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Fijación de precios de productos: estrategias

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Presentación del tema: "Fijación de precios de productos: estrategias"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Fijación de precios de productos: estrategias
Marketing Octava edición Philip Kotler y Gary Armstrong Capítulo 11 Fijación de precios de productos: estrategias

2 Estrategias de precio-calidad
Más alto Más bajo Estrategia de primera Estrategia de buen valor Más alta Estrategia de cargo excesivo Estrategia de economía Calidad Más baja

3 Estrategias de fijación de precios de de productos nuevos
New Product Pricing Strategies This CTR relates to the material on pp Estrategias de fijación de precios de de productos nuevos Captura del nivel alto del mercado Pricing Innovative Products Market Skimming Pricing. Market skimming pricing is the strategy of setting high initial prices to skim maximum profits from each successive layer of the target market. Penetración del mercado Poner precio alto al producto nuevo para maximizar ganancias en el mercado meta. Menos ventas pero más redituables. Poner precio bajo al producto nuevo para atraer un gran número de compradores. Mayor participa-ción en el mercado Skimming strategies typically set a price as high as some segments will bear. Once all customers within this segment have purchased, prices are lowered only so far as the next segment needs to be persuaded to buy. Skimming usually works well only when: Product Distinctiveness. Product quality, image, and innovation are sufficiently distinct to support a high price. Costs of Small Production Runs. The costs of producing small volume are not prohibitive. Barriers to Entry. Competitors should not be able to enter the market easily and undercut the high price. Market Penetration Pricing. Some innovations are priced low upon introduction in order to capture large market share quickly thus penetrating the market. High volume results in lower costs, which helps keep prices low. Several conditions favor penetration pricing: Price Sensitive Markets. Highly price-sensitive markets with very large volume potential so that low price produces more market growth are needed. Falling Costs. Production and distribution costs must fall as sales volume increases. Barriers to Entry. Here the low costs must generate a sustainable advantage that cannot easily be duplicated by competitors. Discussion Note: Penetration pricing may also accelerate overall market adoption rates thus supporting low price continuance that may discourage competitors from entering the market.

4 Estrategias de precios de mezcla de productos
Fijación de precios por línea de producto Incrementos de precio entre artículos de la línea de productos: p. ej., $299, $399 Fijación de precios de producto opcional Fijar precios de productos opcionales o accesorios que se venden junto con el producto principal: p. ej., opciones de automóviles Estrategias de precios de mezcla de productos Product-Mix Pricing Strategies This CTR corresponds to Table 11-1 on p. 331 and the relates to the material on pp Fijación de precios de producto cautivo Fijar precios a productos que deben usarse con el producto principal p.ej., navajas de rasurar, película, software Fijación de precios de subproductos Fijar precio a subproductos de bajo valor para deshacerse de ellos p. ej., aserraderos, zoológicos Product-Mix Pricing Strategies Product Line Pricing. Companies usually develop product lines rather than single products. In product line pricing, management must decide on the price steps to set between each product in the line. Companies often use price points to target distinctive combinations of product features and value represented by a particular price. Optional-Product Pricing. Under this strategy, the company offers a base product and prices differently for each combination of additional features or options added to the base product as desired by the customer. Automobile pricing is famous -- or infamous -- for this practice. But many manufacturers use optional-product pricing, such as personal computer makers. Captive-Product Pricing. Under this strategy, producers price products that must be used with a main product. The text describes razor blades as an example. The razor is priced low while high markups are attached to the price of the blades. Discussion Note: Students should distinguish captive pricing from optional pricing on the basis of need versus convenience. When Apple Computer prices its keyboards separately from its computers, it is practicing captive-product pricing. When it offers additional RAM beyond the included board memory, it is practicing optional-product pricing. By-Product Pricing. Waste from production and distribution may be marketable as by-products. Selling by-products allows producers to lower prices and costs on their main products. Otherwise, the prices of main products must cover the disposable or storage of by- products. Product-Bundle Pricing. This strategy combines several products and offers them at a reduced price from the cost of each product purchased separately. Season tickets and group rates are examples. Estrategias de precios de mezcla de productos Precios de productos colectivos Poner precio a paquetes de productos p. ej., entradas de temporada, computadoras

5 Estrategias de ajuste de precios
Price Adjustment Strategies I This CTR corresponds to Table 11-2 on p. 334 and relates to the material on pp Estrategias de ajuste de precios Descuento y complemento Reducir precios como recompensa para clientes que, p. ej., pagan antes o promueven el producto. Segmentada Ajustar precios según las diferencias en clientes, productos o plazas. Price Adjustment Strategies Companies typically adjust their prices to account for various customer differences and changing situations: Descto. en efectivo Cliente Discount and Allowance Pricing. Several forms of discount and allowance pricing are used by marketers: Cash Discounts. These are price reductions to buyers who pay bills promptly. Quantity Discounts. These refer to price reductions per unit on large volumes. Functional Discounts. These are granted to channel members who perform various marketing functions. Seasonal Discounts. These are granted to buyers who purchase merchandise out of season. Allowances. These are discounts such as trade-ins for turning in old items on new purchases or promotional allowances for participating in seller sponsored advertising can also lower buyer prices. Segmented Pricing. Segmented pricing refers to pricing differences not based on costs and takes several forms: Customer-segment pricing. These target a specific segment, as in senior citizen discounts. Product-form pricing. This varies costs on versions of a product by features but not production costs. Location pricing. This stems from preferences where different locations have different perceived values, such as seating in a theater. Time pricing. This refers to price breaks given at times of lower demand. Descto. por cantidad Forma de producto Descuento funcional Plaza Descto. de temporada Tiempo Complementos

6 Estrategias de ajuste de precios
Adjustment Strategies - II This CTR corresponds to Table 11-2 on p. 334 and relates to the discussion on pp Psicológica Promocional Ajustar precios para producir un efecto psicológico. El precio se usa como indicador de calidad. Geográfica Psychological Pricing. A key component in psychological pricing is the reference price consumers carry in their mind when considering sellers prices. Promotional Pricing. Promotional prices are temporary reductions below list and sometimes below costs, used to attract customers: Loss leaders. These may be offered below costs to attract attention to an entire line. Special event. This type of pricing may be used during slow seasons. Cash rebates or low financing. These “extras” may bring in customers “on the brink” and help them to decide to finally purchase. Geographical Pricing. Several forms of geographical pricing are common: FOB-Origin. Free On Board has customer pay freight. Uniform Delivered. Here the company charges the same price to all. Zone. Zone uses different areas pay different prices on freight but all customers within the same area pay the same freight charges. Basing-Point. Under this system, all customers charged freight from a specified billing location. Freight-Absorption. Here the seller pays all or part of the shipping costs to get the desired business. International Pricing. Firms may charge the same price throughout the world, especially for high-ticket, high-tech products like jetliners. Or it may offer different prices based upon differing taxes, tariffs, distribution, and promotion costs. Reducir precios temporalmente para aumentar ventas a corto plazo. P.ej., carnadas, eventos especiales Internacional Ajustar precios considerando dónde están los clientes. P.ej., LAB-origen, entrega uniforme, por zonas, por punto base y por absorción de fletes. Ajustar precios para los mercados internacionales. El precio depende de los costos, consumidores, economía, etc.

7 Cómo iniciar y responder a cambios en los precios
Price Changes This CTR relates to the material on pp Cómo iniciar y responder a cambios en los precios Reacciones de competido- res a cambios en los precios Iniciar recortes de precios Initiating Price Changes Price changes may be initiated for several reasons, including: Price Cuts. Reasons for cutting prices may stem from overcapacity, falling market share, or attempts to dominate the market through lower costs. Price Increases. Inflation is a major source of price increases but so is the tendency to speculate on inflationary trends and raise prices beyond the rate of inflation. Over demand may also cause prices to rise. Higher prices can also increase profit margins. Buyer Reactions to Price Changes. Buyer reactions usually respond directly to price changes but not always. Usually lower prices pleases consumers, higher prices do not. But sometimes higher prices support quality improvements and lower prices mean company or product problems. Whether the buyer is correct or not in these perceptions will not immediately change their inclination to act on them. Competitor Reactions to Price Changes. Competitors most often react in industries with a small number of firms, uniform products in the market, and buyers are well informed. Competitive reactions may be similar price changes or increased non price competition. Companies should anticipate probable competitive moves prior to initiating price changes. Cambios de precios Reacciones de compradores a cambios en los precios Iniciar aumentos de precios

8 Estrategias de ajuste de precios
¿Un competidor recortó el precio? Estrategias de ajuste de precios Mantener precio actual; seguir vigilando el precio del competidor. No ¿Un precio más bajo afectará negativamente nuestra participación y utilidades? Reducir precio No ¿Pueden/deben tomarse medidas eficaces? Aumentar calidad percibida Mejorar calidad y aumentar precio No Lanzar “marca de pelea” barata

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