4GeografiaPerú es mas conocido como la tierra de los Incas. Tiene una área de 1,285,216 Km. cuadrados, y esta situado en la costa del Pacifico, en la parte norte central de Sud America.Perú es el tercer país mas grande de Sud America, detrás solo de Brasil y Argentina. Perú es considerado un país tropical. Perú tiene tres regiones bien marcadas, una delgada zona costera, las montañas de los Andes de mayor anchura, y la zona forestal del Amazonas.La faja costera es mayormente formada de desiertos pero aquí se ubican los ciudades principales.Los ríos corren desde el este hacia el oeste, deslizándose hacia abajo con taludes bien inclinados lo que hace que los ríos sean torrentosos. En estas valles se encuentran los mayores centros de agricultura.
5HistoriaLa famosa civilización Inca solo es una parte de toda la Arqueología Peruana. Antes de los Incas, Perú tuvo las culturas PRE-Colombinas , algunas de estas precediendo a los Incas por muchos siglos.Este imperio es uno de lo mas conocido en el mundo. En su apogeo, el imperio tenia 2500 Km. cuadrados cubriendo los países que hoy se llaman: Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Chile, e Argentina.
6El Imperio IncaicoA pesar de toda su grandeza el Imperio Incaico existió más de un siglo. Con anterioridad al año 1430 los Incas gobernaron solo el Valle del Cuzco.Ellos habían entablado una guerra con los Chancas y finalmente los derrotaron en una gran victoria en Esto marcó el comienzo de una gran expansión militar.El Imperio Incaico conquistó e incorporó la mayoría de las culturas en el área que se extendía desde el sur de Colombia hasta el centro de Chile. Los Incas impusieron su modo de vida sobre las gentes que conquistaron.Para el tiempo que los Españoles arribaron la mayoría del área de los Andes había sido totalmente controlado bajo las leyes de los Incas.
8Las fechas importantes 1438 – empezó el imperio inca (el rey, Pacha cutí conquistó otros tribus)1532 – Francisco Pizarro llegó a Sudamérica (la conquista española)1572 – murió el ultimo rey inca (Tupác Amaru) terminó el imperio
11The Inca Rise To Power (1) Their own legends state that ten related clans emerged from caves in the region and were taken to Cuzco by a mythical leader. Wherever their origins, by about A.D they resided in and around Cuzco and by 1438 they had defeated their hostile neighbors in the area. At this point under their ruler, or Inca, Pachacuti ( ), they launched a series of military alliances and campaigns that brought them control of the whole area from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
13The Inca Rise To Power (2) The Inca armies were constantly on the march, extending control over a vast territory. Pachacuti's son and successor, Topac Yupanqui ( ) conquered the northern coastal kingdom of Chimor by seizing its irrigation system, and he extended Inca control into the southern area of what is now Ecuador.At the other end of the empire, Inca armies reached the Maule River in Chile in spite of the Araucanian Indians’ resistance.The next ruler, Huayna Capac ( ) consolidated these conquests and suppressed a number of rebellions on the frontiers. By the time of his death, the Inca Empire - or as they called it, Twantinsuyu - stretched from what is now Colombia to Chile and eastward across Lake Titicaca and Bolivia to northern Argentina.Between nine and 13 million people of different ethnic backgrounds and languages came under Inca rule, a remarkable number given the extent of the empire and the technology available for transportation and communication.
14Las centros importantes Cuzco (el ombligo del mundo [navel of the world] en quechua)Machu Picchu (desde allí los incas estudiaban el sol)Pisac (también en Perú)
16La religiónLos incas también creían en muchos dioses (eran politeístas).-Viracocha – el dios creador-Inti – el dios sol-Mama Kilya – la diosa de la luna-Ilyapa – el dios del buen tiempo (weather)
17ReligionInca political and social life was infused with religious meaning. Like the Aztecs, the Incas held the sun to be the highest deity and considered the Inca to be the sun's representative on earth.The magnificent Temple of the Sun in Cuzco was the center of the state religion, and in its confines the mummies of the past Incas resided. The cult of the sun was spread throughout the empire, but the Inca did not prohibit the worship of local gods.Other deities were also worshiped as part of the state religion. Viracocha, a creator god, was a favorite of Inca Pachacuti and remained important.Popular belief was based on the idea that many natural phenomena were connected to spiritual power. Mountains, stones, rivers, caves, or tombs and temples were considered to be holy shrines. At these places, prayers were offered and sacrifices of animals, goods, and humans were made.The temples were served by many priests and women dedicated to the preparation of cloth and food for sacrifice. The temple priests were mainly responsible for the great festivals and celebrations upon which state actions often depended.
18La sociedad incaica emperador la familia real aristócratas administradoresotros noblesartesanosTrabajadoresCampesinosguerrerosLos incas creían que sus emperadores eran hijos del primer dios Viracocha, por eso el rey o emperador tenía la autoridad máxima en el imperio.La familia realnobles
20Social classesThe Inca nobility was greatly privileged and those related to the Inca himself held the highest positions. The nobility were all drawn from the ten royal ayllus.In addition, the residents of Cuzco were given noble status to enable them to serve in high bureaucratic posts.The nobles were distinguished by dress and custom. Only they were entitled to wear the large ear spools that enlarged the ears and caused the Spaniards to later call them orejones, or "big ears."Noticeably absent in most of the Inca Empire was a distinct merchant class. Unlike Mesoamerica where long-distance trade was so important, Inca emphasis on self- sufficiency and state regulation of production and surplus limited trade.Only in the northern areas of the empire, in the chiefdoms of Ecuador, the last region brought under Inca control, did a specialized class of traders exist.
22La comida Tres cosas esenciales: -maíz (sara) -papas o patatas (chuno) -quinoa (chisaya mama [mother grain])para cereales, harina, sopasCuando los incas empezaron a comerciar con otros tribus comían calabazas, piñas y papayas.Sabían como hacer la comida seca.
24LanguageThe Incas intentionally spread the Quechua language as a means of integrating the empire.The Incas made extensive use of colonists. Sometimes Quechua-speakers from Cuzco might be settled in a newly won area to provide an example and a garrison. On other occasions, a resistive conquered population was moved to a new home.Throughout the empire, a complex system of roads was constructed with bridges and causeways when needed. Along these roads, way stations, were placed about a day's walk apart to serve as inns, storehouses, and supply centers for Inca armies on the move.Tambos also served as relay points for the system of runners who carried messages throughout the empire. The Inca probably maintained over 10,000 tambos.
26World of the IncasAlmost at the same time that the Aztecs extended their control over much of Mesoamerica, a great imperial state was rising in the Andean highlands, and it eventually held sway over an empire some 3000 miles in extent.The Inca Empire incorporated many aspects of previous Andean cultures but fused them together in new ways - and with a genius for state organization and bureaucratic control over peoples of different cultures and languages, it achieved a level of integration and domination previously unknown in the Americas.
27Los ImpuestosWith few exceptions the Incas, unlike the Aztecs, did not demand tribute, but rather required labor on the lands assigned to the state and the religion.Communities were expected to take turns working on state and church lands and sometimes on building projects or in mining.These labor turns were an essential aspect of Inca control.In addition, the Inca required women to weave high-quality cloth for the court and for religious purposes. The Incas provided the wool, but each household was required to produce cloth. Woven cloth, a great Andean art form, had political and religious significance.Some women were taken as concubines for the Inca and others were selected as servants at the temples, the so-called "Virgins of the Sun."In all this, the Inca had an overall imperial system, but remained sensitive to local variations so that its application accommodated regional and ethnic differences.
29Inca Cultural Achievements The Incas drew on the artistic traditions of their Andean predecessors and the skills of subject peoples.Beautiful pottery and cloth was produced in specialized workshops.Inca metallurgy was among the most advanced of the Americas, and Inca artisans worked gold and silver with great technical skill. The Incas also used copper and some bronze for weapons and tools.Like the Mesoamerican peoples, the Incas made no practical use of the wheel.They had no system of writing.The Incas, however, did make use of a system of knotted strings with which numerical and perhaps other information could be recorded. It functioned something like an abacus, and with it the Incas took censuses and kept financial records.
30Inca Cultural Achievements The Incas had a passion for numerical order, and the population was divided into decimal units from which they enlisted the them in the military.Inca stonecutting was remarkably accurate and the best buildings were constructed of large fitted stones without the use of masonry. Some of these buildings were immense.Incan constructions, the large agricultural terraces, irrigation projects, and the extensive system of roads were among the Incas' greatest achievements.The Incas displayed their technical ability and workmanship as well as their ability to mobilize large amounts of manpower.Inca genius was best displayedin their statecraft andin their architecture andpublic buildings.
31Comparing The Incas And Aztecs Both the Inca and the Aztec empires were based on a long development of civilization that preceded them; and while in some areas of artistic and intellectual achievement earlier peoples had surpassed their accomplishments, both represented the success of imperial and military organization.Both empires were based on intensive agriculture organized by a state that accumulated surplus production and then controlled the circulation of goods and their redistribution to groups or social classes.In both states older semi kinship-based institutions, the ayllu and the calpulli, were being transformed by the emergence of a social hierarchy in which the nobility was increasingly predominant. In both areas this nobility was also the personnel of the state, so that the state organization was almost an image of society.
32Comparing The Incas And Aztecs (2) While the Incas attempted to create an overarching political state and made conscious attempts to integrate their empire as a unit (the Aztecs did less in this regard), both empires recognized local ethnic groups and political leaders and were willing to allow considerable variation from one group or region to another - that is, provided that Inca or Aztec sovereignty was recognized and tribute paid.Both the Aztecs and the Incas found that their military power was less effective against nomadic peoples who lived on their frontiers. Essentially, the empires were created by the conquest of sedentary agricultural peoples and the extraction of tribute and labor from them.At the same time, their ability to survive the shock of conquest and to contribute to the formation of societies after conquest demonstrates much of their strength and resiliency. Long after the Aztec and Inca empires had ceased to exist, the peoples of the Andes and Mexico continue to draw on these cultural traditions.
33Comparing The Incas And Aztecs (3) There were considerable differences between Mesoamerica and the Andean region in terms of climate and geography but also in terms of their civilizations.Trade and markets, for example, were far more developed in the Aztec Empire and earlier in Mesoamerica in general than in the Andean world.There were considerable differences in metallurgy, in writing systems, and in social definition and hierarchy. But within the context of world civilizations, these two empires are variations of populations where sedentary agriculture is the most important.Basic similarities can also be seen in systems of belief and cosmology and in social structure.But the American Indian civilizations shared much with each other, and that factor plus their relative isolation from external cultural and biological influences gave them their peculiar character and ultimately their vulnerability.
34La Conquista EspañolaEn Noviembre de 1526, Francisco Pizarro encabezó desde el sur de Panamá una expedición. Pizarro se enteró de la riqueza del Imperio Incaico y retornó a España para recaudar dinero y reclutar gente para la conquista.En 1530 acoderó en la zona costera del Ecuador y comenzó su marcha hacia tierra adentro. En 1532 Pizarro fundó el primer pueblo español en territorio Peruano el que llamó San Miguel de Piura. En Noviembre de 1532 el alcanzó la ciudad de Cajamarca, donde el Inca Atahualpa estaba residiendo.Pizarro y sus hombres capturaron Atahualpa aprovechando de la ventaja de las corazas que sus hombres vestían y sobre todo de los caballos que eran desconocidos en América, lo que ponían a los Españoles en ventaja respecto a altura y protección. Después que los hombres de Pizarro capturaron a Atahualpa, Pizarro encarceló a Atahualpa y pidió un rescate en piezas de oro suficiente para llenar el cuarto donde encerraron a Atahualpa hasta la marca que el Inca alcanzara con su brazo extendido.Con la excusa que la gente de Atahualpa estaba demorando, Pizarro ordenó la ejecución de Atahualpa con la pena del garrote. Los Españoles lo condenaron a muerte por herejía.