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Endocarditis Infecciosa Dr. Jorge Rodríguez Villegas Cardiología INCOR-ESSALUD.

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Presentación del tema: "Endocarditis Infecciosa Dr. Jorge Rodríguez Villegas Cardiología INCOR-ESSALUD."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Endocarditis Infecciosa Dr. Jorge Rodríguez Villegas Cardiología INCOR-ESSALUD

2 EPIDEMIOLOGIA Se estima entre 10,000 to 15,000 nuevos casos de IE son diagnosticados en los EEUU cada año. IE has increasingly become a disease of the elderly Mas de la mitad de todos los casos de IE en los EEUU ahora ocurren en pacientes sobre los 60 años de eded This trend is probably due to two factors –La disminucion en la incidencia de enfermedad reumatica cardiaca –El incremento en la proporcion de nuevos sujetos en la poblacion general


4 FACTORES DE RIESGO Injection drug use –Highest risk factor in patients < 40 years of age Valvulas Cardiacas Protesicas –Endocarditis de valvula protesica comprometenun pequeño pero importante grupo de casos de IE –Mas de 100,000 valvulas cardiacas son implantadas anualmente en los EEUU –IE develops in 1 to 4 % of valve recipients during the 1st year following valve replacement, and in approximately 1 percent per year thereafter

5 FACTORES DE RIESGO Endocarditis Nosocomial –Usually a complication of bacteremia induced by an invasive procedure or a vascular device Alteracion cardiaca estructural –Aproximadamente 34 % de todos los pacientes con IE tienen una anomalia estructural pre-existente –Enfermedad cardiaca Congenita esta presente en 10-20% de los casos –La mayoria de lesiones cardiacas congenitas que cominmente predisponen son valva aortica bicuspide, PDA, VSD, coarctation de aorta, y tetralogia de Fallot

6 FACTORES DE RIESGO Lesiones valvulares Degenerativas –The risk of IE in patients with MVP and associated regurgitation is estimated to be 5 to 8 times higher than that in the normal population –Enfermedad valvular Aortica(estenosis o/y regurgitation) esta presente en 12 a 30 % de casos

7 FACTORES DE RIESGO Historia de endocarditis infecciosa –Recurrent endocarditis occurred in 4.5 percent of one large cohort of non-addicts –Other studies have reported rates of IE recurrence ranging from 2.5 to 9 percent HIV infection – Un numero de casos de IE han sido reportados en pacientes con infeccion HIV –It has been suggested that HIV infection is an independent risk factor for IE in IV drug abusers

8 A number of other, less common predisposing factors for IE include –Embarazo –Fistulas AV usadas para hemodialisis –Cateter venoso central y de arteria pulmonar –Peritoneovenous shunts para el control de ascitis –Ventriculoatrial shunts para el manejo de hidrocefalia In addition, patients with ulcerative lesions of the colon due to carcinoma or inflammatory bowel disease have a poorly understood predilection to develop endocarditis secondary to Strep.bovis

9 Definicion de Casos Criterios de Duke –En 1994 investigadores de Duke University modificaron los previos criterios que incluye la echocardiografia en el diagnostico –They also expanded the category of predisposing heart conditions to include intravenous drug use

10 Duke Criteria Definitive infective endocarditis –pathologic criteria microorganisms : demonstrated by culture or histology in a vegetation, or in a vegetation that has embolized, or in an intracardiac abscess or Pathologic Lesions : vegetation or intracardiac abscess, confirmed by histology –clinical criteria two major criteria, or one major and three minor criteria, or five minor criteria

11 Duke Criteria Possible infective endocarditis –findings consistent of IE that fall short of definite, but not rejected Rejected –firm alternate Dx for manifestation of IE –resolution of manifestations of IE, with antibiotic therapy for 4 days –no pathologic evidence of IE at surgery or autopsy, after antibiotic therapy for 4 days

12 Duke Criteria Major criteria –positive blood culture for IE –evidence of endocardial involvement Minor criteria –predisposition (heart condition or IV drug use) –fever of 100.4 0 F or higher –vascular or immunologic phenomena –microbiologic or echocardiographic evidence not meeting major criteria

13 Major Criteria Positive blood culture for IE –typical microorganism for IE from two separate blood cultures in the absence of a primary focus strep viridans, strep bovis, HACEK group, staph aureus or enterococci Persistently positive blood culture –blood cultures drawn more than 12 hr apart, or –all of 3 or a majority of 4 or more separate blood cultures, with first and last drqwn at least 1 hr apart

14 Major Criteria Evidence of endocardial involvement –positive echocardiogram for endocarditis oscillating intracardiac mass on valve or supporting structure, or in the path of regurgitant jets, or on implanted material, in the absence of an alternate anatomic explanation abscess new partial dehiscence of prosthetic valve –new valvular regurgitation (increase or change in pre-existing murmur not sufficient)

15 Minor Criteria predisposition –predisposing heart condition or iv drug use fever of 100.40F or higher vascular phenomena –major arterial emboli –septic pulmonary infarcts –mycotic aneurysm –intracranial hemorrhage –conjunctive hemorrhages –Janeway lesions

16 Dukes Minor Criteria immunologic phenomena –Glomerulonephritis –Rheumatoid factor microbiologic evidence –positive blood culture not meeting major criteria or serologic evidence of active infection with organism consistent with IE echocardiogram –consistent with IE but not meeting major criteria –Oslers nodes –Roth spots




20 Validity of Duke criteria 405 consecutive cases of suspected IE were studied 69 cases de IE son confirmados por anatomia patologica 55 (80 %) son clinicamente clasificados y definidos usando los criterios de Duke, versus only 35 being classified as probable by the von Reyn criteria 12 of the pathologically confirmed cases were "rejected" by the von Reyn criteria whereas none by the Duke criteria New criteria for diagnosis of infective endocarditis: Utilization of specific echocardiographic findings. Duke Endocarditis Service Am J Med 1994; 96:200

21 Diagnostic approach to infective endocarditis History –A careful history should be performed with special attention given to a history of prior cardiac lesions and historical clues pointing toward a recent source of bacteremia Physical examination –A meticulous clinical examination should be performed looking for clinical evidence of small and large emboli with special attention to the fundi, conjunctivae, skin, and digits –Cardiac examination may reveal signs of new regurgitant murmurs and signs of CHF –Neurologic evaluation may detect evidence of focal neurologic impairment

22 Diagnostic approach to infective endocarditis Positive blood culture results –A minimum of three blood cultures should be obtained over a time period based upon the severity of the illness Additional laboratory tests –An elevated ESR and/or an elevated level of CRP is usually present –Most patients quickly develop a normochromic normocytic anemia –The WBC count may be normal or elevated

23 Diagnostic approach to infective endocarditis Additional laboratory tests –elevated levels of serum globulins –presence of cryoglobulins and circulating immune complexes –hypocomplementemia –false positive serologic tests for syphilis –abnormal urinalysis –microscopic or gross hematuria, proteinuria, or pyuria –the combination of RBC casts on urinalysis and a low serum complement level may be an indicator of immune-mediated glomerular disease

24 Diagnostic approach to infective endocarditis Electrocardiogram –All patients with suspected IE should have an EKG to determine whether there is evidence of heart block or a conduction delay and to establish a baseline should such a complication develop later

25 Diagnostic approach to infective endocarditis Echocardiography –Should be performed in all patients with suspected IE –A TTE should initially be obtained in patients with native heart valves, while those with prosthetic valves should undergo TEE –Detection of a vegetation by TTE is a positive test –However, a negative study does not preclude the diagnosis and should be followed by TEE, when there is an intermediate or high suspicion of IE

26 Improved diagnostic value of echocardiography in patients with infective endocarditis by transoesophageal approach A prospective study.Eur Heart J 1988 Jan;9(1):43-53 96 patients were studied consecutively with TEE and TTE TEE had a sensitivity for the detection of vegetations of 100 percent as compared to 63 percent with TTE Both TTE and TEE had specificity of 98% Only 25% of vegetations less than 5 mm, 69% of vegetations 6-10 mm, and 100% of vegetations greater than 11 mm detected by TEE were also observed with TTE

27 Major Pathogens Native Valve IE –Strep.(55%), mostly Viridans –Staph.(30%), mostly S.aureus –Entrococci(5-10%) Prosthetic Valve IE –Early (0-2 months) Staph(50%)- mostly S.epi. IE in IV drug abusers –Staph. aureus(50-60%) –Late (>60 days) Staph(30%)

28 Treatment of infective endocarditis GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS –Antimicrobial therapy should be administered in a dose designed to give sustained bactericidal serum concentrations throughout much or all of the dosing interval –In vitro determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the etiologic cause of the endocarditis should be performed in all patients

29 Treatment of infective endocarditis GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS –The duration of therapy has to be sufficient to eradicate microorganisms growing within the valvular vegetations –The need for prolonged therapy in treating endocarditis has stimulated interest in using combination therapy to treat endocarditis

30 VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI AND STREP. BOVIS Antibiotic Dosage and routeDuration Comments Aqueous crystalline12-18 million U/24 h 4 wkspreferred in most patients older than 65 yrs penicillin G sodiumIV either continuouslyand in those with impairment of the eighth or in 6 = divided doses nerve or renal function or Ceftriaxone sodium2g once daily IV or IM 2 wks Aqueous crystalline12-18 million U/24 h 2 wkswhen obtained 1h after a 20-30 min. penicillin G sodium IV either continuouslyIV infusion or IM injection, serum or in six equallyconcentration of gentamicin of divided dosesapproximately 3 mcg/mL is desirable; with gentamicin1 g IM or IV every 8 h 2 wkstrough concentration should be < 1 pg/mL sulfate Vancomycin30 mg/kg per 24 h IV 4 wksvancomycin therapy is recommended for hydrochloridein two equally dividedpatients allergic to beta lactams; peak doses, not to exceed 2serum concentrations of vancomycin should gram/24h unless serumbe obtained one h after completion of the levels are monitoredinfusion and should be in the range of 30-45 mcg/mL for twice-daily dosing JAMA 1995; 274:1706





35 Indications for surgery in IE The indications for surgery in patients with native-valve IE and prosthetic-valve IE are essentially the same Surgery is warranted for patients with active IE who have one or more of the following complications: –CHF that is directly related to valve dysfunction –Persistent or uncontrolled infection while receiving appropriate antimicrobial therapy, including evidence of perivalvular extension –Recurrent emboli, particularly in the presence of large vegetations

36 Indications for surgery in IE Relative indications for surgery –Evidence of perivalvular infection, such as intracardiac abscess or fistula formation –Rupture of a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm –Fungal endocarditis –Endocarditis due to highly resistant microorganism –Relapse after a course of adequate antimicrobial therapy, particularly in prosthetic valve endocarditis –Culture-negative IE with fever more than 10 days after starting empirical therapy

37 Indications for surgery in prosthetic valve IE Same as native valve endocarditis Perivalvular infection Valve Dehiscence –excessively mobile prosthesis on echo –results in hemodynamic instability

38 OUTCOME OF SURGERY The outcome of surgery in patients with IE has been good, particularly when surgical treatment is radical with the removal of all infected and necrotic tissue In a recent study of 138 patients who underwent valve surgery in the presence of active infection, the early mortality, due to heart failure or septic multiorgan failure, was 11.5 % Risk factors for early mortality were NYHA class IV or cardiogenic shock, advanced age, preoperative acute renal failure, and staphylococcal infection Operation for infective endocarditis: Results after implantation of mechanical valves. Ann Thorac Surg 1998; 65:359.

39 ACC/AHA recommendation for surgery in patients with native valve endocarditis

40 ACC/AHA recommendation for surgery in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis

41 ACC/AHA recommendation for valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis

42 ACC/AHA recommendation for valve replacement with bioprosthesis

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