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Master Cambio Global 2013-2014 Asignatura Desertificación y Cambio Global J. Puigdefabregas CSIC-EEZA (Spain) J. Puigdefabregas CSIC-EEZA (Spain) Palma.

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Presentación del tema: "Master Cambio Global 2013-2014 Asignatura Desertificación y Cambio Global J. Puigdefabregas CSIC-EEZA (Spain) J. Puigdefabregas CSIC-EEZA (Spain) Palma."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Master Cambio Global Asignatura Desertificación y Cambio Global J. Puigdefabregas CSIC-EEZA (Spain) J. Puigdefabregas CSIC-EEZA (Spain) Palma de Mallorca, enero 2014

2 Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014 Profesores (EEZA-CSIC) – Juan Puigdefabregas Tomás: Coordinación, uso de la tierra y demandas institucionales – Gabriel del Barrio Escribano: Degradación de tierras. – Jaime Martínez Valderrama: Sistemas Económicos, desertificación como sistema Alumnos:

3 Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014 Contenidos de la asignatura: Módulos Presentación de la asignatura Paradigmas de la desertificación. Tierras secas 2. 2.Degradación de tierras, el problema ecológico 3. 3.La desertificación como sistema, usos de la tierra y funciones económicas Desertificación y cambio global 5. 5.Estrategias internacionales para el control de la desertificación

4 DíaHora inicioHora finNombre abrev. Módulo 27/01/2014 9:0011:00JPT1 11: GBE JMV3 28/01/2014 9: JMV JPT JMV GBE2 29/01/2014 9:0011:00JME3 11:0013:00GBE2 14: JPT GBE2 30/01/2014 9: GBE JMV3 31/01/2014 9:0011:00JPT4 11: JPT5 14: JPT, GBE, JMV.Revisión & síntesis Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014 Distribución de los módulos en el calendario

5 Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014 Cuestiones prácticas Horarios y Pausas Horarios y Pausas Sistema de evaluación Sistema de evaluación Otras Otras

6 ¿Qué es la desertificación? – – Origen burocrático del término (UN Nairobi 1977) – – Historia del Convenio UNCCD, desde Rio-92 – – Su lugar en los 3 Convenios medioambientales (Cambio Climatico y Biodiversidad) – – Consecuencias y prospectiva – – Pero ¿en que consiste la desertificación? Definiciones del Convenio UNCCD (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought) Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014

7 Texto del Convenio UNCCD (se recomienda usar le versión inglesa) "desertification" means land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. : Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014

8 "land degradation" means reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry sub- humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture,forest and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014

9 Valores e incertidumbres de estas definiciones Tensiones generadas, Prospectiva Presentacion Asignatura Desertificación & CG 2014

10 From DeSurvey project facts and findings DeSurvey Publishable Final Activity Report. European Commission 2011 Integrated Project Contract N o Desertification paradigms

11 The Dahlem Desertification Paradigm (DDP) These assertions are not all-encompassing but provide the framework for a new paradigm (Reynolds et al 2003).

12 Dahlem assertion 1 Desertification always Involves Human and Environmental Drivers Always expect to include both socio-economic and biophysical variables in any monitoring or intervention scheme

13 Dahlem assertion 2 Slow Variables are Critical Determinants of System Dynamics Identify and manage for the small set of slow variables that drive the fast ecological goods and services that matter at any given scale

14 Dahlem assertion 3 Thresholds are Crucial and May Change Over Time I dentify thresholds in the change variables at which there are significant increases in the costs of recovery, and quantify these costs, seeking ways to manage the thresholds to increase resilience

15 Dahlem assertion 4 The Costs of Intervention Rises Non-linearly with Increasing Degradation Intervene early where possible, and invest to reduce the transaction costs of increasing scales of intervention

16 Dahlem assertion 5 Desertification is a Regionally Emergent Property of Local Degradation Take care to define precisely the spatial and temporal extent of and processes resulting in any given measure of local degradation. But dont try to probe desertification beyond a measure of generalized impact at higher scales

17 Dahlem assertion 6 Coupled Human-Environment Systems Change over Time Understand and manage the circumstances in which the human and environmental sub-systems become de-coupled

18 Dahlem assertion 7 The Development of Appropriate Local Environmental Knowledge (LEK) must be Accelerated Create better partnerships between LEK development and conventional scientific research, employing good experimental design, effective adaptive feedback and monitoring

19 Dahlem assertion 8 Systems are Hierarchically Nested (Manage the Hierarchy!) Recognize and manage the fact that changes at one level affect others; create flexible but linked institutions across the hierarchical levels, and ensure processes are managed through scale-matched institutions

20 Dahlem assertion 9 A Limited Suite of Processes and Variables at Any Scale Makes the Problem Tractable Analyze the types of syndromes at different scales, and seek the investment levers which will best control their effects – awareness and regulation where the drivers are natural, changed policy and institutions where the drivers are social

21 DeSurvey facts and findings 1. Desertification does not mean expansion of desert

22 DeSurvey facts and findings 2 Desertification is triggered by out range driver fluctuations Inner Mongolia case: grassland management disruption by agriculturalists

23 DeSurvey facts and findings 3. Rangelands are de historical starting reference for desertification

24 DeSurvey facts and findings 4. Desertification hot spots fed from surrounding areas The case of Oued Mird oasis in Morocco

25 DeSurvey facts and findings 5. Active desertification is less than expected (< 5% of prospected areas)

26 DeSurvey facts and findings 6. Subsidies and external help to production often accelerate desertification. Lower grain prices to nomadic sheep breeders in the Algerian high plains increase stock size and pushes grassland beyond reversibility threshold (red line).

27 DeSurvey facts and findings 7. Does desertification trigger migrations? Source areas do not coincide with desertified land in Morocco

28 DeSurvey facts and findings 8. Non-economic factors in land managemet deccisions are widespread in drylands: Cattle stok in Senegal nomads as prestige label and buffer of drought impact

29 Presentation & paradigms MCG 2014desertification END

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