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XIII Encuentro de la Red de Investigadores del Fenómeno Religioso en México (RIFREM) Monterrey, Nuevo Leon Mayo 26-28 Mesa No. 5 Transnacionalización de.

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Presentación del tema: "XIII Encuentro de la Red de Investigadores del Fenómeno Religioso en México (RIFREM) Monterrey, Nuevo Leon Mayo 26-28 Mesa No. 5 Transnacionalización de."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 XIII Encuentro de la Red de Investigadores del Fenómeno Religioso en México (RIFREM) Monterrey, Nuevo Leon Mayo 26-28 Mesa No. 5 Transnacionalización de Prácticas Religiosas

2 Antonio Noé Zavaleta, Ph.D. Associate Provost For Academic Affairs Director of the Texas Center for Border and Transnational Studies and Professor of Anthropology The University of Texas at Brownsville Presentation created by Yolanda Zamarripa

3 La Transmigración de la Religion Popular: Practica y Renovación de Creencias Sincréticas a travez de la Frontera México-Americana The Transmigration of Popular Religion: Praxis and Renewal of Syncretic Faiths across the U.S.-Mexico Border

4 The Transmigration of Mexican Nationals across the Rio Bravo pre-dates 1848 and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexicanos and others followed Los Caminos Reales North and South, to and from, California, Nuevo México y Texas. By 1900 there was a three hundred year tradition of Transmigration between Mexico and the U.S.

5 Transmigration can be seen as the opposite to the notion of assimilation as a gradual but irreversible process of the integration of migrants to the receiving society. Instead, Transnationalism recalls the image of a continuous round-trip movement between countries of origin and reception, allowing migrants to be present in both societies and cultures and to exploit economic and political opportunities created by such dual lives Alejandro Portes, Un diálogo Norte-Sur: El progreso de la teoría en el estudio de la migracion internacional y sus implicaciones, 2005

6 When people migrate they carry their religious beliefs with them. Their belief system provides them with an operational system while abroad. When they return home they give thanks, renew and reinforce their beliefs and as such are ready to migrate again.

7 Crossing the border forces them (Mexicanos) neither to adopt a new code of values nor to develop attachments to a single nation, as if it were a zero-sum game where loyalties, or the sense of belonging to one society or another, were mutually exclusive. Many of them fit the paradigm of transnational migrants: people able to work, participate politically, and develop community or religious bonds in several cultural contexts, regardless of the political borders that divide their countries of origin or adoption Carlos González Gutiérrez The Institute of Mexicans Abroad 2009

8 Notable Examples of Religious practice and Transmigration include but are not limited to: Cubans and Puerto Ricans and the practice of Santeria and Palo Mayombe (Cuba to Miami and Puerto Rico to New York) Brazileños and the practice of Condomble (Brazil to Houston) Haitians and the practice of Vodou (Haiti to New York) Mexicanos and the practice of Fidencismo (Exported to all US)

9 TEXAS Republica Mexicana ESPINAZO Coahuila Nuevo Leon Espinazo N.L/Coah. The Home of El Niño Fidencio and one of the Primary Pilgrimage Sites in Mexico Today.

10 Chihuahua Coahuila Nuevo Leon Durango Zacatecas Cuidad Acuña Nuevo Laredo Hidalgo Progreso Palau Frontera Monclova Nueva Rosita Castaños SaltilloMonterrey Espinazo TEXAS Primera Etapa de Misiones de Fundadoras Fidencistas 1925-1950 Matamoros Reynosa Cuidad Victoria Gomez Palacios Las Esperanzas

11 Primera Etapa De Misiones de Fundadoras Fidencistas 1925-1950 During his time in Espinazo El Niño Fidencio developed a very loyal group of assistants and followers They came from the towns and pueblitos nearby: First from Castaños; Frontera; Palau; Nueva Rosita; then from Saltillo; Monterrey; Cuidad Victoria; Gomez Palacio; Cuidad Acuña, Reynosa These are the founding Fidencista misiones outside of Espinazo but in Mexico The Niño predicted his death and prepared his closest associates to become trance mediums capable of receiving spiritual messages from him The first and most important were Damiana Martinez and Victor Zapata(father of Panita)

12 Texas Republica de México Matamoros Cd. Victoria Reynosa Nuevo Laredo Piedras Negras Gomez Palacios Espinazo San Antonio El Valle del Rio Grande La Segunda Etapa, El Movimiento Fidencista se Mueve a la Frontera 1940s-1960s Monterrey Del Rio

13 La Segunda Etapa Establecer Misiones en la Frontera 1940s-1960s During the 1940s and through the 1960s there was a huge movement of Mexican farm laborers to the border with the U.S. called the Bracero Era I first heard of the Niño Fidencio as a child in my Grandmothers cotton fields near Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas Many thousands of Mexican workers established semi-permanent residence along the border during this time in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas and beyond As Espinazo developed as a pilgrimage site and as the March and October fiestas were established the followers of Fidencio developed the tradition of returning to Mexico for renewal During this period the first misiones were established in the American Midwest

14 Amarillo Lubbock Fort WorthDallas El Paso Odessa Midland San Angelo Waco Houston Brownsville Laredo Corpus Christi San Antonio Austin Oklahoma New Mexico Mexico Texas Rio Grande Edinburg Robstown Carrizo Springs Del Rio Pearsall Espinazo La Tercera Etapa El Fidencismo se Extiende a todo Tejas 1960s – 1980s

15 La Tercera Etapa El Fidencismo se Extiende a todo Tejas 1960s – 1980s During the 1960s-1980s second and third generation Mexican families established permanent residence through out Texas Now called migrant farm workers they followed the migrant stream into the American Midwest and throughout the rest of the country Their children and grandchildren did not know Mexico as a country of origin except for their annual trips and pilgrimages to Espinazo These newer generations who had not known Fidencio in life or by reputation developed a fervent passion for his rites and practices Many went on to become trance mediums or materias also called cajas or spiritual boxes

16 Mexico Texas LA AR Ok NM AZ CA NVUT CO KSMO MS AL GA FL SC NC TN KY NEIA IL WY Espinazo,NL WI MI SD ND MN MT ID OR WA IN OH La Cuarta Etapa La Migracion Fidencista a Centros Urbanos de Norte America 1950-2010

17 La Cuarta Etapa La Migracion-Transmigracion Fidencista por toda los Estados Unidos 1950-2010 Fidencista healing misiones have been established in the United States wherever Northern Mexican origin populations are located They have a long history of the promotion of popular religious belief as well as transmigration They are generally very pious populations who also practice Roman Catholicism They take their children with them as they make the pilgrimage from Ohio and Indiana and many other states each year home to Nuevo Leon, Coahuila and Tamaulipas

18 Mexico Espinazo, NL TX LA NM AZ CA AROk KS AL GA NV UT CO MO IL TN SC NC KY INOH VA MI WI NEIA SD ND WY OR ID WA MT MN Canada Fidencistas Transmigran a México para las Fiestas Religiosas y Familiares mas Importantes Hoy en Dia Fiestas en Espinazo Marzo y Octubre de cada año FL MS

19 Fidencistas Transmigran a México para las Fiestas Religiosas y Familiares mas Importantes Hoy en Dia What sustains these Mexican populations and their belief in Fidencio? They come together regularly in their remote location to pray, sing, to receive blessings and most importantly to receive healings They are sustained by the original scriptures or Escrituras left to them by Fidencio and by his Revisadores In the early days the faithful were visited annually by Damiana Martinez and or Victor Zapata who would test their catechism and approve their practices Their practices were validated during annual trips to Espinazo and by witnessing what other groups were doing, by learning and then returning home Lifelong bonds were created and exist to this day

20 The Role and Importance of Fidencista Misiones for Mexicanos Abroad (IME) They provide a place to meet and renew friendships They provide an opportunity to keep Mexican cultural traditions alive and active while abroad They provides an opportunity to plan return trips to Mexico for family and pilgrimage purposes They provide a place where the younger generation may learn and practice important Mexican cultural traditions, especially for family bonding and religious practice They provide a place for physical and emotional networking, support and healing in the absence of other services

21 CONCLUSIONS Fidencismo has extended throughout the US The numbers of Fidencistas continues to grow Fidencistas are religiously devout and avid practitioners of Fidencismo Fidencistas have enculturated their children to Mexican culture and traditions while abroad Fidencistas have set up a functioning mental and physical health care net for Mexicans abroad throughout the U.S. Fidencistas are united by a common scripture left to them by Fidencio In 2010 Fidencismo is stronger than ever but border violence has decreased movement across the border temporarily

22 The El Niño Fidencio and Curanderismo Research Project at The University of Texas at Brownsville

23 Bandera de la Mision de Robstown, Texas Fundada en 1961

24 Estandarte de la Mision de Nueva Rosita, Coah. Fundada en 1946

25 Madre Ciprianita Zapata de Robles Lider de Fidencistas Independientes y el Dr. Zavaleta en Espinazo 2008 20th Aniversario del Estudio

26 1988-2008 en Espinazo El 20th Aniversario del Estud io

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