Presentación del tema: "Experiencias escolares en los dos lados de la frontera"— Transcripción de la presentación:
1 Experiencias escolares en los dos lados de la frontera por Alicia J. BoltBrownsville ISD/UTB
2 El niño que emigra de otro pais Debe ser proveído con una educación apropiada que le permita desarrollar sus destrezas y capacidades individualesChildren that immigrate to schools in the U.S. confront several challenges, as do their teachers, or any other person that takes part in their education. Part of the challenges is attributed to the educational system, since it is the one creating the educational opportunities for these students. The main challenge that the educational system confronts is to provide an appropriate education that will allow the immigrant child to develop each of their individual capacities and skills. If provided appropriate education, these children will be able to perform at high standards in schools and once they reach adulthood.the educational field needs people that can not only commit, but also be knowledgeable about what it takes to provide these newly arrived children with the best education possible.
3 El apoyo debe ser proveído a traves de: El lenguaje El plan/programa de estudiosLas técnicas de enseñanzaConocimiento del niñoPeople that are in charge of making decisions on best practices in schools must know what is best for these children, including the characteristics of an appropriate curriculum and instruction, the language of instruction, as well as best research practices that will support any decisions made.My learning essay talks about these 3 key points in the educational field, which are crucial for these children’s educationThe educational system can provide support through
4 Planteamiento del problema Los estudiantes batallan (Macias, 1992)Necesidad de adaptarse a un nuevo sistema escolar(Suarez-Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 2006)Nociones preconcebidas de niños emigrantes(Gonzalez & Moll, 2003)No saber de donde vienen/ ni del sistema escolar donde estabanLiteratura que refleja esta experiencia como negativaResearchers have argued and statistics have shown that students that are immigrating from Mexican classrooms to the US classrooms appear to be struggling when having to adapt to a new school setting. Teachers have preconceived assumptions because they don’t really know the system they are coming from. We need to know about these students’ school experiences in order to be able to help them. There is much literature out there that is portraying these immigrant student experience as negative. Through my study I want to be able to make visible what the recent immigrant students experience when they go from one school in Matamoros to another in Brownsville.STOPI know when I presented the first time on this I talked about my student Teresita. I remember not knowing why was she struggling, assuming that since I came also from Mexico, and I did not struggle, she shouldn’t had been struggling either. I had all the good intentions to help her, but in reality, I did not know her background. Teresita was coming from a Mexican public elementary, and I did not know anything about the Mexican public school system because I spent my entire school years in a private catholic school.After this, I kept encountering different scenarios where I wish I could have information on these children to be able to better help them.I’ve seen school administrators making decisions on these children when these students are first enrolled in schools. School personnel do not know how to determine where to place the recent immigrant child, either in the same grade level they where enrolled back in Mexico, or just place the child one grade level back in order for the child to be able to “catch up with the system”.Some teachers have preconceived assumptions that include not knowing the reasons for these children to act the way they do during classroom instruction. Some even claim these students are not coming prepared academically to schools in the US. They believe they need to start from scratch. Gonzalez and Moll had also stated thatTeachers in my school are working hard with these children, and Im saying this from my own experience, yet they also wish they could know more about their previous schooling experiences. Teachers that are advocates for these children want to provide not only equity, but excellence in their education.Another thing that I found is that a lot of the literature had portrayed these students’ experiences as horrible and even traumatizing. I want to hear it from the voice of the children what they have to say about these schooling experiences after they immigrated. Felipe Martinez rizo said: Una postura triunfalista no es un buen punto de partida para emprender esfuerzos de mejora; Tampoco una derrotista; solo una objetiva.4
5 Porqué nos importa? 5 SOURCE: Pew Hispanic Center Why does it matter? Immigrant students enrolling in US schools have been increasing over the years, yet there is little research on the student experiences and transitions between different educational systems. Due to the proximity between Yoliztli and Ollin, a phenomenon that has been occurring without being documented except for local sources such as the Herald of Brownsville newspaper is that of students commuting from Yoliztli to Ollin on a daily basis for schooling purposes. Another issue that is brought by the nearby proximity of these cities is that families on the border are also moving very frequently back and forth between Yoliztli and Ollin for different purposes, and their children have to follow their parents. These students may become at risk if not taught properly.According to the Border Colloquy Project of 1994, there is a need for bi-national understanding of the educational issues faced on both sides of the U.S.-Mexican border. Mexican-origin immigrant students enrolling in more than one school system need to adapt to different school contexts more than once in their lives. Educators on both sides of the border need to develop and foster a common understanding about both communities’ educational needs in order to appropriately educate future responsible citizens that can compete and succeed in the country these students’ families choose to live.STOPThe topic needs to be studied because the number of immigrant students enrolling into the US school system keep increasing. According to the Foreign born population of the United States from the American community survey of 2003, twenty percent of the students in this country have immigrant parents, and it has been anticipated that by the year of 2040, one out of three children will be living in immigrant homes (Suarez-Orozco, 2006).INEGI), there are approximately 2,644,808 families emigrating from the northern Mexican state of Tamaulipas to the U.S. state of Texas (INEGI, 2005).Immigration flows had changed, and now not only the typical immigration between the central and south states of Mexico are the sending communities, now the northern states in the border are part of it. New immigration now includes families that are medium low socio economic, that are now immigrating for reasons other than money.Also, because of the many times some children might have to immigrate between schools. These students need to adapt to a new school context, and like I said, maybe more than once in their lives. These students may become at risk if not taught properly. These children need a smooth academic transition in order to be successful in school. So how can the systems ensure a smooth transition? And Im talking about a good transition not only on the US side, but in Mexico as well. These students we share are a shared responsibility.This study will contribute to teachers’ knowledge on Mexican-origin immigrant children. Even though some of these teachers are also from a Hispanic background, they might not know about these students’ pre immigration setting.Preconceived notions of these studentsIf migration becomes part of a national identity, if countries ackniwledges it, then you need to train and prepare succesful people (roberto suro).Fuente: Censo de población nacida fuera de los EUA de la encuesta de la comunidad Americana (2008)SOURCE: INEGI. II Conteo de Población y Vivienda 2005.5
6 Plan/Programa de estudios Educación equitativa por medio de:CURRICULA ESCOLARSe necesita promover participación equitativa entre todos los estudiantes en clases que son parte de un medio ambiente seguro.INSTRUCCIONDebe incluir las mejores prácticas pedagógicasAccording to Crosnoe (2005), the educational system is meant to alleviate social and demographic inequalities by providing educational opportunities to all children that allow them to succeed in real life.Since all students learn different, and because of this policy makers and educators must be aware of the relevance of implementing the appropriate curriculum that can address these students’ different learning styles and needs.
7 How do recent immigrant children coming with previous formal schooling in Yoliztli describe their schooling experiences in an Ollin public elementary school as compared to their former education in Yoliztli? ¿Cómo describen sus experiencias escolares los niños recién emigrados que vienen de Yoliztli con escolaridad formal a una escuela primaria publica en Ollin cuando se comparan estas experiencias con la educación que recibieron en Yoliztli?when I was a first year teacher in the US…This study will contribute to teachers’ knowledge on immigrant children. Even though some of these teachers are also from a Hispanic background, they might not know about these students’ pre immigration setting.Once the teachers are aware of these students previous school settings and previous teacher’s expectations, they can be able to fulfill these students particular needs, and address their academic needs in a more educated way.Problema/RetoJustificación
8 Estudios previos ANTES DE EMIGRAR DESPUES DE EMIGRAR Aplicación y adaptación de la curricula escolarPracticas de literatura y lenguajePercepciones y comportamiento del estudiantePracticas del maestroDESPUES DE EMIGRARProceso de adaptación y sus repercusiones académicasBy reviewing and analyzing previously conducted studies, researchers can see the difference between research that is poorly executed, from the one that is good quality.Preimmigration: Macias, Bryan & McLaughlin school curriculum) and Smith, Jimenez and Mtz De Leon Rockwell and Valdez in language and literacy practicesMacias was one the closest studies to what I will try to do. She made a comparison of elementaries from Mexico to the ones from the US. Even though back then the school curriculum was governed nation wide, now decisions are going to be left to the state.Few studies like Zuniga & Hamann, and Levinson expressed the students’ voices and feelings about the journey (but they targeted secondary students)Other looked at teacher practices (Candela, Rockwell, Kitchen)Postimmigration: Crosnoe, Suarez Orozco & Suarez Orozco had looked at the adaptation process and the academic repercussions (both quantitative)Valdez and Moll looked at the parents’ perception of school and literacy In relation to their children’s abilitiesResearch studies had looked at different school context through transnational studies before, targeting mainly secondary schools. A few had looked at the elementary level, but usually from the adults perspective, and at rural schools.
9 Estudio¿QUE? Experiencias escolares de niños recién emigrados de Yoliztli a una escuela primaria en Ollin¿QUIEN? Niños considerados recién emigrados de origen Mexicano inscritos de primero a quinto año¿DONDE? Una escuela primara pública en Ollin South, Ollin ISD¿CUANDO? Durante el segundo semestre del ciclo escolar¿COMO? Herramientas etnogrٔáficas con entrevistas audiograbadas de los estudiantes, sus padres y sus maestros, asi como elicitación fotográficaBased on what I learned after reviewing previous research studies, and the existing gaps at the elementary level, my proposal for future research on the field will target the educational experiences and the implications of the differences and similarities these educational settings present to immigrant children when emigrating from elementary classrooms in Matamoros to elementary classrooms in Brownsville. A second question that derives from the first one is how educators can promote educational success of children from Mexican immigrant families based on the findings of a comparative analysis between both US and Mexico’s educational settings. Both questions are based on the assumption that “the educational process can be greatly enhanced when teachers learn about their students’ everyday lives, or previous life” (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, p. 6).After WHAT: Differences and similarities are required to establish valid cross cultural conclusionsWhen I finish WHY: And not only teachers, but administrators as well. I had found myself taking decisions such as where to place these children when all they are bringing are their report cards. I am assuming that the content they cover in Mexico is the same grade level wise. The principal is assuming I know what I am doing because I come from Mexico. People assuming things like that might be committing mistakes when making decisions like this. This study will help educators stop assuming and begin learning about the most current facts of Mexico’s educational system through the eyes of these children.Si sobra tiempo: Educators who would like to provide Mexican immigrant students with an optimal school experience to enhance these students’ academic and social development do not have the information to guide (or even redesign) either their policy development, curriculum planning, instructional behavior, and interpersonal interaction.
10 MetasMayor entendimiento de las experiencias escolares de los niños que emigran de MéxicoDesarrollar/aumentar el conocimiento de las necesidades tanto sociales como académicas de los niñosDar voz a los niñosFacilitar y promover excelencia educativa al comprender lo complejo de las experiencias de los niñosThis study will contribute to a greater understanding of the schooling experiences of Mexican-origin immigrant children. Such understanding could help outsiders to the particular settings these children are part of, for example future teachers, parents, administrators, or policy makers, to build on the knowledge and the needs of these children in order to facilitate and promote educational excellence for them.My study is about giving voice to children, to hear from them, what they have to say about their school experiences. It aims to dismantle the deficit model educational systems have on blaming the students, the children, our children. We need to stop thinking that its the children’s fault for failure, and Look at the complexity of the broader school context.
11 Hallazgos Socio-emotional Academic Grade level Time to Play Grade levelTime to PlayPeer SupportFriendsSubject: LanguageSubject:ScienceMathAlessandra1st√ManuelIsaacSergio2ndLupitaGustavo4thKarenPerlaJenniferAngeles5th70%40%50%60%10%30%
12 ASPECTO ACADEMICO: Lenguaje Table 4.2Comparación de la manera en que es experimentado el lenguaje entre contextos escolaresEscuelas en YoliztliEscuela en Ollin SouthLa enseñanza es en español, con poca exposición al Inglés como lengua extranjeraLos estudiantes saben el lenguajeLos padres apoyan a sus hijos en casaLa enseñanza es en español y en InglésLos estudiantes no saben el lenguajeLos padres no saben el lenguaje, por consiguiente, no pueden apoyar a sus hijos en casa como quisieran
13 Hallazgos (Lenguaje) Lenguaje como medio de acceso a la instruccion Lenguaje como medio de comunicaciónLenguaje como factor de apoyo en el hogar
14 Horario en Ollin SouthTimeMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday8:00 am - 8:15 amAnnouncements / AR / J.O.T.8:15 am - 9:45 amMath / ScienceMath9:45 am - 11:15 amReading / S.S.(Spanish)ReadingReading / S.S11:15 am - 11:30 amSpelling / Grammar /ESL11:30 am - 12:00 pmLunch12:00 pm - 12:30 pmSpelling / Grammar12:30 pm - 1:15 pmLibraryComputersHealthArtWriting1:15 pm - 2:00 pmP. E.2:00 pm - 3:00 pm3:00 pm - 3:15 pmCopy Homework in Planner / DismissalStudents at Ollin South are exposed to English in a variety of ways. However,they are also exposed to Spanish. At Ollin South, teachers are required to follow the district’s early transitional model for ELLs. According to the Texas Education Code Chapter 29, teachers are required to provide native support and strategies that make content comprehensible for ELLs. Teachers at Ollin South utilize different strategies to enable ELLs to function in the classroom, including Spanish. Once students start developing not only the basic conversational skills, but the academic English, then teachers start transitioning all subjects being taught in English.
15 Horario en YoliztliLunes (Monday)Martes(Tuesday)Miercoles(Wednesday)Jueves(Thursday)Viernes(Friday)8:00-9:10 amEspanol(L.A.)Educacion Fisica (P.E.) o Revision de tarea(Homework check)Revision de tareaExploracion de la Naturaleza y Sociedad: GeografiaNature and Society Exploration(Geography)9:10-9:50 amLengua adicional estatal: Ingles(English)9:50-10:30 amEspanol (L.A.)Matematicas(Math)Escritura(Writing)Exploracion de la Naturaleza y Sociedad: Historia10:30-11:00 amRECREO (RECESS)11:00-11:50 amFormacion Civica y Etica(Civics and Ethics)Lectura (Reading)11:50-12:30 am(Natural Science)Exploracion de la Naturaleza y Sociedad:Ciencias NaturalesDictado(Spelling test)Exploracion de la Naturaleza y Sociedad: Ciencias NaturalesExamen (Test)By comparing the classroom schedules from Yoliztli (Table ) and Ollin South (Table ), participant students experience a shift in the language of instruction when transitioning between classrooms. While in Yoliztli they have been exposed to Spanish instruction except for 2.5 hours of English as a foreign language instruction weekly, at Ollin South the instruction is been provided for content areas in English and for Language Arts in Spanish. Students used to receive all content areas in Spanish, and now at Ollin South, they are receiving these subjects in English. For language arts, students continue learning to read in Spanish.First language support is enabling the school context to bridge the gap on ways between what these students experienced in Yoliztli classrooms to what they are now experiencing in Ollin South. While students are drawing on their native language as part of their study practices, teachers are using their student’s native language for instruction.
16 Lenguaje como medio de comunicación TableTeacher’s segment of transcriptsTeacherTranscriptTranslationMrs. Rosasde 6 a 12 semanas. Ya para mediados de año yaFrom 6 to 12 weeks. Half way through the school yearMrs. Romeroseria unos tres mesesIt might have been three monthsMrs. AldapeAs the months passed by they got a little bit comfortable.Gibbens (1985) notes that the silent period ELLs might experience is not signaling that they are not learning. It only means that they are not ready to speak the new language. These children need to gain confidence in them selves in order to build on their conversational skills. The first skills ELLs acquire are the basic conversational skills. These skills enable them to exchange basic information with other students.
17 Lenguaje como factor de apoyo en el hogar Retos que los padres consideran para sus hijos:LanguageNot providing help w/homeworkKaren's mom√Gustavo's momAlessandra's momPerla's parentsIsaac's mom100%10%Parents were used to help their children at Yoliztli because they knew the language of instruction given at school. Now that they are at Ollin South, they feel they are not able to help them as much as they were helping their children in Yoliztli. They attribute it to the language barrier. Based on what they said through the interviews, most of them claim not to possess the necessary English skills (See table 4.9). Consequently, parents’ first reaction to the difference of languages between Yoliztli and Ollin South is to feel they are not able to support their children, but after knowing the expectations of Ollin South, they continue supporting their children to the best of their abilities, with the amount of English proficiency they hold.Regardless their parents’ English proficiency levels as well as the support they can provide to their children, the students are able to continue their transition into the mainstream school context in Ollin South. The main support children are receiving at Ollin South is teachers teaching in both languages, and peers communicating in the students’ native language.
18 ASPECTO ACADEMICO: Lenguaje como reto (+) A reason for liking schoolA challenge at schoolAccomplished by help of teachersAccomplished by help of studentsAlessandraManuelIsaac√SergioLupitaGustavoKarenPerlaJenniferAngeles10%50%20%Most of the literature on immigrant students coming to the US has concentrated on language as a barrier for these students. According to Rodriguez, Ringler, O’Neal, and Bunn (2009) the educational system has been providing an unfair education to immigrant students when students have not been educated in their native language, which has been attributed as the reason for these students falling behind.
19 ASPECTO ACADEMICO: Lenguaje como reto (-) LineAlessandra’s mother TranscriptTranslationAnalytic Comments34...y el ingles me reprocha mucho!…and she recriminates me about the Enlish5Ella me decia que se queria ir.She told me she wanted to leave.67“Mami es que yo quiero estar en una escuela de Inglés !“Mommy it’s cause I want to be in a school where they teach English!89pues para ella estar en una escuela pues no de InglésBecause for her, being enrolled at a school where no English is taught1011Era algo que no esperabawas something she was not expecting…1213Con Mrs. Gracia era más Español que Inglés lo que les enseñaban.With Mrs. Gracia it was more Spanish than English taught.141516Y aparte ella creía que iba a aprender ingles de la noche a la mañana,And besides, she said that she was going to learn English from night to day,17De un dia para otro.one day to the next one.18Si, me decía,Yes, she would tell me,1920allá me enseñaban más Inglés!Back there they would be teaching me more English!213 horas22Yo me acuerdo que estaba enojada,I remember she was mad2324no queria venir a la escuela porque no le gustashe did not wanted to come to school because she did not like itAlessandra is a second grade student. She was placed in a bilingual classroom setting because of her language abilities (home language survey) but the mom was never explained (or that is what she claims) what being in a bilingual classroom would be like. Through her interview, she expresses her disappointment through her daughter’s perspective of her schooling experiences narratives.Once that year finished, the mother requested her child to be placed in an all English classroom. She then became a PD, and all her instruction was in English.
20 Once Alessandra was placed in a setting where instruction was all in English, then she started struggling some. Alessandra wrote about the teacher she had back in Yoliztli. Notice where it reads: I was an excellent student for Miss Erica. Alessandra believes that she is no longer a great student, but because she is now adding the language difficulty.This is what happens when students and parents are coming with previous expectations and are not able to transform or modify them to what the new school context offers for them.Whatever the language support the school offers to them, parents need to be informed about this, in order to make the right decisions
21 ASPECTO ACADEMICO Retos que los maestros consideran en los alumnos: Aspectos academicosLenguajeLectura/FluidezMathRosas√SerratoRomeroGarzaAldape80%100%20%
22 Bilingual communication (context) The thing is that here in the border because even if they are native speakers, they are able to speak in English, and they are still strong in Spanish. The kids (participants) here don’t feel too much intimidation because they know the other students also speak Spanish. So it is o.k. if they speak in Spanish, they still understand because they will talk to them.Ms. Aldape’s transcriptMs. Aldape makes visible how the border context enhances the participant students’ communication skills. She signals these students as feeling comfortable with their surrounding because of other children speaking their language. The uniqueness of Ollin South location encompasses an array of opportunities for participant children to access new experiences in a new school context.
23 Hallazgos (Lenguaje)First language support is enabling the school context to bridge the gap on ways between what these students experienced in Yoliztli classrooms to what they are now experiencing in Ollin South. While students are drawing on their native language as part of their study practices, teachers are using their student’s native language for instruction.
24 Hallazgos (Lenguaje)These school experiences are possible because the context of the school supports the recent immigrant students’ native language. At Ollin South, reading continues to be taught in Spanish. Even though students are transitioning in the environment that aims for English as the target language, they are still hearing and using their native language on a daily basis, either from their peers, or their teachers. The use of the students’ native language enables students to have a smoother transition between classrooms.
25 Aspecto academico: Materias TableComparison of subject areas between school contexts in fourth gradeYoliztliOllin SouthMatematicaDivision is conceived abstractIs taught in SpanishTheme-based instructionDivision is conceived as a step by stepIs taught in EnglishIs taught in isolationCienciasLecturaReading purpose is for pleasureNarrative textsReading purpose is comprehensionInformational textsOne of the students signals a difference between a subjects being taught in Ollin South as compared to the subjects she used to be taught in Yoliztli. Karen notices that Science is one of the subjects she struggles the most. Karen remembers struggling in Science because that was the lowest grade she has ever gotten. When I asked her the reason Science was hard, she said that back in Yoliztli students were not being taught Science, or at least she did not remember. Karen narrates this experience in the following excerpt of the interview:La mas baja (calificacion) fue un 75 que me saqué mal. Creo que fue en science. Ciencias. Allá (Yoliztli) no había (Ciencias).The lowest (score) I got was a 75 in Science. Back there (Yoliztli) I did not have it (Science)Karen makes a connection between obtaining a low score in Science with not having Science as part of her courses in Yoliztli. Yoliztli’s curricular map shown in table ___ demonstrates how Science is clustered with Geography and History as part of a big field called Exploracion y comprension del mundo natural y social (Exploration and understanding of the social and natural world). By receiving instruction as part of a big theme, students might not be aware of the different subjects that integrate the big field taught. At Ollin South, Science is called by its name. Karen is not making a connection among the subject of Science mainly because of the subjects been organized differently
26 Integracion tematica –vs- enseñanza separando materias Integracion tematica en YoliztliSeparacion de materias en Ollin SouthThe interview signals that Karen is struggling with Science because of the differences in the way Science is being taught at Ollin South as compared to Yoliztli. At Yoliztli, Karen was learning Science as part of a bigger theme, and now at Ollin South, Karen is learning Science as an isolated subject, without connections to a broader theme. Research has stated that teaching with a thematic approach gives better results than teaching the subjects in an isolated way. Differences in how science is approached are not exclusive for this subject. Reading is another subject that challenges students because of the differences in the approach taken when being taught.
27 Lectura (Materias) Propósito Tipo de lectura Por placer en Yoliztli Por contestar preguntas (énfasis en comprehensión) en Ollin SouthTipo de lecturaFormato standardFormato de TAKSMrs. Garza states that the challenge she has confronted when teaching reading to her students had to do with the different purposes for reading. She signals that she reads stories with the students for pleasure, but the students are challenged when the purpose of reading is to answer a set of questions. The purpose of answering questions ties back to the challenge of having the students pass the TAKS. This assessment is formatted in a way were students are presented with a reading passage, and then a set of questions are given.In the discussions about the differences noticed in Yoliztli and Ollin South, both students and teachers indicate there are differences in the way science and reading is taught and learned. The consequences of these differences resulted in students struggling with the subjects. In science, students indicated that a thematic approach has enabled them to connect their science knowledge to other subject areas where as in Ollin, the students need to learn to understand science differently as an isolated subject.On the other hand, the reading teacher was able to figure out and acknowledge the differences between the reading formats and structures used previous to the TAKS reading format. Mrs. Garza realized that students are able to read, but other types of text formats, and for other purposes that differ from the ones at Yolizli. Once teachers figure out these differences, they are able to concentrate on what the students can do instead of what they are not able to do.
28 Matemáticas (Materias) Mecanismo de artimeticaMultiplicacionDivisionEn Yoliztli es directo el mecanismoEn Ollin South se utilizan estrategias paso por pasoAll the interviews are showing the differences between the way math is being taught in Yoliztli and Ollin South. These differences go from the resources utilized to the procedures being implemented for math problems. Students acknowledge the use of manipulatives when learning Math at Ollin South, and also the explicit, step-by-step math strategies.What becomes visible in the way participants talk about math is the role of parents in expressing their perspectives on the differences. By pointing out that math procedures are different the parents make visible to the teachers of the need to inform them of the new math expectations.
29 Matemáticas (cont)Table 4.16Segment of Jennifer’s mother interviewLineTranscriptTranslation28la materia de matematicasMath subject29es lo que se le hace mas dificilIs the hardest for her30En vez de unidadesInstead of ones31empieza con decenasShe starts with tens32Se confunde muchoShe gets confused a lot33Es que necesita ponerse usted tambienIt’s cause you need to also be involved with her34Es que lo que pasa es que yoAnd what happens is that I35le explico de una manera (matematicas) y ustedes de otraexplain her (math) in a way and you explained to her in a different oneWhen teachers are making assumptions of what the parents can contribute or not at home with their children, a lack of communication can inhibit the support system that teachers and parents wish to have available for the students’ sake. Jennifer’s mother is an example of a parent that did not feel the need to communicate to the teacher the challenge she was confronting when having to help her child with math. Jennifer’s mother’s ability to help her child at home was not the same because she did not know the new expectations Jennifer’s teacher had at school.Muestro una entrevista donde la mama no expresa esas diferenciasWhen parents do not express to the teacher the differences they notice between the strategies they used to help their children at home to the strategies the new school context is teaching the child, the chances of helping their children the same way they used to in Yoliztli decrease. The differences in math strategies were not the issue. The communication between the mother and the teacher was the factor inhibiting the mother’s knowledge to help her child.
30 ASPECTO SOCIO-EMOCIONAL Socio-emotionalTime to PlayPeer behaviorFriendsGamesAlessandra√ManuelIsaacSergioLupitaGustavoKarenPerlaJenniferAngeles80%40%70%10%
31 Table 4.19Comparison of how recreational time is experienced between school contextsYoliztliOllin SouthRecess for 30 minutes1 period of 1 hour and 10 minutes of Physical Education weeklyNo recess5 periods of 45 minutes of Physical education hours weekly
32 ASPECTO SOCIO-EMOCIONAL: Tiempo para jugar these children signal the need for the time to play they used to experience back in Yoliztli. Since they do not find this particular timeframe to play called “recess”, they are still finding a way to socialize with friends. They had realized that at Ollin South, the Physical Education coach also offers some type of games that allows them to interact with other children. These children are being confronted with rich points that make them realize that the expectations they are bringing with them from Yoliztli are not exactly what they expected. Their old frames clash and now they have to realize that the opportunities to play games at recess were only one kind of opportunity to play with friends. At the beginning these children did not like school very much, but once they figured out other opportunities to play, they now adjusted their expectations into a Physical Education opportunity.
33 ASPECTO SOCIO-EMOCIONAL: Amigos Table 4.21Reasons for having friends according to participant childrenTo play withThat supports themAlessandraX (Ollin)ManuelIsaacx (Yoliztli)SergioX(Ollin)LupitaGustavoKarenPerlaJenniferAngeles∑= 7∑=4My analysis signals that “friends” is a concept that is handled by children in different ways according to the place they are (or where). Back in Yoliztli, participant children remembered their friends as those who they used to play with. Now at Ollin South children are making friends but after receiving peer-support. They signal their peers as friends, and their friendship is a constant via for considering school experiences at Ollin as good. Friends take an important role in the children’s school experiences before and after immigrating. They attribute being able to perform at the new school context because of their friends.
34 ASPECTO SOCIO-EMOCIONAL: Apoyo de compañeros Los estudiantes han estado familiarizados previamente con la ayuda de los compañeros, por lo tanto cuando vienen a Yoliztli ya saben donde y a quien pedir ayuda.Los estudiantes atribuyen su exito en la escuela en gran medida a sus compañeros
35 ASPECTO SOCIO-EMOCIONAL: Apoyo de compañeros LineTranscript120A Daniela la conoci,121no sabia cuantas eran,122cuantas vueltas en el gym,123era mi primer amiga124Fernanda fue cuando ya125estaba con mi segunda maestra,126que yo no sabia cuales libros traerme127para la clase de Ms aldape128ella me ayudo a buscar los libros,129a saber cuales son,130y a Karen fue131cuando me ayudo a aprender ingles132me ayudo con un trabajo,133y ella fue la que me esta ensenado Ingles.134Y Yaresi la conoci cuando me ayudo135a saber ir a la cafeteria,136donde nos ibamos a sentar,137o donde nos ibamos a formar en la lineaShe stated in line 134 that she met one of her friends when that child helped her with an assignment. She gives several examples about her friends and how she developed their friendships. In lines 120 through 122, Jennifer explains how she met Daniela. Daniela explained to her one of the Physical Education Activity that she needed to do. Also, in lines 126 she talks about Fernanda, another friend that advised her on which books to take whenever they had to rotate between classes.Jennifer also talks about the way Karen has helped her enhance her second language acquisition (Lines ). Another friend that has helped her is Yaresi. Yaresi showed Jennifer some of the basic school procedures. As signaled all over the interview, Jennifer is the perfect example of making friends at Ollin South in order to gain access to school. The fact that Jennifer made new friends was post-facto to receiving peer-support.Due to the fact that both school contexts offer the same ways of interaction between students such as the buddy system, children that immigrate between Yoliztli and Ollin South are familiarized with the new school’s expectations. Ollin South requires the same type of support system and student interaction among students, and students are able to interact in a positive way.
36 INTERRELACION DEL ASPECTO SOCIO-EMOCIONAL Participant children are being confronted with rich points that make them realize that the expectations they are bringing with them from Yoliztli are not exactly what they expected. Their old frames clash and now they have to realize that the opportunities to play games at recess were only one kind of opportunity to play with friends. Even though at the beginning of their schooling experiences children emphasized the absence of recess, once they figured out other opportunities to play, they adjusted their expectations into a physical education opportunity.
37 ConclusionesDebemos dejar atrás el modelo de deficiencia, el cual busca encontrar un culpable cuando no se logra excelencia academica.El niño es un individuo que conlleva destrezas y abilidades específicas, las cuales utiliza en contextos educativos complejos.
38 ConclusionesEl niño considera como reto aprender inglés, pero un reto que sabe que puede alcanzar con la ayuda de maestros y compañerosNo es que el niño no quiera funcionar parte del dia. En su escuela anterior, los horarios escolares eran la mitad del tiempo.
39 ConclusionesNo es que el niño no se comporte. En su escuela anterior, las estructuras de participación y comportamiento eran diferentesNo es que el niño no quiera aprender. Las maestras que le enseñaban antes tenían diferentes técnicas de enseñanza.Mientras mas similares sean los sistemas educativos, mejor transición entre las escuelas
40 RecomendacionesConservar el lenguaje natal de los niños que emigran como medio de transición en la escuelaTratar de conocer la curricula del sistema educativo mexicano para poder saber con que bases educativas vienen y de ahi retormar su escolaridad del niñoEl comunicar las expectativas de la nueva escuela a los padres y niños
41 RecomendacionesSeguir entrenado maestros con estrategias para enseñar el segundo idioma.Exponer a todos los que participan en la educación de los niños que emigran a EU en la manera en que se provee el apoyo tanto academico como social y emocionalInformar de manera clara y concisa a los padres de familia de las nuevas expectativas escolares
42 RecomendacionesProveer un tiempo donde los niños puedan interactuar de manera menos estructuradaProveer oportunidades donde los niños se apoyen entre ellos mismosEntablar sistemas de enlace donde los maestros se puedan comunicar las estrategias de enseñanza
43 Fourth grade teacher interview “If you don’t listen you are going to miss what they want, and you are going to miss out when they are asking for help and if you listen they are going to say what they need” I need this, can you help me with this? That is a learning experience right there. I always try to grasp any learning experience as we go. If the students ask you a question, let’s get that out of our systems, and now we can build from that and go!Fourth grade teacher interview