calcule su gasto energético promedio obtenido en 1 mediante el método factorial 5. Calcule la cantidad de grasa, proteínas y carbohidratos que debe consumir por día en base a sus requerimientos de energía estimada en Calcule su IMC 7. Calcule su ratio: C/C 8. Seguir las siguientes recomendaciones del siguiente ejemplo:

11 ACTIVIDADCOSTO ENERGETICOTIEMPO TMR(minutos) Dormir Asear y vestir2.915 Desayunar2.130 Caminar a la UNA3.520 Sentarse en clase Caminar de y hacia clase3.540 Almorzar2.130 Estudiar en Biblioteca Deambulacion3.530 Partido de tenis6.240 Caminar a casa3.520 Cenar2.140 Planchar camisa3.515 Manejar y regresar de cita2.520 Bailar activamente8.540 Comer bocaditos2.120 Sentarse y charlar con pareja Estudiar en Biblioteca Desvestir y bañar2.930

12 SUMATORIA NIVEL DE COSTOMINHORASNIVEL x HORAS ENERGETICO NIVEL DE ACTIVIDAD FISICA (PAL): 44.4 / 24 = 1.85

13 Reemplazando los datos en la formula de la O.M.S. (1985) para varones, se tiene: TMR = 15.4 (78) – 27 (1.7) TMR = 1,872.3 Kcal/día (Recuerde que esta fórmula (TMR) ya considera el gasto del efecto térmico del alimento de los alimentos = 10 % ). Luego considerando el Nivel de Actividad Física (PAL), el requerimiento de energía por día es: RE = TMR x PAL RE = x 1.85 RE = Kcal/día DATOS DEL ESTUDIANTE: Peso del estudiante = 78 kg Edad = 22 años Talla = 1.7 m NIVEL DE ACTIVIDAD FISICA (PAL): 44.4 / 24 = 1.85

14 -Grasa total 15 – 30 % (% del total de energía) Ácidos grasos saturados < 10 % Ácidos grasos insaturados (PUFAS) 6 – 10 % PUFAS W-6 5 – 8 % PUFAS W % Ácidos grasos trans < 1 % Ácidos grasos mono insaturados (MUFAS) por diferencia -Carbohidratos totales 55 – 75 % (% del total de energía) Azucares libres < 10 % -Proteína total 10 – 15 % (% del total de energía) Colesterol < 300 mg/día Cloruro de sodio 5 g /día (< 2 g/día) Frutas y vegetales > 400 g / día Fibra dietaría total? ………………………..

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16 TOMANDO COMO BASE EL RE = 3, Kcal/día 1) Grasa total 15 – 30 % (% del total de energía) 2) Carbohidratos totales 55 – 75 % (% del total de energía) 3) Proteína total 10 – 15 % (% del total de energía) 1) 3, x 0.15 = kcal/ 9 kcal g -1 = g de grasa/día 2) 3, x 0.75 = 2,597.81/4 kcal g -1 = g de carbohidratos/día 3) 3, x 0.10 = /4 kcal g -1 = g de proteínas/día

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18 Fórmula para el calculo del Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) : IMC = Peso (kg) / Talla x Talla (en metros) Fórmula para el cálculo de la ratio C/C : C/C = cintura (cm) / cadera (cm)

19 Determine su requerimiento y cantidad de Proteinas, Grasa y carbohidratos que debe consumir diariamente. Determine otras variables (Según guia)


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