10Mezuzah with Scriptures Deuteronomy 6:9 (KJV) “And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates.”Mezuzah with Scriptures
11No olvidarse que las bendiciones son de Dios. 6:10-12, 8:6-13 No olvidarse de lo que Dios ha hecho en el pasado. 6:20-25, 8:15-18Enfocar en Dios, y no tener nada que ver con las naciones, sus ídolos, o sus prácticas 7:1-6
12Deut. 7:7-8 No porque eran más numeroso 7:17 No porque eran más fuertes9:4-6 No porque eran más rectos10:12ss La comisión
1410:12-22 Pasaje clave—resumen. Compara con Miqueas 6:8 11: compara con Jos. 1:2-9
15Los Montes de Gerizim y Ebal Deut. 11:29, 27:1-8, Jos. 8:30-35Gerizim es fertil, y simboliza la bendición.Ebal es desnudo, y simboliza la maldición.
16Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal from the east Mount Gerizim and Mount EbalLocated between Mt. Gerizim (left) and Mt. Ebal (right), Shechem is preeminent in the biblical record. It first appears in the early chapters of Genesis, beginning with God's promise of the land to Abraham.Later, Jacob would return here with his family and settle for a short while. During the Conquest, the twelve tribes gathered on these two hills to recite God's Law and the blessings and curses that accompanied obedience and disobedience.Gerizim is fertile, symbolic of blessings (elevation: 2759 ft, 841 m). Ebal is bare, symbolic of cursings (elevation: 3083 ft, 940 m).Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal from the east
17Mt. Ebal from the east Mt. Ebal from the east Mount Ebal Excavation HistoryAdam Zertal has conducted a series of eight excavations ( ) on this site for the University of Haifa and the Israel Exploration Society.It was part of a survey of 540 sq km of the hill country of Manasseh begun in 1978.The Sacrificial AltarThe unassuming pile of stones, located 150 m (492 ft) below the summit of Mount Ebal, is called “El Burnat”, meaning “the hat” in Arabic. Scholars disagree on the function of these stones:Zertal: Large sacrificial altar.Na’aman: Shechem’s main cult site in Iron I – “Tower of Shechem,” and “house of El-berith.”Mazar, Coogan, Finkelstein: cultic but not an altar.Kempinski, Rainey: not cultic, but a fortified tower.Even though Adam Zertal does not generally agree with the Bible, he admits that “all the scientific evidence fits very well with the Biblical description [in Josh 8:30-35] …as scientists, we must say that the case has not yet been proven” (Zertal 1985: 43).The animal bones discovered were from kosher animals.An incense burner was found along with a 13th century Egyptian scarab, just north of the altar. This essentially proves that the altar dates to the time of the 13th century B.C.Nearly 70 percent of the pottery were collar-rimmed jars, the most common storage jars of the early Israelites. There was only a very miniscule amount of domestic pottery found on the site, suggesting few, if any, lived at the site.Biblical HistoryMoses commanded that an altar be built here (Dt 27:1-10).On Mt. Ebal, great stones were to be set up, covered with plaster, and the law written on them. This practice was previously known from Egypt, but it has now been seen in 8th century wall inscriptions at Tel Deir Alla. Then, an altar of unhewn stones was built and sacrifices offered.“The stones on which a copy of the law was written were probably not the stones of the altar” (Woudstra 1981: 147). Woudstra notes that “The Hebrew does use the definite article here, as customary in Hebrew when designating objects to be used. It need not mean ‘the just named stones’” (Woudstra 1981: 147, fn. 16).White-washing stones was an Egyptian technique.The extent of the law that was to be written is not specified. It could have been the ten commandments, or it could be the blessings and curses of Deuteronomy 28. The Jews believed that the written law contained the 613 commands (Woudstra 1981: 148).Mt. Ebal from the east
18Mt. Gerizim from Shechem (Tell Balata) Mount GerizimIntroductionThe mountain is 868 m (2,848 ft) above sea level and about 350 m (1,148 ft) above Shechem.It is composed of two perpendicular ridges: a lower ridge that runs east-west, and an upper ridge that runs north-south.On the summit there is a Hellenistic city and a Byzantine church.On the northern ridge (Tell er-Ras) there are remains of a Roman temple along with Hellenistic remains. It is an artificial mound 80 m x 120 m (260 ft x 390 ft) and about 10 m (33 ft) high.Ras Kikas, nearby, has Crusader remains.A Samaritan Temple, Roman Temple, and Byzantine church were all built here.Excavation HistoryTell er-Ras.Charles Wilson, in 1866, determined this was an artificial mound surrounded by a moat.A. M. Schneider conducted a survey in 1930.I. Ben-Zvi discovered a portion of a staircase leading to the temple. The staircase led from Shechem to the temple.A. Reifenberg identified the Roman temple and staircase from an aerial photograph.R. J. Bull and the American Sschools of Oriental Research excavated from 1964 to Only preliminary reports have been published.I. Magen excavated from 1983 to The site was examined and Bull’s “dating” and “conclusions” reevaluated. This was the subject of his doctoral thesis.The Hellenistic City: I. Magen conducted continuous excavations from 1983 to Magen was archaeological staff officer in Judea and Samaria.The Byzantine Church.A. M. Schneider excavated Byzantine church in 1930.I. Magen excavated from 1985 to 1988.Mt. Gerizim from Shechem (Tell Balata)
19Mt. Gerizim summit from Shechem Recitation of blessings and cursesIn accordance with God’s instructions to Moses, Joshua had the Israelites recite the blessings on Mt. Gerizim and the curses on Mt. Ebal. An altar was built on Ebal and plastered stones inscribed with the law were set up (Dt 11:26-32; 27:1-26; Josh 8:30-35).It is not easy to figure out exactly what happened here – who stood where and who read and said what.Deuteronomy 27 instructed the people to stand on the opposite mountains. Joshua 8 says the people stood in front of the respective mountains.Deuteronomy 27 says that the Levites should recite the law and the people respond with a loud “Amen.” Joshua 8 says that Joshua read all the words of the Law (every single one) – the blessings and the curses.“In unmistakably clear symbolism the reader is told that the right of possessing the promised land is tied to the proclamation of, and subjection to, God’s covenant claims upon his people” (Woudstra 1981: 144).“Investigations have indicated that the acoustical qualities of that site are excellent for such a ceremony.” (Woudstra references J. de Groot in a German work [Woudstra 1981: 149]).“The words of blessing and cursing are not to be conceived of as mere words. Within the biblical context they are true vehicles of power, not in a magical sense but because they were uttered on behalf of him whose Word is powerful (Ps. 33:9). To bless is to ‘put’ the ‘name’ of the Lord upon the people (Num. 6:27). To curse is to invoke that name by way of self-malediction or in order to curse others” (Woudstra 1981: 150).Mt. Gerizim summit from Shechem
20Mt. Gerizim view looking east with Mt. Ebal on left
21Looking through trees on Mt. Gerizim trees to Mt. Ebal Later Events at Mount GerizimToward the end of his life, Joshua reviewed Israel’s history, and with the people, reconfirmed the covenant with God. A stone of witness was set up and Joseph’s bones were buried here (Joshua 24).Abimelech, Gideon’s son, exalted himself through violence and was proclaimed king at Shechem. Jotham gave his fable of denunciation from Mt. Gerizim (Judges 9).The Samaritans were not allowed to participate in the rebuilding of the Temple. They opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem’s city wall (Ezra 4:1-5; Neh 4:1-9).Josephus states that a Samaritan temple was built on Mt. Gerizim with the permission of Alexander the Great (Ant. XVIII.9.1; War I.2.6). The temple was called Zeus Xenios (“the Hospitable”) in 2 Macc 6:2. It was modeled after the temple in Jerusalem and later destroyed by John Hyrcanus (129/128 B.C.).Jesus traveled through Samaria en route to Galilee. He stopped near Sychar at Jacob’s Well and discussed living water with a Samaritan woman. The woman at the well references the worship of her fathers on “this mountain” (John 4).Looking through trees on Mt. Gerizim trees to Mt. Ebal
22Mt. Gerizim with Mt. Ebal behind Samaritan Temple on Mount GerizimHistoryAccording to the Samaritans, Gerizim is Mt. Moriah mentioned in Genesis 22, and it is the place where God chose to place his name according to Deuteronomy 12.The Samaritans read Gerizim as the place where Joshua built the altar in Joshua 8:30. Some scholars today think that Gerizim is the original reading, and it was changed to Ebal because of Jewish anti-Samaritan feeling.The Samaritans built a temple here in the 4th century B.C. after permission was given by Alexander the Great. It was modeled after the temple in Jerusalem.The Samaritan temple was desecrated by Antiochus IV who dedicated it to “Zeus the Friend of Strangers” (2 Macc 6:2).John Hyrcanus completely destroyed the temple in 128 B.C.DiscoveryUnderneath the Roman temple, the Americans thought they had found a Samaritan complex. It is really only a podium. Dr. Bull was wrong.“The excavations so far have produced no evidence of a temple or settlement from the time of the Ptolemies. Although the nucleus of an ancient settlement from the fourth to third centuries BCE may have existed here, no signs of it have been unearthed so far” (Magen 1993: 487).Several years after that was published, Magen located six-foot-thick walls, gates, and altars under the remains of a 5th century Byzantine church.The foundation that remains appears to be about 400 ft by 560 ft.This may help to understand the Jerusalem Temple. Josephus recounts how the priest Manasseh, driven from Jerusalem when he married a Samaritan woman, had her father Sanballat, leader of Samaritans, build him an exact replica of the temple and appoint him high priest (Ant. XI.7-8).Magen says that inscriptions discovered in paleo-Hebrew from the 2nd century B.C. show that the Samaritans adopted Jewish worship wholesale, from prayers to sacrifice ritual. Ashes from the sacrifices have also been found, complete with charred bones of yearling goats and sheep.Mt. Gerizim with Mt. Ebal behind
23Michmetah Valley from Mount Gerizim Shechem is on the left edge (center) of this photo.Shechem: IntroductionShechem is about 50 km (31 mi) north of Jerusalem, and 9 km (5.5 mi) southeast of Samaria.It is at the juncture of two major valley systems (Michmetah and Shechem). “All the towns mentioned in the Bible lie in the Senonian valleys with their easy communications” (Baly 1974: 170). “As for the capital, the fact that the routes followed the Senonian chalk inside the rim of the basin meant that there was no natural focal point in the center, and such focal points as there were stood at junctions of low-lying valleys (Shechem and Tirzah) and were therefore useless for defense. It was not until Omri decided to build an entirely new city on top of the hill that a satisfactory stronghold was created” (Baly 1974: 169).The city is well-situated because of the fertile valleys, springs and communication routes. However it is not easily defended.The site’s geographical situation contributed to its semi-autonomous, often times rebellious nature. G. A. Smith calls Shechem “the natural capitol of the Holy Land” (1966: 223), well-situated with water, agriculture, and open communication routes, yet “incapable of defense” (G. A. Smith 1931: 227). Historically, semi-autonomous governments have gravitated to this spot, resisting the control of dominant power in the region. Examples include: the Amarna letters, Abimelech, Jeroboam, the Samaritans (vs. the Greeks, Hasmoneans and Romans), and the Byzantine to the modern Israeli periods.Shechem was the “navel of the land” (Jud 9:37).Nablus is the largest Arab city in the country.Michmetah Valley from Mount Gerizim
24Bendiciones y maldiciones Leer cap. 27:9-29:29(Ver también Deut. 7:12-15, Lev. 26:3-46)No hay motivo aparente para la selección de las tribus y dónde se paraban—no es órden de nacimiento, ni de bendición de Jacob, ni esposas favorita.
25Cuando la gente sigue a Dios, resulta en bendición y honra para ellos, y para Dios sobre todo. Cuando no le sigue, resulta en maldición y deshonra, para ellos y deshonra para Dios frente a las naciones.Muchas de las bendiciones son el opuesto a las maldiciones. Rechazar uno significa aceptar el otro.La sección de maldiciones es más larga que la de bendiciones.30:1-10 Si vuelven a Dios, aún después de pecar, Dios los recibirá y los bendecirá.
27Eventos finales de Moisés La canción de Moisés 32:1-43La bendición de Moisés cap. 33Moises y su muerte 32:48-52, 34:1-8
28Dead Sea and Mt Nebo aerial from west Deuteronomy 34:1 (KJV) “And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD shewed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan.”Dead Sea and Mt Nebo aerial from west
29Mt Nebo valley to north Mt Nebo valley to north Moses was buried near Mt. Nebo, possibly at Ein Musa in the valley to the north of Mt. Nebo.Deuteronomy 34:6 (NIV) “He buried him in Moab, in the valley opposite Beth Peor, but to this day no one knows where his grave is.”Mt Nebo valley to north
30Mt Nebo looking at Jordan Rift Deuteronomy 32:49 (NIV) “Go up into the Abarim Range to Mount Nebo in Moab, across from Jericho, and view Canaan, the land I am giving the Israelites as their own possession.”Mt Nebo looking at Jordan Rift
31Mt Nebo looking northwest at Jordan Rift Scripture References to Mt. Nebo in the Time of MosesOne of the locations where the Israelites camped (Num 21:20, 27:12; 33:47-48). The area was also called the mountains of Avarim (“across”). Ezekiel 39:11-12 claims that the slain multitudes of Gog are to be buried in the Valley of Avarim, east of the Dead Sea.Pisgah is one of the three heights to which Balak brought Balaam to view and curse Israel (Num 23:11-14; also Bamot Baal, Num 22:41; and Peor, Num 23:28). At that time the Israelites were “encamped on the plains of Moab beyond (i.e., east of) Jordan, opposite Jericho” (Num 22:1-2, 26:63, 33:47-48).Three times from three different peaks of the mountain overlooking the Plains of Moab Balak tried to get Balaam to curse Israel, but all three (or was it four?) times, Balaam blessed Israel instead.Bamoth Baal (Num 22:41) must have been an eastern peak of Nebo since Balaam could only see the farthest edge of Israel’s camp. The steep cliffs of the Rift blocked his view. “How can I curse those whom God has not cursed? How can I denounce those whom the LORD has not denounced?” (Num 23:8, NIV).Zophim, the head of Pisgah, is where he built seven more altars (Num 23:14): “No misfortune is seen in Jacob…the Lord their God is with them…!” (Num 23:21, NIV).Head of Peor (Baal Peor) that looks down on the Jeshimon (Num 23:8). The westernmost of Nebo’s peaks, probably where the monastery is today, is a spot which affords a clear view of the entire Plains of Moab, and Jeshimon, opposite the Dead Sea.Gad and Reuben settled in the regions of Nebo (Num 32:3, 37; Dt 3:17; 1 Chr 5:8).Moses gave to Reuben “the tableland (plateau) of Moab” (Josh 13:16, 21).Mt Nebo looking northwest at Jordan Rift
32Mt Nebo view of plains of Moab and Dead Sea Later Historical References to Mt. NeboMesha Stele, lines “Chemosh said to me ‘Go! Take Nebo against Israel.’ And I went by night and fought against it from break of dawn till noon...”“Woe to Nebo for it will be ruined” (Jer 48:1, NIV; cf. Isa 15:2).Second Maccabees 2:4-8 alleges that Jeremiah hid the Tabernacle, Ark of Covenant and altar of incense in a cave on Mt. Nebo, before the Babylonians destroyed the Jerusalem Temple. “Only the Lord will disclose its location” (2 Macc 2:8).Mt Nebo view of plains of Moab and Dead Sea
33Mt Nebo view to Dead Sea Mt Nebo view to Dead Sea Deuteronomy 34:1-4 (ESV) “Then Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, which is opposite Jericho. And the Lord showed him all the land, Gilead as far as Dan, all Naphtali, the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, all the land of Judah as far as the western sea, the Negeb, and the Plain, that is, the Valley of Jericho the city of palm trees, as far as Zoar. And the Lord said to him, ‘This is the land of which I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, ‘I will give it to your offspring.’ I have let you see it with your eyes, but you shall not go over there.’”Mt Nebo view to Dead Sea
40Lo interesante, lo raro, lo adicional Ex. 21:5-6 Siervo21: Ojo por ojo…23:4-5 Llévale su buey…Lev. 7: Grosura y sangre19: Justicia19:19 No mezclar (2 Cor. 6:14ss?)19: Pelo y tatuajes19:32 Los viejos
41Num. 30:10-15 Los votos de una esposa Deut. 14:21 Un chivito20:5-9 A la guerra (Gedeón?)21:22 Bajo la maldición—Cristo22:5 Ropa24:5 Luna de miel25:1-3 Azotar
42Repaso para el examen final Escribe de memoria estos pasajes.Los 10 mandamientos (del cuarto, sola la primera parte) (10 pt)Deut.30:19-20 (5 pt)Resume la historia básica del pueblo de Israel, desde su salida de Egipto hasta la orilla del Jordán antes de entrar a la tierra prometida de Canaan. (20 pt)¿Cuáles son los propósitos de la ley? ¿Cuál de ellos es el más importante? ¿Por qué? (15 pt)
43Describe el tabernáculo y su función Describe el tabernáculo y su función. ¿Cuáles son las pistas de Cristo que vemos en el tabernáculo? (10 pt)Elige 1 de estas 3 fiestas—la Pascua, fiesta de Semanas, o la fiesta de Tabernáculos. (10 pt) Da lo siguiente:OrigenPropósitoSignificado especialConexión con CristoAplicación para nosotros.
44Describe el sistema sacrificial Describe el sistema sacrificial. ¿Cuáles eran los diferentes tipos de sacrificios, con cuales propósitos? ¿Cuáles son algunas conexiones con Cristo? (10 pt)Describe la ropa y la función del sumo sacerdote. ¿Cuáles son algunas conexiones con Cristo? ¿Cuáles son algunas conexiones entre los sacerdotes normales y nosotros? (10 pt)Describe algo del año de jubileo—su propósito, qué pasaba durante el año, cuándo se festeba. ¿Cuáles son algunas conexiones con Cristo? (10 pt)