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Los primeros días en el desierto

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Presentación del tema: "Los primeros días en el desierto"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Los primeros días en el desierto
Historia 2 La salida de Egipto Los primeros días en el desierto Los 10 mandamientos

2 Examen pequeño Escribe de memoria Ex. 3:13-14. ¿Cómo se salvaba la gente en el tiempo de Adán, Enoc, y Noé? ¿Cómo fue salvado Melquisedec? ¿Cuál fue el propósito de la ley? ¿Quién salvó a Moisés del río Nilo? Extra: ¿Cómo se llamaban los padres de Moisés?

3 Estudiar 12:31-20:21; 24; 32:1-34:35

4 Cap. 12:31 v. 31 Id, toma todo, adorad, bendecidme. v. 33 Los egipcios dicen que se vayan pronto. v. 34 Toman la masa sin levadura en el viaje. v. 36 Tomaban todas las riquezas. Ven cuan completamente la gente y el país de Egipto fue destruído. Esto sirvió como señal no solo a los israelitas, sino a los egipcios y aún a los de Canaan después.


6 Great Sea Jericho 12 Spies Egypt Mt. Sinai Quail/Manna Canaan Sinai
Nile Delta Great Sea (Mediterranean) Red Sea Sinai Peninsula Canaan Traditional Route of the Exodus NASA Photo © Quail/Manna Mt. Sinai 12 Spies Jericho DISCUSSION QUESTION: Why did God send them manna and quail in their wanderings? For preparation of this question, the teacher should read Exodus chapter 16. The Israelites grumbled that there was nothing to eat in the desert and God provided food for them. Manna was a sweet flaky material that appeared on the desert floor each morning except on the Sabbath. They could pick this up and eat it. On Friday they could pick up enough for two days, otherwise it would spoil. God also sent quail for them to eat. Quail was a small bird. A trivia note is that the word “manna” literally means “What is it?” because when they saw it they said “What is it?” DISCUSSION QUESTION: Why do you think that God generally didn’t want them to gather manna for more than one day at a time? It is interesting that except for Friday, the Israelites only received enough food for a day. In the New Testament, the “Lord’s Prayer” says “Give us THIS DAY our daily bread.” In the sermon on the mount in Matthew 6:34 , Jesus said “Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own.” What is the practical message from this? We learn that we should not worry too much about things. Again and again, God tells us to just take care of the day. MOUNT SINAI The map shows the location of the range of mountains known as the Sinia mountain range. Although we think that we know the general area, we don’t know the exact mountain that Moses went up on to receive the Ten Commandments. The photo of part of the Sinai mountains shows us the ruggedness of the terrain of this mountain region. It is difficult to feel the scale of these mountains. In the photo, a road with people walking on it is shown. The road can be discerned but the people can barely be seen since they are so small compared to the mountain. The other item to note is how some of the mountains simply jut straight out of the ground in shear bluffs. This helps us understand the scripture on the following slide that tells people not to touch the foot of the mountain. In some of the areas, the mountains rise so vertically out of the ground that it is clear where the mountain begins and what not to touch. In many parts of the world, it is hard to say just where a mountain begins. Many of the mountains in the sinai region are easily discerned and such a commandment makes more sense here. Exodus 19:12 “12 Put limits for the people around the mountain and tell them, `Be careful that you do not go up the mountain or touch the foot of it. Whoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death.” (NIV) INDEX

7 12:37 Shesh (seis) ma’oth (cientos)
Eleph mil (Strong´s 505, 507) Eleph familia, clan, unidad militar (Strong´s 504) De una familia extendida de 70, a 600 familias—puede ser. Si no, hay que aceptar que había quizás hasta 2 millones de personas que salieron de Egipto (más animales! Una teoría es que los 600,000 podrían ser los hombres al final de la “era del Exodo”—el momento cuando Salomón construyó el templo. 430 años en Egipto—hasta el día exacto.

8 V. 38 grande multitud—¿otras personas de Egipto
V. 38 grande multitud—¿otras personas de Egipto? ¿Gente no creyente que después causaron problemas? (Num. 11:4) v años Desde que Dios le dijo a Abraham—30 años en Canaan, y 400 en Egipto. El texto samaritano, el masorético, y la septuaginta dice Egipto “y Canaan”. v. 42 Noche de vigilia. Dios guardó esta noche para redención. Los israelitas hacen vigilia recordando a Dios. Nota del comentario Torah, de la interpretación después de vigilar contra seres malignos.

9 Reglas de quién puede comer—basicamente los judios, o los que se han circuncidado y participan en el pacto. v. 46 no quebrar los huesos—interesante comparación a Cristo en la cruz como el cordero de Pascua.

10 Capítulo 13 v. 2 El primogénito de los egipcios fue matado, pero el de los israelitas fue consagrado. Num. 18:16, 5 siclos (2 onzas), en el día 31.


12 vv. 3, 5 Mira el juego de palabras para servidumbre y celebración, avodah.
vv Pan sin levadura v. 9 Tefillin, ver Deut. 6:8, 11:18


14 Phylacteries with Scriptures
Deuteronomy 6:8 (NLT) “Tie them to your hands as a reminder, and wear them on your forehead.” Phylacteries with Scriptures




18 A Sinaí…

19 Sinai wilderness Sinai wilderness
Deuteronomy 8:15 (KJV) “Who led thee through that great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents, and scorpions, and drought, where there was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint;” Sinai wilderness

20 Bedouin dwellings in Sinai desert
Deuteronomy 8:4 (NIV) “Your clothes did not wear out and your feet did not swell during these forty years.” Bedouin dwellings in Sinai desert

21 Sinai desert near Hazeroth
Helpful Sources Flinder, Alexander. 1989 Is This Solomon’s Seaport? Biblical Archaeology Review 15/4: Sinai desert near Hazeroth

22 Jebel Musa: Traditional Mt. Sinai
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23 Plain of el-Raha near Jebel Musa
El-Raha means “rest” and according to tradition this is where the Israelites camped and the golden calf forged. Nearby is the tomb of Sheikh Harun and the chapel of the golden calf. Plain of el-Raha near Jebel Musa

24 Wadi el-Deir near Jebel Musa
Deir means “monastery,” and this wadi connects the Plain of er-Raha with St. Catherine’s Monastery (just visible where the trees are). Wadi el-Deir near Jebel Musa

25 Wadi el-Deir to south from monastery

26 St. Catherine’s Monastery
Monks The monks at Saint Catherine’s are independent. The archbishop is the head. The monastic order of Sinai originally belonged to the Church of Rome and was officially recognized by Pope Innocent IV in However, in 1439 at the Council of Florence, the monastery broke away in order to follow the liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The monks follow the rule of St. Basil which calls for rising at 2:30, praying and liturgy from 4-7:30 and vespers from 3-5 in the afternoon. The only meal of the day is after vespers. Greek is the adopted language of all services and the monks themselves are now Greek. There were monks in 10th-14th centuries but now there are only about 15. Muslim Bedouin servants from the nearby tribe of Djebelieh (“those of the mountain”) serve the monks. Apparently these Bedouin descend from those brought by Justinian to the area for this purpose. St. Catherine’s Monastery

27 St. Catherine’s Monastery
Structures in St. Catherine’s The Basilica of the Transfiguration of Christ the Savior is the most important building in the monastery. Later the basilica was dedicated to Catherine. The basilica’s bell tower was built in 1871, and the nine bells were donated by the Czar of Russia. These bells are rung only for major liturgical functions. The Fountain of Moses, also known as the well of Jethro, is the traditional place where Moses helped Jethro’s daughters and then married one of them. This spring is the main source of water for the monastery. In the narthex of the basilica are some of the monastery’s icons. The others are not on display. The wooden door to the narthex dates to the 11th century. The wooden four-part door that enters the basilica is from the 6th century. The mosque was built in 1106 by transforming a chapel dedicated to St. Basil. The minbar (pulpit) inside is only surviving one from Fatimid period. The Gallery of Icons contains more than 2000 icons, many from the 10th-15th centuries. St. Catherine’s Monastery

28 Jebel Musa with St. Catherine’s Monastery
The Israelites at Mt. Sinai - 1 Mount Horeb and Mount Sinai are two names for the same mountain (Ex 33:6). A long tradition identifies Jebel Musa with Mt. Sinai. Jebel Musa is Arabic for “the mountain of Moses.” The Israelites camped in the wilderness in front of the mountain (Ex 19:2). God called Moses to him for a brief word which he subsequently related to the elders. They responded by agreeing to what God had said (Ex 19:3-8). God gave the people two days to consecrate themselves before he came to the mountain. They were to put limits around the mountain, because anyone who touched it when God was on it would die. God came on the mountain on the third day accompanied by thunder and lightning. The people trembled. Moses led all the people out of the camp to the bottom of the mountain. Ex 19:18-19 (NIV) “Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the LORD descended on it in fire. The smoke billowed up from it like smoke from a furnace, the whole mountain trembled violently, 19 and the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder. Then Moses spoke and the voice of God answered him.” Jebel Musa with St. Catherine’s Monastery

29 Jebel Musa Jebel Musa The Israelites at Mt. Sinai - 3
Moses stayed on the mountain for 40 days. During this time God revealed to Moses the details of the tabernacle and concluded with the sign of Shabbat (Ex 25-31). “When the LORD finished speaking to Moses on Mount Sinai, he gave him the two tablets of the Testimony, the tablets of stone inscribed by the finger of God.” (Ex 31:18). During the time Moses was away, the golden calf was forged (Ex 32). It appears that the Lord may have cut short his time with Moses because of the sin of the people. God told Moses to quickly go down the mountain (Ex 32:7-8). Ex 32:15-16 (NIV) “Moses turned and went down the mountain with the two tablets of the Testimony in his hands. They were inscribed on both sides, front and back. The tablets were the work of God; the writing was the writing of God, engraved on the tablets.” After destroying the golden calf, Moses returned up the mountain to the Lord. It is amazing that in the early stages, when the cloud was on the mountain, the people trembled with fear. After some weeks, however, that fear had apparently worn off, so much that they even make a golden calf. Furthermore, some of the people continued in their revelry even when Moses returned – they were that hardened. When Moses went back up to the mountain, he asked God to forgive the people or to blot his name out of the book. Paul seems to later remember this as he wishes himself accursed for the sake of his people. Jebel Musa

30 Jebel Musa Steps of Repentance
The “Path of Moses” has 3700 steps carved by a monk. After climbing about 30 minutes one passes the “Spring of Moses” which comes out of a small grotto and then runs past a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After this one comes to the Gate of Confession, so named because a monk in ancient times here heard the confessions from the pilgrims. After this is the Gate of St. Stephen. After 3000 steps one comes to a plain known as the “Amphitheater of the Seventy Wise Men of Israel.” Allegedly the 70 elders came with Moses to this point (Ex 24:1-11). This natural amphitheater is shaded by great cypresses and an olive tree. There is a spring here and the hermitage of St. Stephen. South of this on a summit, are two chapels dedicated to Moses and Elijah. A trail begins here leading to the summit of Ras Safsafa, after passing the chapels for John the Baptist, St. Anne, St. Joachin and the Virgin Mary. This path converges with the camel path for the final 700 steps. Halfway up these is an odd granite shape known by the locals as Athar Nagat el-Nabi, “Pawprint of the She-Camel of the Prophet.” The Camel Path, also called Sikket el-Basha, or Route of the Pasha, was built during the reign of pasha Abbas I. Jebel Musa Steps of Repentance

31 Spring of Elijah Spring of Elijah

32 Elijah’s Hollow with Jebel Musa behind

33 Jebel Musa area with snow
Psalm 106:19-28 (KJV) “They made a calf in Horeb, and worshipped the molten image. Thus they changed their glory into the similitude of an ox that eateth grass. They forgat God their saviour, which had done great things in Egypt; Wondrous works in the land of Ham, and terrible things by the Red sea. Therefore he said that he would destroy them, had not Moses his chosen stood before him in the breach, to turn away his wrath, lest he should destroy them. Yea, they despised the pleasant land, they believed not his word: But murmured in their tents, and hearkened not unto the voice of the LORD. Therefore he lifted up his hand against them, to overthrow them in the wilderness: To overthrow their seed also among the nations, and to scatter them in the lands. They joined themselves also unto Baalpeor, and ate the sacrifices of the dead.” Jebel Musa area with snow

34 Jebel Musa church Jebel Musa church

35 Jebel Musa church and mountains

36 Mountains of Sinai from Jebel Musa
“The Sinai-complex occupies some sixty chapters in Exodus-Numbers (Exodus 18–40; Leviticus; Numbers 1–10), in addition to several passages in Deuteronomy (esp. 1:6–18; 4:9–14; 5:2–31; 9:8–10:11)” (ABD, Mt Sinai). Mountains of Sinai from Jebel Musa

37 View to north from Jebel Musa

38 Sunrise from Jebel Musa

39 13:17ss v. 17 El verbo shillah, “dejó ir”, es el mismo verbo que se usa con el divorcio (Deut. 22:19, 29, etc.), y librar a los esclavos (Deut 15:12-13, 18, etc.) También resalta las promesas cumplida de Dios, hechas en Ex. 3:20, 6:1, 11:1 Había fortalezas egipcias, más los filisteos, al lado de este camino más corto.

40 v. 18 Yam Suf, Mar de Juncos, nos hace pensar en el bebé Moisés en el Nilo. Este mar es de agua fresca (para que crezcan los juncos), no salada, y más cerca de Gosén, más probable para esta primera etapa del viaje. Probablemente no es el Mar Rojo, más al sur, y salada (no hay juncos). Interesante que la misma palabra, suf, se puede traducir “cesar, perecer, consumir.” Pues Yam Suf para los egipcios podría ser donde los egipcios perecieron.

41 v. 19 Moisés cumplió la promesa a José de llevar sus huesos. Jos
v. 19 Moisés cumplió la promesa a José de llevar sus huesos. Jos. 24:32 dice que fueron enterrados en Siquem. La Presencia de Dios se simboliza en nube y fuego. Dios es fuego en otras partes de la Biblia también, como Exodo 3, etc.

42 Cap. 14 El milagro del Yam Suf es clave en la historia de los israelitas, y aparece en muchas otras partes de la biblia. (Jos. 4:22-24, Sal. 66:5-6. Después de esto Egipto desaparece de la historia de Israel hasta I Reyes 10:28, con el rey Salomón. v. 3 Los israelitas están rodeados por el desierto, el mar, y las fortalezas egipcias.

43 v. 4, también v. 18 Seré glorificado (kavad—ser pesado con algo, en este caso con gloria y honor.), que es el propósito final. v carrozas, y había 600 (mil o grupos militares) de israelitas. v. 10 Miren cuántas veces en el Pentateuco los israelitas claman a Dios, suplicando, quejando, a veces dando gracias. v. 12 no dicen esto en 5:21 o 6:9. Pero estas son palabras de desesperación, no verdaderas. v. 14 Dios pelea por ellos.

44 v. 25 gravemente, viene de la misma raiz, kavad
v. 25 gravemente, viene de la misma raiz, kavad. En este caso las ruedas son pesadas y no doblan. Mira kavad en Strongs. La conexión--¿las ruedas pesadas traen peso (honor) a Dios? v. 31 Aquel hecho, literalmente yad (mano, poder) La palabra yad ocurre 7 veces en este capítulo. Exod. 14:8, 16, 21, 26, 27, 30, 31. v. 31 aman, creyeron, la idea de estar firmes porque hacen o creen en alguien, una confianza en Dios.

45 Cap. 15 Compara con Sal. 106:9-12 Es poesía, y enfoca a Dios y sus obras. Este canto se cantaba en el tiempo del Segundo Templo cada sábado por medio, mitad y mitad. Los judíos de Roma lo cantaban todos los días, recordando el poder de Dios sobre las naciones en tiempo de persecución. Es el canto del sábado de Pascua, cuando se piensa que el evento ocurrió.

46 v. 2 Ultima parte aparece también en Is. 12:2, Sal. 118:14.
Alabaré, de navah, “adornar o hacer bello con alabanzas”. v. 5 Los abismos (aguas profundas), tehom, el abismo, puede ser traducido como Seol. ¿A dónde fueron los egipcios pues?! v. 8 Nota cómo las aguas se describen. v. 8, 10, Gen El aliento de Dios puede crear o destruir.

47 v. 11 Nadie es como Dios, ver Deut. 3:24, 4:39
v. 13 chesed, amor, un atributo clave de Dios en toda la Biblia, ver Ex. 34:6, Jer. 32:18 Tu santa morada—puede ser el Monte Sinaí (Ex. 3:12), la tierra de Israel, o el Templo. v. 17 parece referirse al templo. Es interesante que el autor de Reyes conecte la construcción del templo con el Exodo (1 Reyes 6:1), como si confirmara este pasaje.

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